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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764198/temporal-bone-contrast-enhanced-high-resolution-ct-evaluation-of-pulsatile-tinnitus-after-sigmoid-sinus-wall-reconstruction
#1
Heyu Ding, Pengfei Zhao, Han Lv, Xuehuan Liu, Rong Zeng, Guopeng Wang, Shusheng Gong, Zhenchang Wang
Background Sigmoid sinus wall reconstruction (SSWR) is a proven effective treatment for pulsatile tinnitus (PT) caused by sigmoid sinus wall dehiscence (SSWD) with or without sigmoid sinus diverticulum (SSD); however, comprehensive analysis of the postoperative imaging manifestations has not yet been reported. Purpose To analyze temporal bone computed tomography (CT) imaging features following SSWR in patients with PT. Material and Methods Following SSWR, temporal bone contrast-enhanced high-resolution CT (HRCT) images from 33 PT cases were retrospectively analyzed...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752956/advanced-microscopy-to-elucidate-cardiovascular-injury-and-regeneration-4d-light-sheet-imaging
#2
REVIEW
Kyung In Baek, Yichen Ding, Chih-Chiang Chang, Megan Chang, René R Sevag Packard, Jeffrey J Hsu, Peng Fei, Tzung K Hsiai
The advent of 4-dimensional (4D) light-sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) has provided an entry point for rapid image acquisition to uncover real-time cardiovascular structure and function with high axial resolution and minimal photo-bleaching/-toxicity. We hereby review the fundamental principles of our LSFM system to investigate cardiovascular morphogenesis and regeneration after injury. LSFM enables us to reveal the micro-circulation of blood cells in the zebrafish embryo and assess cardiac ventricular remodeling in response to chemotherapy-induced injury using an automated segmentation approach...
May 9, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714636/extracellular-vesicles-released-in-response-to-respiratory-exposures-implications-for-chronic-disease
#3
Birke J Benedikter, Emiel F M Wouters, Paul H M Savelkoul, Gernot G U Rohde, Frank R M Stassen
Extracellular vesicles (EV) are secreted signaling entities that enhance various pathological processes when released in response to cellular stresses. Respiratory exposures such as cigarette smoke and air pollution exert cellular stresses and are associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases. The aim of this review was to examine the evidence that modifications in EV contribute to respiratory exposure-associated diseases. Publications were searched using PubMed and Google Scholar with the search terms (cigarette smoke OR tobacco smoke OR air pollution OR particulate matter) AND (extracellular vesicles OR exosomes OR microvesicles OR microparticles OR ectosomes)...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695537/aquatic-terrestrial-transitions-of-feeding-systems-in-vertebrates-a-mechanical-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Egon Heiss, Peter Aerts, Sam Van Wassenbergh
Transitions to terrestrial environments confront ancestrally aquatic animals with several mechanical and physiological problems owing to the different physical properties of water and air. As aquatic feeders generally make use of flows of water relative to the head to capture, transport and swallow food, it follows that morphological and behavioral changes were inevitably needed for the aquatic animals to successfully perform these functions on land. Here, we summarize the mechanical requirements of successful aquatic-to-terrestrial transitions in food capture, transport and swallowing by vertebrates and review how different taxa managed to fulfill these requirements...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691310/oxygen-drives-skeletal-muscle-remodeling-in-an-amphibious-fish-out-of-water
#5
Giulia S Rossi, Andy J Turko, Patricia A Wright
Skeletal muscle remodeling in response to terrestrial acclimation improves the locomotor performance of some amphibious fishes on land, but the cue for this remodeling is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that muscle remodeling in the amphibious Kryptolebias marmoratus on land is driven by higher O2 availability in atmospheric air, and the alternative hypothesis that remodeling is induced by a different environmental or physiological condition fish experience on land. Fish were acclimated to 28 days of air, aquatic hyperoxia, hypercapnia, hypoxia, elevated temperature, or fasting conditions...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676644/air-pollution-exposure-with-fine-dust-responses-in-the-pulmonary-vasculature-and-the-right-heart
#6
Nedim Durmus, Gabriele Grunig
