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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922903/banking-on-living-kidney-donors-a-new-way-to-facilitate-donation-without-compromising-on-ethical-values
#1
Dominique E Martin, Gabriel M Danovitch
Public surveys conducted in many countries report widespread willingness of individuals to donate a kidney while alive to a family member or close friend, yet thousands suffer and many die each year while waiting for a kidney transplant. Advocates of financial incentive programs or "regulated markets" in kidneys present the problem of the kidney shortage as one of insufficient public motivation to donate, arguing that incentives will increase the number of donors. Others believe the solutions lie-at least in part-in facilitating so-called "altruistic donation;" harnessing the willingness of relatives and friends to donate by addressing the many barriers which serve as disincentives to living donation...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922874/noninvasive-transfontanelle-monitoring-of-the-intracerebral-pressure-in-comparison-with-an-invasive-intradural-intracranial-pressure-device-a-prospective-study
#2
Bedjan Behmanesh, Marco Bartels, Florian Gessler, Natalie Filmann, Volker Seifert, Matthias Setzer, Thomas M Freiman
BACKGROUND: We previously introduced a novel noninvasive technique of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring in children with open fontanelles. OBJECTIVE: To compare the ICP obtained by our new technique to the ICP derived from an intradurally implanted ICP measurement device (external ventricular drain, subdural ICP device). METHODS: Children with open fontanelles and need of intracranial monitoring were included in this study. A standard ICP probe was placed upon the frontal fontanelle and data were compared with the values recorded by an already invasively implanted subdural ICP technique...
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922828/telling-stories-about-post-war-britain-popular-individualism-and-the-crisis-of-the-1970s
#3
Emily Robinson, Camilla Schofield, Florence Sutcliffe-Braithwaite, Natalie Thomlinson
This article argues that, by the 1970s, people in Britain were increasingly insistent about defining and claiming their individual rights, identities and perspectives. Using individual narratives and testimonies, we show that many were expressing desires for greater personal autonomy and self-determination. We suggest that this was an important trend across the post-war decades, and of particular importance to understanding the 1970s. This popular individualism was not the result of Thatcher; if anything, it was a cause of Thatcherism...
June 1, 2017: 20 Century British History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922811/a-programme-to-create-short-course-chemotherapy-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease-based-on-pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-mathematical-forecasting
#4
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: Pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prevalence is on the rise worldwide. The average therapy duration is 1.5 years, which is associated with poor cure rates. Our objective was to develop a programme to design a combination therapy regimen for pulmonary MAC to be administered for 6 months or less with efficacy in > 90% of patients. Methods: We performed a literature search for the following MeSH headings 'Mycobacterium avium' AND 'pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics' in PubMed up to 2016...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922787/optimal-duration-of-extended-adjuvant-endocrine-therapy-for-early-breast-cancer-results-of-the-ideal-trial-boog-2006-05
#5
Erik J Blok, Judith R Kroep, Elma Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Marjolijn Duijm-de Carpentier, Hein Putter, Joan van den Bosch, Eduard Maartense, A Elise van Leeuwen-Stok, Gerrit-Jan Liefers, Johan W R Nortier, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Cornelis J H van de Velde
Background: The optimal duration of extended endocrine therapy beyond five years after initial aromatase inhibitor-based adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a clinical trial to compare two different extended endocrine therapy durations. Methods: In the randomized phase III IDEAL trial, postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were randomly allocated to either 2...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922781/toxicity-of-extended-adjuvant-therapy-with-aromatase-inhibitors-in-early-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Hadar Goldvaser, Tristan A Barnes, Boštjan Šeruga, David W Cescon, Alberto Ocaña, Domen Ribnikar, Eitan Amir
Background: A number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported improvement in breast cancer outcomes from extending treatment with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) beyond the initial five years after diagnosis. However, the toxicity profile of extended AIs is uncertain. Methods: We identified RCTs that compared extended AIs to placebo or no treatment using MEDLINE and a review of abstracts from key conferences between 2013 and 2016. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), absolute risks, and the number needed to harm (NNH) were computed for prespecified safety and tolerability outcomes including cardiovascular events, bone fractures, second cancers (excluding new breast cancer), treatment discontinuation for adverse events, and death without recurrence...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922677/surgery-significantly-improves-neurocognition-sleep-and-blood-pressure-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism-a-3-year-prospective-follow-up-study
#7
Sara Storvall, Eeva M Ryhänen, Ilkka Heiskanen, Harri Sintonen, Risto P Roine, Camilla Schalin-Jäntti
Surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL), but it is unclear whether the effects are sustained after medium-term (>2 years) follow-up, and whether the results on some or all dimensions of HRQoL will reach that of the general population. We performed a follow-up of HRQoL on average 3.3 years after surgery for PHPT using the 15D in our patient cohort (n=124) and compared the results to those of an age- and gender-standardized general population (n=1099)...
