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breastfeeding physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764569/-combined-effect-of-gestational-age-and-birth-weight-on-metabolites-related-to-inherited-metabolic-diseases-in-neonates
#1
Fang Yi, Ling Wang, Mei Wang, Xue-Lian Yuan, Hua-Jing Wan, Jia-Yuan Li
OBJECTIVE: To study the combined effect of gestational age and birth weight on metabolites related to inherited metabolic diseases (IMD). METHODS: A total of 3 381 samples ruled out of IMD by follow-up were randomly selected from 38 931 newborns who participated in the neonatal IMD screening during 2014-2016. The 3 381 neonates were categorized into seven groups according to their gestational age and birth weight: extremely preterm appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) group (n=12), preterm small-for-gestational age (SGA) group (n=18), preterm AGA group (n=219), preterm large-for-gestational age (LGA) group (n=18), full-term SGA group (n=206), full-term AGA group (n=2 677), and full-term LGA group (n=231)...
May 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651785/predicting-escitalopram-exposure-to-breastfeeding-infants-integrating-analytical-and-in-silico-techniques
#2
Sarah R Delaney, Paul R V Malik, Cristiana Stefan, Andrea N Edginton, David A Colantonio, Shinya Ito
BACKGROUND: Escitalopram is used for post-partum depression; however, there are limited pharmacokinetic data of escitalopram in milk and plasma of infants breastfed by women taking the drug. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to apply physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling to predict infant drug exposure (plasma area under the curve from time zero to infinity [AUC∞ ]) based on drug monitoring data of escitalopram in breast milk. METHODS: Using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, we quantified escitalopram concentrations in milk samples of 18 breastfeeding women with escitalopram therapy at steady state, collected at three to five time points...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614184/neonatal-abstinence-syndrome-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Elisha M Wachman, Davida M Schiff, Michael Silverstein
Importance: Neonatal abstinence syndrome, which occurs as a result of in utero opioid exposure, affects between 6.0 and 20 newborns per 1000 live US births. There is substantial variability in how neonatal abstinence syndrome is diagnosed and managed. Objective: To summarize key studies examining the diagnosis and management (both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic) of neonatal abstinence syndrome published during the past 10 years. Evidence Review: PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL were searched for articles published between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2017...
April 3, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574338/physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-pbpk-modeling-of-human-lactational-transfer-of-methylmercury-in-china
#4
Langbo Ou, Huanhuan Wang, Cen Chen, Long Chen, Wei Zhang, Xuejun Wang
Methylmercury can readily cross the human placental barrier and the blood-brain barrier and cause damage to the vulnerable developing brains of the fetus and infants. Most of the previous studies on the maternal transfer of methylmercury to the next generation have focused on the prenatal period. In this study, human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of methylmercury were established for breastfeeding mothers and suckling infants based on the existing model prototypes of previous studies. Relevant parameters of the models were modified, and the validation was conducted based on measured data in North China...
March 22, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549960/analytical-considerations-and-general-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-ramifications-of-milk-hormones-during-lactation
#5
REVIEW
Carol L Wagner, John E Baatz, Danforth Newton, Bruce W Hollis
In this review, we will discuss the changes that occur in the mammary gland from pregnancy to lactation and the issues surrounding the analysis of circulating and milk hormones during the stages of lactogenesis. There is a cascade of events that must occur to achieve milk synthesis, milk ejection, and successful transfer to the breastfeeding infant. The adequacy and success of this process is no small measure and the assessment of milk production, the hormones involved in this process and the ability to properly diagnose conditions and causes of low milk supply are critical for the health and well-being of the mother-infant breastfeeding dyad...
January 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466389/mapping-integration-of-midwives-across-the-united-states-impact-on-access-equity-and-outcomes
#6
Saraswathi Vedam, Kathrin Stoll, Marian MacDorman, Eugene Declercq, Renee Cramer, Melissa Cheyney, Timothy Fisher, Emma Butt, Y Tony Yang, Holly Powell Kennedy
METHODS: Our multidisciplinary team examined published regulatory data to inform a 50-state database describing the environment for midwifery practice and interprofessional collaboration. Items (110) detailed differences across jurisdictions in scope of practice, autonomy, governance, and prescriptive authority; as well as restrictions that can affect patient safety, quality, and access to maternity providers across birth settings. A nationwide survey of state regulatory experts (n = 92) verified the 'on the ground' relevance, importance, and realities of local interpretation of these state laws...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447711/no-355-physiologic-basis-of-pain-in-labour-and-delivery-an-evidence-based-approach-to-its-management
#7
Julie Bonapace, Guy-Paul Gagné, Nils Chaillet, Raymonde Gagnon, Emmanuelle Hébert, Sarah Buckley
OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence relating to nonpharmacological approaches in the management of pain during labour and delivery. To formulate recommendations for the usage of nonpharmacological approaches to pain management. OPTIONS: Nonpharmacological methods available for pain management during labour and delivery exist. These should be included in the counselling and care of women. EVIDENCE: PubMed and Medline were searched for articles in French and English on subjects related to "breastfeeding," "pain," "epidural," "anaesthesia," "analgesia," "labour," "labor," and combined with "gate control theory," "alternative therapies," "massage," "position," "mobility," "TENS," "bathing," "DNIC," "acupuncture," "acupressure," "sterile water injection," "higher center," "control mind," "cognitive structuring," "holistic health," "complementary therapy(ies)," "breathing," "relaxation," "mental imagery," "visualization," "mind focusing," "hypnosis," "auto-hypnosis," "sophrology," "mind and body interventions," "music," "odors," "biofeedback," "Lamaze," "Bonapace," "prenatal training," "gymnastic," "chanting," "haptonomy," "environment," "transcutaneous electrical stimulus-stimulation," "antenatal education," "support," "continuous support," "psychosocial support," "psychosomatic medicine," "supportive care," "companion," "intrapartum care," "nurse," "midwife(ves)," "father," "doula," "caregiver," " hormones," "oxytocin," "endorphin," "prolactin," "catecholamine," "adrenaline," and "noradrenaline" from 1990 to December 2015...