Detrimental effects of air pollution with fine dust (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, or PM2.5 ) on the systemic circulation and the left heart have been studied intensely during the past decade. In comparison, knowledge regarding the effects of exposure to air pollution with PM2.5 on the pulmonary vasculature and the right heart lags far behind. A report on severe lung disease and right heart failure in coal miners was published nearly 170 years ago. However, today, we still do not have a clear picture of how the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary circulation or the right heart should be viewed from a clinical, mechanistic biological, therapeutic, or economic angle...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670673/pm2-5-induced-the-expression-of-fibrogenic-mediators-via-hmgb1-rage-signaling-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#7
Weifeng Zou, Fang He, Sha Liu, Jinding Pu, Jinxing Hu, Qing Sheng, Tao Zhu, Tianhua Zhu, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
Background: The aim of the present study was to test whether fine particulate matter (PM2.5) induces the expression of platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), PDGF-BB, and transforming growth factor- β 1 (TGF- β 1) in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in vitro via high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to motor vehicle exhaust (MVE) or clean air. HBECs were either transfected with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HMGB1 or incubated with anti-RAGE antibodies and subsequently stimulated with PM2...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660515/aspergillus-fumigatus-viability-drives-allergic-responses-to-inhaled-conidia
#8
Ajay P Nayak, Tara L Croston, Angela R Lemons, W T Goldsmith, Nikki B Marshall, Michael L Kashon, Dori R Germolec, Donald H Beezhold, Brett J Green
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus induced allergic airway disease has been shown to involve conidial germination in vivo but the immunological mechanisms remain uncharacterized. OBJECTIVE: A subchronic murine exposure model was used to examine the immunological mediators that are regulated in response to either culturable or non-culturable A. fumigatus conidia. METHODS: Female B6C3F1/N mice were repeatedly dosed via inhalation with 1 x 105 viable or heat inactivated conidia (HIC), twice a week for 13 weeks (26 exposures)...
April 13, 2018: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613889/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-hepatopulmonary-syndrome-and-interrupted-inferior-vena-cava-after-living-related-liver-donation
#9
Michael R Phillips, Marc Priest, Christopher Beaty, Robert Parker, Marisa Meyer, Stephen Dunn, Curtis D Froehlich, Daniel R Dirnberger, Abigail E Martin, Mark T Ogino
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) occurs in the setting of liver failure and may cause hypoxemia. Previous reports have described the use of ECMO for HPS after liver transplant. Our patient is a 19-month-old female with biliary atresia, an interrupted inferior vena cava, and HPS on 8 liters per minute of high-flow oxygen. Following liver transplantation, her postoperative course was complicated by severe hypoxemia requiring ECMO...
March 30, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611767/impulse-oscillometry-and-nitrogen-washout-test-in-the-assessment-of-small-airway-dysfunction-in-asthma-correlation-with-quantitative-computed-tomography
#10
Leonello Fuso, Giuseppe Macis, Carola Condoluci, Martina Sbarra, Chiara Contu, Emanuele G Conte, Giulia Angeletti, Paolo Montuschi
OBJECTIVE: Small airway dysfunction (SAD) and airway remodeling influence the disease control and progression in asthma. We investigated whether impulse oscillometry (IOS) and single breath nitrogen washout (SBN2 W) could be reliable tests in evaluating SAD and airway remodeling by correlating their data with radiological parameters derived from quantitative chest multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) imaging. METHODS: Lung function tests were performed before and after bronchodilator...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597832/maternal-pufa-omega-3-supplementation-prevents-hyperoxia-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-offspring
#11
Ying Zhong, Daniel Catheline, Ali Houeijeh, Dyuti Sharma, Li-Zhong Du, Capucine Besengez, Philippe Deruelle, Philippe Legrand, Laurent Storme
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) affect 16-25% of premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), contributing significantly to perinatal morbidity and mortality. Polyunsaturated fatty acids ω-3 (PUFA ω-3) can improve vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammation under pathophysiological conditions. However, the effects of PUFA ω-3 supplementation in BPD-associated PH are unknown. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PUFA ω-3 on pulmonary vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammatory response in a hyperoxia-induced rat model of PH...