September 18, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922621/a-21-winter-seasons-retrospective-study-of-antibody-response-after-influenza-vaccination-in-elderly-60-85%C3%A2-years-old-and-very-elderly-85%C3%A2-years-old-institutionalized-subjects
#8
Emilia Nunzi, Anna Maria Iorio, Barbara Camilloni
Influenza vaccination is considered the best mean for preventing the higher rates of mortality associated with influenza virus infection in the elderly as compared with younger people. Since the number of very elderly subjects, aged >85 years, is rapidly increasing, and some authors reported increments in influenza-associated mortality with age, the aim of this study was to increase the limited information available on the immunogenicity of the influenza vaccines in this age group. This was a retrospective study which analyzed the antibody response induced by commercially available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in 1491 elderly subjects (60-85 years old) and 1139 very elderly subjects (>85 years old) during 21 winter seasons included between 1993-1994 and 2014-2015...
September 18, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922558/biomechanical-properties-and-healing-effects-of-chitin-patch-in-a-rat-full-thickness-abdominal-wall-defect-model
#9
Jing Qiao, Zhiwen Jiang, Xuyue Liang, Yan Yang, Wanshun Liu, Baoqin Han
Hernia repair is usually accompanied with the implantation of a synthetic mesh, which frequently results in a foreign body response and serious complications. In the present study, a novel biodegradable chitin-based hernia patch was prepared and characterized. Biomechanical properties and biodegradability of the chitin patch were quantified in vitro and in vivo. In repair of the rat abdominal wall full-thickness defect model, the chitin patch induced more abundant new blood vessels with milder tissue inflammation and fibrosis compared with polypropylene mesh...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922553/programmable-nucleic-acid-based-polygons-with-controlled-neuroimmunomodulatory-properties-for-predictive-qsar-modeling
#10
Morgan Brittany Johnson, Justin R Halman, Emily Satterwhite, Alexey V Zakharov, My N Bui, Kheiria Benkato, Victoria Goldsworthy, Taejin Kim, Enping Hong, Marina A Dobrovolskaia, Emil F Khisamutdinov, Ian Marriott, Kirill A Afonin
In the past few years, the study of therapeutic RNA nanotechnology has expanded tremendously to encompass a large group of interdisciplinary sciences. It is now evident that rationally designed programmable RNA nanostructures offer unique advantages in addressing contemporary therapeutic challenges such as distinguishing target cell types and ameliorating disease. However, to maximize the therapeutic benefit of these nanostructures, it is essential to understand the immunostimulatory aptitude of such tools and identify potential complications...
September 18, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922513/purpose-processes-partnerships-and-products-4ps-to-advance-participatory-socio-environmental-modeling
#11
Steven Gray, Alexey Voinov, Michael Paolisso, Rebecca Jordan, Todd BenDor, Pierre Bommel, Pierre Glynn, Beatrice Hedelin, Klaus Hubacek, Josh Introne, Nagesh Kolagani, Bethany Laursen, Christina Prell, Laura Schmitt-Olabisi, Alison Singer, Eleanor Sterling, Moira Zellner
Including stakeholders in environmental model building and analysis is an increasingly popular approach to understanding ecological change. This is because stakeholders often hold valuable knowledge about socio-environmental dynamics and collaborative forms of modeling produce important boundary objects used to collectively reason about environmental problems. Although the number of participatory modeling (PM) case studies and the number of researchers adopting these approaches has grown in recent years, the lack of standardized reporting and limited reproducibility have prevented PM's establishment and advancement as a cohesive field of study...
September 18, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922464/molecular-dynamics-simulation-revealed-binding-of-nucleotide-inhibitors-to-zikv-polymerase-over-444-nanoseconds
#12
Abdo A Elfiky, Wael M Elshemey
In the year 2015, new Zika virus (ZIKV) broke out in Brazil and spread away in more than 80 countries. Scientists directed their efforts toward viral polymerase in attempt to find inhibitors that might interfere with its function. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) was performed over 444 ns for a ZIKV polymerase model. Molecular docking (MD) was then performed every 10 ns during the MDS course to ensure the binding of small molecules to the polymerase over the entire time of the simulation...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922449/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#13
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922445/position-paper-on-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-in-romania-2017-part-two
#14
Liana Gheorghe, Ioan Sporea, Speranta Iacob, Roxana Sirli, Anca Trifan, Mircea Diculescu, Carol Stanciu, Oliviu Pascu, Monica Acalovschi, Ciprian Brisc, Cristina Cijevschi, Cristian Gheorghe, Zeno Spârchez, Ion Rogoveanu, Daniela Dobru, Dan L Dumitrascu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a common condition with endemic prevalence in some areas of the world. In Romania, the mean prevalence is about 3%. New treatments have become available on the market in recent years and new drugs are in the pipeline. A re-evaluation of HCV therapy was considered mandatory. The Romanian Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology undertook this task for the practitioners of this country. METHODOLOGY: A group of recognized experts was created who screened the available literature and the major available guidelines...