February 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426579/duration-of-breastfeeding-and-subsequent-adolescent-obesity-effects-of-maternal-behavior-and-socioeconomic-status
#8
Michelle L Byrne, Orli S Schwartz, Julian G Simmons, Lisa Sheeber, Sarah Whittle, Nicholas B Allen
PURPOSE: Previous research has shown that longer duration of breastfeeding is associated with less risk of obesity in childhood and adolescence. However, although putative physiological mechanisms have been proposed, less work has focused on psychosocial or environmental factors, including socioeconomic status (SES) and stressful family environments. METHODS: The current study examined the role of observed maternal emotional behavior and SES (parental education) in the association between duration of breastfeeding and adolescent body mass index (BMI)...
April 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399656/severe-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-in-crigler-najjar-syndrome-model-mice-can-be-reversed-with-zinc-protoporphyrin
#9
Ryoichi Fujiwara, Ryo Mitsugi, Asuka Uemura, Tomoo Itoh, Robert H Tukey
Neurotoxic bilirubin is solely conjugated by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1. Due to an inadequate function of UGT1A1, human neonates develop mild to severe physiological hyperbilirubinemia. Accumulation of bilirubin in the brain leads to the onset of irreversible brain damage called kernicterus. Breastfeeding is one of the most significant factors that increase the risk of developing kernicterus in infants. Why does the most natural way of feeding increase the risk of brain damage or even death? This question leads to the hypothesis that breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia might bring certain benefits to the body...
October 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325753/induced-hypothermia-in-patients-with-septic-shock-and-respiratory-failure-cass-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-trial
#10
Theis Skovsgaard Itenov, Maria Egede Johansen, Morten Bestle, Katrin Thormar, Lars Hein, Louise Gyldensted, Anne Lindhardt, Henrik Christensen, Stine Estrup, Henrik Planck Pedersen, Matthew Harmon, Uday Kant Soni, Silvia Perez-Protto, Nicolai Wesche, Ulrik Skram, John Asger Petersen, Thomas Mohr, Tina Waldau, Lone Musaeus Poulsen, Ditte Strange, Nicole P Juffermans, Daniel I Sessler, Else Tønnesen, Kirsten Møller, Dennis Karsten Kristensen, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Jens D Lundgren, Jens-Ulrik Jensen
BACKGROUND: Animal models of serious infection suggest that 24 h of induced hypothermia improves circulatory and respiratory function and reduces mortality. We tested the hypothesis that a reduction of core temperature to 32-34°C attenuates organ dysfunction and reduces mortality in ventilator-dependent patients with septic shock. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, open-label trial, we recruited patients from ten intensive care units (ICUs) in three countries in Europe and North America...
March 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324318/a-feasibility-study-of-a-multidimensional-breastfeeding-support-intervention-in-ireland
#11
Goiuri Alberdi, Elizabeth J O'Sullivan, Helena Scully, Niamh Kelly, Regina Kincaid, Rosie Murtagh, Stephanie Murray, Denise McGuinness, Ashamole Clive, Mary Brosnan, Lucille Sheehy, Elizabeth Dunn, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is the optimum mode of infant feeding. Despite this, most global populations do not achieve the World Health Organisation's recommendation of exclusive breast milk for the first 6 months of life. Irish breastfeeding rates are among the lowest in Europe, necessitating a well-designed breastfeeding-support intervention. AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of a multidimensional breastfeeding intervention in a rural and an urban maternity setting in Ireland...
March 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316934/physiological-mitochondrial-and-oxidative-stress-differences-in-the-presence-or-absence-of-lactation-in-rats
#12
Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Wendy R Hood, Andreas N Kavazis
BACKGROUND: Human epidemiological data show that breastfeeding reduces the mother's probability of developing several disease conditions, including obesity and type II diabetes compared to mothers that give birth but do not breastfeed. The goal of this investigation was to characterize how lactation changes a rat's body composition, metabolism, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress. METHODS: Ten-week old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group): 1) non-reproductive (NR), 2) those that were allowed to mate and give birth, but were not allowed to suckle their pups (PP), and 3) those that were allowed to mate and give birth, and suckled their young until weaning at 21 days (PL)...
