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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020719/diagnosis-and-management-of-nephrotic-syndrome
#1
Oonagh McCloskey, Alexander P Maxwell
Nephrotic syndrome is defined by a triad of clinical features: oedema, substantial proteinuria (> 3.5 g/24 hours) and hypoalbuminaemia (< 30 g/L). It is often associated with hyperlipidaemia, thromboembolism and an increased risk of infection. Nephrotic syndrome develops following pathological injury to renal glomeruli. This may be a primary problem, with a disease specific to the kidneys, or secondary to a systemic disorder such as diabetes mellitus. The most common cause in children is minimal change glomerulonephritis...
February 2017: Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992289/transcriptomics-in-kidney-biopsy-is-an-untapped-resource-for-precision-therapy-in-nephrology-a-systematic-review
#2
Francesco Paolo Schena, Ionut Nistor, Claudia Curci
Background: The diagnosis of glomerular diseases is based on the evaluation of histological lesions in renal tissue by means of light and electronic microscopy, and immunofluorescence technique. Frozen and archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded kidney biopsies represent a stored resource for high-throughput technologies. Transcriptomics makes it possible to study the whole gene-expression profile of cells and tissues in a specific period and/or condition. The results, whether considered alone or integrated with other omics data, could help to improve existing knowledge about the pathogenetic mechanisms of glomerulopathies...
August 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949280/childhood-nephrotic-syndrome-in-tropical-africa-then-and-now
#3
Wasiu A Olowu, Adebowale Ademola, Adebukola B Ajite, Yauba M Saad
This descriptive and comparative review examines the changing epidemiology, treatment, renal and patient outcome of childhood nephrotic syndrome (NS) in tropical Africa (TpAfr). In the 1960s to 1980s, corticosteroid-resistant non-minimal change disease (nMCD) including quartan malaria nephropathy (QMN) was the dominant renal histopathology type. The overall incidence of NS was 0.35-1.34% of hospital admissions. Median age at onset of NS ranged between 4.0 and 12.0 years while the mean (SD) age range was 5.8 (3...
September 26, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937072/epidemiology-of-end-stage-renal-disease-in-dubai-single-center-data
#4
Fakhriya Alalawi, Maseer Ahmed, Hind AlNour, Malaz Noralla, Amna Alhadari
Hemodialysis (HD) was first established in Dubai in the year 1980 and was in its full capacity by the year 1983. Since then, the HD population has been growing rapidly. This report represents the demographic data and clinical characteristics of our HD patients during the period between January 2012 and October 2016. Diabetic nephropathy (57%) and hypertension (12.4%) are emerging as the most common causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in our data, followed by undetermined causes in those who presented as ESRD (10...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937067/histopathological-patterns-of-renal-diseases-in-egyptian-children-a-single-center-experience
#5
Maher Ahmed Abdel-Hafez, Hend Abdel-Nabi, Mohamed El-Gamasy, Hossam Zayton, Ibrahim Nassar
The present cross-sectional, retrospective study was aimed to determine the histopathological spectrum of renal diseases in Egyptian children and to evaluate the indications, safety, and efficacy of percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) in a large tertiary center in Egypt. PRBs performed at the Department of Pediatrics, Tanta University Hospital over a period of nine years (from January 2007 to December 2015) were included. Light microscopic (LM) examination was performed in all cases while immunofluorescence and electron microscopic examination were performed in selected cases...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904427/micrornas-involvement-in-renal-pathophysiology-a-bird-s-eye-view
#6
REVIEW
P Jaswani, S Prakash, A Dhar, R K Sharma, N Prasad, S Agrawal
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to suppress gene expression by binding to messenger RNAs and in turn regulate different pathophysiological processes. Transforming growth factor-β, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, and Wnt signaling-like major pathways associated with miRNAs are involved with kidney diseases. The discovery of miRNAs has provided new insights into kidney pathologies and may provide effective therapeutic strategies. Research has demonstrated the role of miRNAs in a variety of kidney diseases including diabetic nephropathy, lupus nephritis, hypertension, nephritic syndrome, acute kidney injury, renal cell carcinoma, and renal fibrosis...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868299/tubuloreticular-inclusions-in-the-absence-of-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-hiv-infection-a-report-of-three-pediatric-cases
#7
Ayah Elmaghrabi, Elizabeth Brown, Ei Khin, Jared Hassler, Allen R Hendricks
Tubuloreticular inclusions (TRIs) are subcellular structures located within the cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum. Formation of TRIs has been linked to the exposure of excess interferon (IFN), either from endogenous or exogenous sources. In renal disease, TRIs have been most commonly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). Case reports of patients with renal biopsies showing TRIs without underlying SLE or HIV are infrequent in adults, and to our knowledge none have been reported in children...
May 2017: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863792/genetics-of-immune-mediated-glomerular-diseases-focus-on-complement
#8
REVIEW
Marina Noris, Giuseppe Remuzzi
The spectrum of immune-mediated glomerular diseases is wide, ranging from rare diseases with well-recognized genetic origins to more common and multifactorial diseases. Immune-mediated glomerular injury is complex and involves both the innate and the adaptive immune systems. In the past 20 years a huge effort has been undertaken to unravel the genetic basis of immune-mediated glomerular diseases. The discovery of abnormalities in genes encoding proteins of the alternative pathway of complement in more than 50% of patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), and in approximately 20% of patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN), has highlighted the role of this complement pathway in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated glomerular diseases...