March 29, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581847/mandatory-role-of-hmga1-in-human-airway-epithelial-normal-differentiation-and-post-injury-regeneration
#12
Haijun Zhang, Jing Yang, Matthew S Walters, Michelle R Staudt, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Jacqueline Salit, Jason G Mezey, Philip L Leopold, Ronald G Crystal
Due to high levels of expression in aggressive tumors, high mobility group AT-hook 1 (HMGA1) has recently attracted attention as a potential anti-tumor target. However, HMGA1 is also expressed in normal somatic progenitor cells, raising the question: how might systemic anti-HMGA1 therapies affect the structure and function of normal tissue differentiation? In the present study, RNA sequencing data demonstrated HMGA1 is highly expressed in human airway basal stem/progenitor cells (BC), but decreases with BC differentiation in air-liquid interface cultures (ALI)...
March 6, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545277/aberrant-epithelial-differentiation-by-cigarette-smoke-dysregulates-respiratory-host-defence
#13
Gimano D Amatngalim, Jasmijn A Schrumpf, Fernanda Dishchekenian, Tinne C J Mertens, Dennis K Ninaber, Abraham C van der Linden, Charles Pilette, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra, Anne M van der Does
It is currently unknown how cigarette smoke-induced airway remodelling affects highly expressed respiratory epithelial defence proteins and thereby mucosal host defence.Localisation of a selected set of highly expressed respiratory epithelial host defence proteins was assessed in well-differentiated primary bronchial epithelial cell (PBEC) cultures. Next, PBEC were cultured at the air-liquid interface, and during differentiation for 2-3 weeks exposed daily to whole cigarette smoke. Gene expression, protein levels and epithelial cell markers were subsequently assessed...
April 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505888/puncturing-of-lyophilized-tissue-engineered-vascular-matrices-enhances-the-efficiency-of-their-recellularization
#14
Agnieszka A Książek, Laura Frese, Petra E Dijkman, Bart Sanders, Sarah E Motta, Benedikt Weber, Simon P Hoerstrup
Data on in vitro engineered "off the shelf" matrices support the concept of endogenous cellular repopulation driving the graft's remodeling via immune-mediated response. This seems important to further accelerate the cell reconstitution and may play a crucial role when mononuclear cells are used. Nevertheless, studies on decellularized xenogeneic grafts showed only limited host cell repopulation post-implantation. This study aims at a systematic comparison of reseeding methods (dripping, injection, bathing in a cell suspension and combined puncturing-dripping method) to define the most efficient technique enhancing recellularization of tissue engineered vascular matrices (patches, vessels, small diameter and standard size valves) prior implantation...
April 15, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469613/aging-and-anatomical-variations-in-lung-tissue-stiffness
#15
Delphine Sicard, Andrew J Haak, Kyoung Moo Choi, Alexandria R Craig, Laura E Fredenburgh, Daniel J Tschumperlin
Lung function is inherently mechanical in nature, and depends on the capacity to conduct air and blood to and from the gas exchange regions. Variations in the elastic properties of the human lung across anatomical compartments and with aging are likely important determinants of lung function, but remain relatively poorly characterized. Here we applied atomic force microscopy to characterize human lung tissue from subjects ranging in age from 11 to 60 years old. We observed striking anatomical variations in elastic modulus, with the airways (200-350 µm diameter) the stiffest and the parenchymal regions the most compliant...