January 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288810/zinc-delivery-from-non-woven-fibres-within-a-therapeutic-nipple-shield
#13
Theresa Maier, Rebekah L Scheuerle, Daniel Markl, Sylvaine Bruggraber, Axel Zeitler, Ljiljana Fruk, Nigel K H Slater
A Therapeutic Nipple Shield (TNS) was previously developed to respond to the global need for new infant therapeutic delivery technologies. However, the release efficiency for the same Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) from different therapeutic matrices within the TNS formulation has not yet been investigated. To address this, in-vitro release of elemental zinc into human milk from two types of Texel non-woven fibre mats of varying thickness and different gram per square meter values, placed inside the TNS was explored and compared to the release from zinc-containing rapidly disintegrating tablets...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278013/behind-human-milk-and-breastfeeding-not-only-food
#14
Luca Pecoraro, Carlo Agostoni, Orsiol Pepaj, Angelo Pietrobelli
After birth, breastfeeding should not be considered only a normal and physiological event; in fact, it encloses both physical and the psychological aspects. Human milk cannot be compared to any formula milk. Specifically, human milk has immunological and nutritional properties and it is considered the best available option which guarantees an adequate growth and an optimal development of a child. Differences in term of mediators and hormones have been shown between infants who were breastfed and ones who were not...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276734/stress-the-gut-brain-axis-regulation-by-the-microbiome
#15
REVIEW
Jane A Foster, Linda Rinaman, John F Cryan
The importance of the gut-brain axis in regulating stress-related responses has long been appreciated. More recently, the microbiota has emerged as a key player in the control of this axis, especially during conditions of stress provoked by real or perceived homeostatic challenge. Diet is one of the most important modifying factors of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are slowly being unravelled, and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signaling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism, and microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246382/promote-breastfeeding-in-the-outpatient-setting-it-s-easy
#16
Natasha K Sriraman
The numerous benefits for both mother and baby of breastfeeding are evidence-based and well-defined. Breastmilk is the physiologic norm for infant nutrition, offering multiple health benefits and protections for mothers and babies. Although major medical and health organizations, which represent the health of women and children, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG), American Academy of Family Practice (AAFP), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), UNICEF, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Public Health Service (NPHS), all recommend exclusive breastfeeding, few women meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity, despite high initiation rates...
December 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246381/the-nuts-and-bolts-of-breastfeeding-anatomy-and-physiology-of-lactation
#17
Natasha K Sriraman
Breastmilk is the physiologic norm for infant nutrition. Despite recommendations from major health organizations, many women in the U.S. are not achieving this metric. Understanding breast anatomy and lactation physiology will allow physicians to gain knowledge of the processes, which control lactation enabling physicians to appropriately manage the breastfeeding dyad. The interplay of hormones involved in lactation and milk management affect milk initiation, as well as ongoing milk production (galactopoesis)...
December 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244620/calming-cycle-theory-and-the-co-regulation-of-oxytocin
#18
Martha G Welch, Robert J Ludwig
The biological functions of oxytocin in attachment and bonding between mother and infant in parturition and breastfeeding and between adults have been studied extensively. However, most current authors have proposed that infant attachment to the mother is learned through operant conditioning mechanisms via the infant's brain and central nervous system. We propose that oxytocin levels in the mother and infant are co-regulated by emotional connection or disconnection, and that the autonomic co-conditioning learning mechanism can be exploited to change a negative physiological and behavioral response between mother and infant into a positive one...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230957/an-implementation-algorithm-to-improve-skin-to-skin-practice-in-the-first-hour-after-birth
#19
Kajsa Brimdyr, Karin Cadwell, Jeni Stevens, Yuki Takahashi
Evidence supporting the practice of skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding soon after birth points to physiologic, social, and psychological benefits for both mother and baby. The 2009 revision of Step 4 of the WHO/UNICEF "Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding" elaborated on the practice of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and her newly born baby indicating that the practice should be "immediate" and "without separation" unless documented medically justifiable reasons for delayed contact or interruption exist...
April 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223210/providing-evidence-based-care-during-the-golden-hour
#20
Jennifer L Neczypor, Sharon L Holley
The Golden Hour encompasses a set of evidence-based practices that contribute to the physiologic stabilization of the mother-newborn dyad after birth. Important elements of the Golden Hour include delayed cord clamping, skin-to-skin contact for at least an hour, the performance of newborn assessments on the maternal abdomen, delaying non-urgent tasks (e.g., bathing the newborn) for 60 minutes, and the early initiation of breastfeeding. The Golden Hour contributes to neonatal thermoregulation, decreased stress levels in a woman and her newborn, and improved mother-newborn bonding...
December 2017: Nursing for Women's Health
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