September 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922427/knowledge-evolution-in-physics-research-an-analysis-of-bibliographic-coupling-networks
#15
Wenyuan Liu, Andrea Nanetti, Siew Ann Cheong
Even as we advance the frontiers of physics knowledge, our understanding of how this knowledge evolves remains at the descriptive levels of Popper and Kuhn. Using the American Physical Society (APS) publications data sets, we ask in this paper how new knowledge is built upon old knowledge. We do so by constructing year-to-year bibliographic coupling networks, and identify in them validated communities that represent different research fields. We then visualize their evolutionary relationships in the form of alluvial diagrams, and show how they remain intact through APS journal splits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922402/new-insights-into-the-metastatic-behavior-after-breast-cancer-surgery-according-to-well-established-clinicopathological-variables-and-molecular-subtypes
#16
Oreste Claudio Buonomo, Emanuele Caredda, Ilaria Portarena, Gianluca Vanni, Augusto Orlandi, Claudia Bagni, Giuseppe Petrella, Leonardo Palombi, Paolo Orsaria
Despite advances in treatment, up to 30% of patients with early breast cancer (BC) experience distant disease relapse. However, a comprehensive understanding of tumor spread and site-specific recurrence patterns remains lacking. This retrospective case-control study included 103 consecutive patients with metastatic BC admitted to our institution (2000-2013). Cases were matched according to age, tumor biology, and clinicopathological features to 221 patients with non-metastatic BC (control group). The median follow-up period among the 324 eligible patients was 7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922277/percutaneous-posterior-trans-articular-atlantoaxial-fixation-for-the-treatment-of-odontoid-fractures-in-the-elderly-a-prospective-study
#17
Mohamed Alhashash, Mootaz Shousha, Hany Gendy, Ahmed Samir Barakat, Heinrich Boehm
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 20 multimorbid patients older than 65 years undergoing minimally invasive surgical treatment for odontoid fracture. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the results of percutaneous transarticular atlantoaxial screw fixation as a new minimally invasive treatment modality in this high risk group of patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Odontoid fractures are a common injury pattern in the elderly. These fractures typically present significant challenges as geriatric patients often have multiple comorbidities that may adversely affect fracture management...
September 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922253/long-term-efficacy-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-biosimilar-infliximab-after-one-year-in-a-prospective-nationwide-cohort
#18
Lorant Gonczi, Krisztina B Gecse, Zsuzsanna Vegh, Zsuzsanna Kurti, Mariann Rutka, Klaudia Farkas, Petra A Golovics, Barbara D Lovasz, Janos Banai, Laszlo Bene, Bea Gasztonyi, Tunde Kristof, Laszlo Lakatos, Pal Miheller, Ferenc Nagy, Karoly Palatka, Maria Papp, Arpad Patai, Agnes Salamon, Tamas Szamosi, Zoltan Szepes, Gabor T Toth, Aron Vincze, Balazs Szalay, Tamas Molnar, Peter L Lakatos
BACKGROUND: It has been previously shown that biosimilar infliximab CT-P13 is effective and safe in inducing remission in inflammatory bowel diseases. We report here the 1-year outcomes from a prospective nationwide inflammatory bowel disease cohort. METHODS: A prospective, nationwide, multicenter, observational cohort was designed to examine the efficacy and safety of CT-P13 in the induction and maintenance treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)...
August 23, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922252/clinical-predictors-and-natural-history-of-disease-extension-in-patients-with-ulcerative-proctitis
#19
Emily Walsh, Young Wha Chah, Samantha M Chin, Paul Lochhead, Vijay Yajnik, Vera Denmark, John J Garber, Hamed Khalili
BACKGROUND: A proportion of patients with initial presentation of ulcerative proctitis (UP) progress to more extensive colitis. We sought to characterize the natural history and identify clinical predictors of extension in UP. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of participants with a new diagnosis of UP from January 2000 to December 2015. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to identify predictors of disease extension. RESULTS: We identified 169 new cases of UP with a median age of diagnosis of 40 years (range: 16-91 yr) and a median follow-up of 4...
August 23, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922241/a-shift-in-the-orbit-immediate-endoscopic-reconstruction-after-transnasal-orbital-tumors-resection
#20
Giacomo Colletti, Alberto M Saibene, Federico Pessina, Marco Duvina, Fabiana Allevi, Giovanni Felisati, Federico Biglioli
Endoscopic endonasal resection of orbital lesions is a safe and common approach. Nevertheless, medial orbital wall defects following the procedure are not routinely addressed, potentially leading to diplopia and enophthalmos. In this article, the authors propose a new technique for purely endoscopic endonasal reconstruction of orbital wall defects following endoscopic endonasal resection of orbital lesions.The patient, a 43-year-old male, suffering from right exophthalmos and diplopia due to a venous malformation of the right orbit underwent endoscopic endonasal resection of the mass...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
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