September 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846194/spectrum-of-biopsy-proven-renal-disease-in-south-asian-children-two-decades-at-a-tropical-tertiary-care-centre
#9
Anjali Mohapatra, Shailesh Kakde, Vellaichamy M Annapandian, Anna T Valson, Neelaveni Duhli, Anila Korula, Smita Mary Matthai, Anna B Pulimood, Vinoi G David, Suceena Alexander, Shibu Jacob, Santosh Varughese, Basu Gopal, Tamilarasi Veerasamy, George T John
AIM: We report findings from a large single centre paediatric renal biopsy cohort in South Asia. METHODS: We analyzed all renal biopsies performed on children aged ≤18 years between 1996 and 2015 at our centre. The clinical characteristics and histological diagnosis pertaining to each case, distribution of renal diseases in children with various clinical presentations, and changes in the pattern of kidney disease during the study period were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 1740 paediatric kidney biopsies were performed during the study period...
August 28, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794288/kidney-disease-in-oman-a-view-of-the-current-and-future-landscapes
#10
Intisar Hamed Al Alawi, Issa Al Salmi, Adhra Al Mawali, John A Sayer
Oman is located in the southeast of Arabian Peninsula with a relatively young population of about 3 831 553 people. The Ministry of Health, which is the healthcare provider, is facing a challenge with the increased levels of noncommunicable diseases including chronic kidney disease. A growing number of patients progress to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), demanding renal replacement therapy. In 2014, there were 1339 of ESKD patients receiving dialysis and almost 1400 patients received kidney transplants. The estimated annual incidence of ESKD is 120 patients per million population...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793953/the-spectrum-of-biopsy-proven-secondary-glomerular-diseases-a-cross-sectional-study-in-china%C3%A2
#11
Ping Wang, Lijun Tang, Jing Yao, Hong Su, Yipeng Liu, Xianglei Kong, Wenbin Li, Meiyu Cui, Qing Sun, Junhui Zhen, Dongmei Xu
AIMS: The distribution of the spectrum of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been found to vary with time. Limited information is available regarding the changing spectrum of secondary glomerular diseases (SGDs). To further investigate changes in the spectrum of SGDs, we performed a cross-sectional study. METHODS: From June 2010 to May 2015, 5,935 patients from 37 hospitals in Shandong Province were involved in this study. The study was divided into five periods according to 1-year intervals...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769114/diagnosing-antiphospholipid-syndrome-extra-criteria-manifestations-and-technical-advances
#12
REVIEW
Savino Sciascia, Mary-Carmen Amigo, Dario Roccatello, Munther Khamashta
First described in the early 1980s, antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a unique form of acquired autoimmune thrombophilia in which patients present with clinical features of recurrent thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity and persistently test positive for the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). At least one clinical (vascular thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity) and one lab-based (positive test result for lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies and/or anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies) criterion have to be met for a patient to be classified as having APS...
September 2017: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755900/assessment-of-urinary-tweak-levels-in-mexican-patients-with-untreated-lupus-nephritis-an-exploratory-study
#13
Fabiola Reyes-Martínez, Monserrat Pérez-Navarro, Adrián Rodríguez-Matías, Virgilia Soto-Abraham, Gabriela Gutierrez-Reyes, Zaira Medina-Avila, Rafael Valdez-Ortiz
OBJECTIVES: Urinary levels of TWEAK (uTWEAK) may be correlated with the degree of lupus nephritis (LN) activity. Our objective was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of uTWEAK in Mexican patients with untreated active lupus nephritis. METHODS: An exploratory study was performed; four groups of patients were analyzed as follows: 1) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) without renal activity (SLE-LN), 2) patients with SLE with renal activity (SLE+LN), 3) patients with other types of glomerulopathy (glomerulonephritis, GMN), 4) and healthy patients (controls)...
July 26, 2017: Nefrología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722531/patterns-of-renal-disease-in-south-korea-a-20-year-review-of-a-single-center-renal-biopsy-database
#14
Ho Sik Shin, Dae Hyeon Cho, Soo Kyoung Kang, Hyun Jeong Kim, Soo Young Kim, Joung Wook Yang, Gyong Hoon Kang, Ye Na Kim, Yeonsoon Jung, Bong-Kwon Cheon, Hark Rim
BACKGROUND: Several registries and centers have reported the results of renal biopsies from different parts of the world. As there are few data regarding the epidemiology of glomerulonephritis (GN) in South Korea, we conducted this study on renal biopsy findings during the last 20 years from a single center. METHODS: Data for 818 patients who underwent renal biopsy at our center between 1992 and 2011 were collected retrospectively. All kidney specimens were examined with light microscopy (LM) and immunofluorescent microscopy (IF)...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701517/mesangial-cell-mammalian-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-activation-results-in-mesangial-expansion
#15
Kojiro Nagai, Tatsuya Tominaga, Sayo Ueda, Eriko Shibata, Masanori Tamaki, Motokazu Matsuura, Seiji Kishi, Taichi Murakami, Tatsumi Moriya, Hideharu Abe, Toshio Doi
Human glomerular diseases can be caused by several different diseases, many of which include mesangial expansion and/or proliferation followed by glomerulosclerosis. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the pathologic mesangial changes remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1)-S6 kinase pathway in mesangial expansion and/or proliferation by ablating an upstream negative regulator, tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1), using tamoxifen-induced Foxd1-Cre mice [Foxd1ER(+) TSC1 mice]...
