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breastfeeding physiology

Nathalie Charpak, Juan Gabriel Ruiz
Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) is a human-based care intervention devised to complement neonatal care for low birth weight and premature infants. Kangaroo position (skin-to-skin contact on the mother's chest) offers thermal regulation, physiological stability, appropriate stimulation and enhances bonding and breastfeeding. Kangaroo nutrition is based on breastfeeding and kangaroo discharge policy relies on family empowerment and early discharge in kangaroo position with close ambulatory follow-up. We describe how the evidence has been developed, and how it has been put into practice by means of direct preterm infants care and dissemination of the method, including training of KMC excellence centers in many countries not only in Latin America but worldwide...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Melanie A Martin, Geni Garcia, Hillard S Kaplan, Michael D Gurven
Six months of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is considered optimal for infant health, though globally most infants begin complementary feeding (CF) earlier-including among populations that practice prolonged breastfeeding. Two frameworks for understanding patterns of early CF emerge in the literature. In the first, maternal and infant needs trade-off, as "maternal-centric" factors-related to time and energy demands, reproductive investment, cultural influences, and structural barriers- favor supplanting breastfeeding with earlier and increased CF...
October 6, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Jann P Foster, Kim Psaila, Tiffany Patterson
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is used during gavage feeding and in the transition from gavage to breast/bottle feeding in preterm infants to improve the development of sucking behavior and the digestion of enteral feedings. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of non-nutritive sucking on physiologic stability and nutrition in preterm infants. SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 25 February 2016), Embase (1980 to 25 February 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 25 February 2016)...
October 4, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rebekah L Scheuerle, Richard A Kendall, Catherine Tuleu, Nigel K H Slater, Stephen E Gerrard
An in vitro simulation system was developed to study the effect of an infant's peristaltic tongue motion during breastfeeding on oral rapidly disintegrating tablets in the mouth, for use in rapid product candidate screening. These tablets are being designed for use inside a modified nipple shield worn by a mother during breastfeeding, a proposed novel platform technology to administer drugs and nutrients to breastfeeding infants. In this study, the release of a model compound, sulforhodamine B, from tablet formulations was studied under physiologically relevant forces induced by compression and rotation of a tongue mimic...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
M F Corona, P Cataldi, G Zaccagnini, S Maddaluno, V Capone, A Conti, D Carlucci, S Silvano, A Bertone, Stefano Parmigiani
In our perinatal unit we applied the ten steps of WHO/UNICEF for Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative and evaluated the percentage of exclusive (EBF) or complementary breastfeeding (CBF), and of formula fed (FF) healthy full-term infants (HFI) at hospital discharge (HD). HFI performing EBF at HD were 85.3%, a quite high value. At the age of 3 mths EBF percentage ranged between 59-62.4%, and at 6 mths it decreased to 51.7-37.7%. Customer satisfaction questionnaire at HD ranked "good" to "very good" in 92.8%. Causes of breastfeeding reduction with time and comparison with previous and actual situation in Italy and civilized countries are discussed...
2016: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Nicole Diane L Burca, Sheila M Gephart, Connie Miller, Catherine Cote
BACKGROUND: The orofacial defect of cleft lip/palate (CL/P) involves an altered physiological anatomy that affects the infant's feeding ability. Infants have cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), or both (CL/P). Dysfunction in the seal, as with cleft lip, or in the ability to coordinate muscle movement to generate negative pressure, as with cleft palate, leads to feeding issues that may compromise growth and affect bonding. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to present (1) scientific evidence that supports clinical feeding practices for the infant with CL/P and (2) teaching strategies for staff and parents...
September 8, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Anndrea Flint, Karen New, Mark W Davies
BACKGROUND: Breast milk provides optimal nutrition for term and preterm infants, and the ideal way for infants to receive breast milk is through suckling at the breast. Unfortunately, this may not always be possible for medical or physiological reasons such as being born sick or preterm and as a result requiring supplemental feeding. Currently, there are various ways in which infants can receive supplemental feeds. Traditionally in neonatal and maternity units, bottles and nasogastric tubes have been used; however, cup feeding is becoming increasingly popular as a means of offering supplemental feeds in an attempt to improve breastfeeding rates...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hazel A Smith, Genevieve E Becker
BACKGROUND: Health organisations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for six months. However, the addition of other fluids or foods before six months is common in many countries. Recently, research has suggested that introducing solid food at around four months of age while the baby continues to breastfeed is more protective against developing food allergies compared to exclusive breastfeeding for six months. Other studies have shown that the risks associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding are dependent on the type of additional food or fluid given...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Xianwei Cui, Yun Li, Lei Yang, Lianghui You, Xing Wang, Chunmei Shi, Chenbo Ji, Xirong Guo
Breastfeeding is associated with a lower incidence of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease later in life. While macrosomic infants have a higher risk of developing obesity and other metabolic disorders. Breast milk may contain special nutrients to meet the different growth needs of different infants. Whether mothers make breast milk different to meet the requirement of macrosomic infants is still unknown. Here, we conducted a comparison between mothers delivering macrosomic and non-macrosomic infants in colostrum endogenous peptides...
August 23, 2016: Oncotarget
Sarah L Harris, Nicola C Austin, Malcolm Battin, Roland Broadbent, John Horwood, Ross Keenan, Scott Wells, Carole Spencer, Patricia Graham, Lianne J Woodward, Brian A Darlow
AIMS: To describe the survival, in-hospital morbidity, brain metrics and two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of two extremely preterm cohorts and discuss the contribution of changes in clinical practice to these outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective comparative cohort study, of two cohorts of neonates born <28 weeks gestation: 47 infants born 1998-2000 and 39 infants 2006-2009. RESULTS: Comparing historical to the contemporary cohort respectively, admission temperature (35...