February 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405354/role-of-il-13r%C3%AE-2-in-modulating-il-13-induced-muc5ac-and-ciliary-changes-in-healthy-and-crswnp-mucosa
#16
J Liu, Y Y Li, A K Andiappan, Y Yan, K S Tan, H H Ong, K T Thong, Y K Ong, F G Yu, H B Low, Y L Zhang, L Shi, D Y Wang
BACKGROUND: The IL-13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) is a receptor for IL-13 which has conflicting roles in mediating IL-13 responses in the lower airway, with little known about its impact on upper airway diseases. We sought to investigate the expression of IL-13 receptors, IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2, in chronically inflamed nasal epithelium, and explore IL-13-induced signaling pathways in an in vitro model of human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs). METHODS: The protein and mRNA expression levels of IL-13 and its receptors in nasal biopsies of patients with nasal polyps (NP) and healthy controls were evaluated...
February 6, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382878/early-bone-tissue-aging-in-human-auditory-ossicles-is-accompanied-by-excessive-hypermineralization-osteocyte-death-and-micropetrosis
#17
Tim Rolvien, Felix N Schmidt, Petar Milovanovic, Katharina Jähn, Christoph Riedel, Sebastian Butscheidt, Klaus Püschel, Anke Jeschke, Michael Amling, Björn Busse
Within the mineralized bone, osteocytes form a multifunctional mechanosensitive network orchestrating bone remodelling. A preserved osteocyte population is a crucial determinant of bone quality. In human auditory ossicles, the early decrease in osteocyte numbers but maintained integrity remains an unexplained phenomenon that might serve for sound transmission from air to the labyrinth. Here we analysed the frequency, size and composition of osteocyte lacunae in the auditory ossicles of 22 individuals from early postnatal period to old age...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362947/morphological-characterization-of-pulmonary-microvascular-disease-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-caused-by-hyperoxia-in-newborn-mice
#18
Hidehiko Nakanishi, Shunichi Morikawa, Shuji Kitahara, Asuka Yoshii, Atsushi Uchiyama, Satoshi Kusuda, Taichi Ezaki
PURPOSE: Pulmonary microvascular injury is associated with the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). To characterize the mechanisms of pulmonary vascular disease resulting from BPD, we studied the ultrastructural changes affecting pulmonary microvasculature. METHODS: Newborn ICR mice were exposed to 85% hyperoxia or normoxia for 14 days, and then normal air replacement conditions for the following 7 days. At postnatal day (P)14 and P21, lungs were harvested for ultrastructural examination and assessment of pulmonary hypertension...
January 23, 2018: Medical Molecular Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352310/leishmania-proteophosphoglycans-regurgitated-from-infected-sand-flies-accelerate-dermal-wound-repair-and-exacerbate-leishmaniasis-via-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-dependent-signalling
#19
Emilie Giraud, Tereza Lestinova, Tamsyn Derrick, Oihane Martin, Rod J Dillon, Petr Volf, Ingrid Műller, Paul A Bates, Matthew E Rogers
Leishmania parasites are transmitted to vertebrate hosts by female phlebotomine sand flies as they bloodfeed by lacerating the upper capillaries of the dermis with their barbed mouthparts. In the sand fly midgut secreted proteophosphoglycans from Leishmania form a biological plug known as the promastigote secretory gel (PSG), which blocks the gut and facilitates the regurgitation of infective parasites. The interaction between the wound created by the sand fly bite and PSG is not known. Here we nanoinjected a sand fly egested dose of PSG into BALB/c mouse skin that lead to the differential expression of 7,907 transcripts...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351448/extracellular-oxidation-in-cystic-fibrosis-airway-epithelium-causes-enhanced-egfr-adam17-activity
#20
Marta Stolarczyk, Guido Veit, Andrea Schnúr, Mieke Veltman, Gergely L Lukacs, Bob J Scholte
The EGF receptor (EGFR)/a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) signaling pathway mediates the shedding of growth factors and secretion of cytokines and is involved in chronic inflammation and tissue remodeling. Since these are hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, we hypothesized that CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) deficiency enhances EGFR/ADAM17 activity in human bronchial epithelial cells. In CF bronchial epithelial CFBE41o- cells lacking functional CFTR (iCFTR- ) cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) we found enhanced ADAM17-mediated shedding of the EGFR ligand amphiregulin (AREG) compared with genetically identical cells with induced CFTR expression (iCFTR+ )...
April 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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