October 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680823/efficacy-and-safety-of-adding-mizoribine-to-standard-treatment-in-patients-with-immunoglobulin-a-nephropathy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Keiji Hirai, Susumu Ookawara, Taisuke Kitano, Haruhisa Miyazawa, Kiyonori Ito, Yuichirou Ueda, Yoshio Kaku, Taro Hoshino, Honami Mori, Izumi Yoshida, Kenji Kubota, Yasuyoshi Yamaji, Tetsuro Takeda, Yoshikazu Nakamura, Kaoru Tabei, Yoshiyuki Morishita
BACKGROUND: Mizoribine (MZR) is an immunosuppressive drug used in Japan for treating patients with lupus nephritis and nephrotic syndrome and has been also reportedly effective in patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. However, to date, few randomized control studies of MZR are performed in patients with IgA nephropathy. Therefore, this prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled trial aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of adding MZR to standard treatment in these patients, and was conducted between April 1, 2009, and March 31, 2016, as a multicenter study...
June 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667184/identification-confirmation-and-replication-of-novel-urinary-microrna-biomarkers-in-lupus-nephritis-and-diabetic-nephropathy
#17
Mariana Cardenas-Gonzalez, Anand Srivastava, Mira Pavkovic, Vanesa Bijol, Helmut G Rennke, Isaac E Stillman, Xiaolan Zhang, Samir Parikh, Brad H Rovin, Maryam Afkarian, Ian H de Boer, Jonathan Himmelfarb, Sushrut S Waikar, Vishal S Vaidya
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing, leading to significant morbidity and mortality. Kidney biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosing the underlying etiology of CKD, but the procedure carries complication risks. The aim of this study was to identify novel noninvasive biomarkers correlating with kidney function and histopathology in biopsy-proven CKD patients. METHODS: We profiled 2402 urinary microRNAs (miRNAs) to identify and confirm differentially expressed miRNAs associated with kidney function and histopathology in patients with diabetic nephropathy (n = 58) or lupus nephritis (n = 89), important etiologies of CKD, compared with healthy controls (n = 93 and 119, respectively)...
September 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658762/role-of-immunofluorescence-in-adult-onset-nephrotic-syndrome-a-study-in-a-tertiary-care-centre-of-western-india
#18
Sharada Rane, Prerana Mutyal, Nicholas Dcunha, Mayur Parkhi, Meenal Jadhav
INTRODUCTION: Study of renal Immunofluorescence (IF) is an ancillary but essential technique in evaluation of renal biopsies in glomerulopathies and also it enlightens on the pathogenesis of nephrotic syndrome. AIM: To determine the role of IF in evaluating definite subtyping and diagnosis of adult onset nephrotic syndrome and attempting clinicopathological correlation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 52 patients of adult onset nephrotic syndrome were evaluated clinically and with pertinent investigations; and subjected to USG guided percutaneous renal biopsy which was processed and stained for light microscopy and for immunofluorescence by direct method (DIF) using antibodies against IgG, IgM, IgA and C3...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603202/osteopontin-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#19
REVIEW
Koji Kitagori, Hajime Yoshifuji
  In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), lupus nephritis (LN) is an important complication as an intractable condition and considered to be a prognostic factor. Based on the past reports that explain immunological functions of OPN and its relationship with autoimmune diseases such as LN or IgA nephropathy, we measured OPN full and OPN N-half in serum and urine of SLE patients and examined the possibility as a disease biomarker. OPN N-half is known as a more physiologically active form than OPN full. As a result, OPN N-half in urine was higher in LN than in healthy control, and also higher than in diabetic nephropathy that is a non-inflammatory nephropathy...
2017: Nihon Rinshō Men'eki Gakkai Kaishi, Japanese Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584626/mmp2-and-mmp9-associate-with-crescentic-glomerulonephritis
#20
Tessa M Phillips, Mitali Fadia, Tom N Lea-Henry, Jonathan Smiles, Giles D Walters, Simon H Jiang
Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ involvement. Lupus nephritis (LN) is a common manifestation with a wide variety of histological appearances. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 2 and 9 are gelatinases capable of degrading glomerular basement membrane type IV collagen, which have been associated with LN. We examine the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 in different classes of LN. Methods: MMP2 and MMP9 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in sections from renal biopsy specimens with class III, class IV and class V LN (total n = 31), crescentic immunoglobulin A nephropathy (n = 6), pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (n = 7), minimal change disease (n = 2), mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (n = 7), diabetic nephropathy (n = 12) and histologically normal controls (n = 8)...
April 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
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