2016: New Zealand Medical Journal
Julia Beaumont, Janet Montgomery
The major components of human diet both past and present may be estimated by measuring the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) of the collagenous proteins in bone and tooth dentine. However, the results from these two tissues differ substantially: bone collagen records a multi-year average whilst primary dentine records and retains time-bound isotope ratios deriving from the period of tooth development. Recent studies harnessing a sub-annual temporal sampling resolution have shed new light on the individual dietary histories of our ancestors by identifying unexpected radical short-term dietary changes, the duration of breastfeeding and migration where dietary change occurs, and by raising questions regarding factors other than diet that may impact on δ13C and δ15N values...
2016: PloS One
Sussan Saatsaz, Rozita Rezaei, Abbas Alipour, Zahra Beheshti
OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to determine the effect of massage on post-cesarean pain and anxiety. METHODS: The present single-blind clinical trial was conducted on 156 primiparous women undergone elective cesarean section. The participants were randomly divided into three groups, including a hand and foot massage group, a foot massage group and a control group (n = 52 per group). The patients' intensity of pain, vital signs and anxiety level were measured before, immediately after and 90 min after the massage...
August 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Olga Golubnitschaja, Manuel Debald, Kristina Yeghiazaryan, Walther Kuhn, Martin Pešta, Vincenzo Costigliola, Godfrey Grech
Rapidly increasing incidence of breast cancer is a new social challenge resulting from a spectrum of internal and external risk factors which appear to be well accepted as an attribute of the early twenty-first century, being, however, new for female sub-populations compared to the past. These include altered socio-economical conditions such as occupational exposure, rotating shift work, specific environmental factors (increased pollution and environmental toxicity, altered dietary habits, quality and composition of meal) as well as consequently shifted and/or adapted physiologic factors such as lower age at menarche, late age of first full-term pregnancy, if any, shorter periods of breastfeeding and later menopause...
July 22, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Bonnie Stevens, Janet Yamada, Arne Ohlsson, Sarah Haliburton, Allyson Shorkey
BACKGROUND: Administration of oral sucrose with and without non-nutritive sucking is the most frequently studied non-pharmacological intervention for procedural pain relief in neonates. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy, effect of dose, method of administration and safety of sucrose for relieving procedural pain in neonates as assessed by validated composite pain scores, physiological pain indicators (heart rate, respiratory rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen in the blood, transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide (gas exchange measured across the skin - TcpO2, TcpCO2), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electroencephalogram (EEG), or behavioural pain indicators (cry duration, proportion of time crying, proportion of time facial actions (e...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Neha Kajale, Anuradha Khadilkar, Shashi Chiplonkar, Zulf Mughal, Vaman Khadilkar, Nina Mansukhani
BACKGROUND: Bone turnover is high during lactation. However, studies on bone status of Indian urban mothers are scarce. Hence, the objective was to conduct a cross-sectional study on the lactation-related changes in bone health status of Indian mothers postpartum using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at 3 time points: within a week of delivery, at 1- and 3-years postpartum. We also explored the association of dietary calcium intake, physical activity, serum vitamin D status, and dietary traditional food supplements (Dietary Food supplements) with bone health...
August 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Sheetal Sharma, Edwin van Teijlingen, Vanora Hundley, Catherine Angell, Padam Simkhada
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and childbirth are socio-cultural events that carry varying meanings across different societies and cultures. These are often translated into social expectations of what a particular society expects women to do (or not to do) during pregnancy, birth and/or the postnatal period. This paper reports a study exploring beliefs around childbirth in Nepal, a low-income country with a largely Hindu population. The paper then sets these findings in the context of the wider global literature around issues such as periods where women are viewed as polluted (or dirty even) after childbirth...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sooyeon Lee, Shannon L Kelleher
Lactation is a dynamic process that has evolved to produce a complex biological fluid that provides nutritive and nonnutritive factors to the nursing offspring. It has long been assumed that once lactation is successfully initiated, the primary factor regulating milk production is infant demand. Thus, most interventions have focused on improving breastfeeding education and early lactation support. However, in addition to infant demand, increasing evidence from studies conducted in experimental animal models, production animals, and breastfeeding women suggests that a diverse array of maternal factors may also affect milk production and composition...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sumaira Masood, Mahmood-ur-Rahman, Humaira Mahmood, Tayyaba Faisal, Saira Maroof, Azhar Masood Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is a physiological phenomenon; nonetheless, this act is a learned behaviour that requires continuous active support to make it successful. This study determines the frequency of mothers practicing successful breastfeeding according to the WHO ten steps at tertiary care hospital. METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Obstetrics department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi over six month duration from July to December 2014...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Sharon M Donovan
The early postnatal period is a critical time for gastrointestinal (GI) and immune development. Neonates fed mother's milk have more rapid GI and immune development than fed-formula infants. In addition, clinical and epidemiologic data provide strong evidence that breastfeeding reduces the incidence and/or severity of infectious diseases. Lactoferrin is a 77 kDa, iron-binding glycoprotein that is present at high concentration in human milk compared with bovine milk and infant formula. It is a multifunctional protein that mediates many of the physiological processes in which breastfed infants have advantages over their formula-fed peers, including promoting GI and immune development, protection from infections, and improved cognitive development...
June 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
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