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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524625/mrna-decay-an-adaptation-tool-for-the-environmental-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#1
REVIEW
Amanda L M Bloom, Jay Leipheimer, John C Panepinto
Fungi are ubiquitous in the environment and humans constantly encounter them in the soil, air, water, and food. The vast majority of these interactions are inconsequential. However, in the context of immunodeficiency precipitated by HIV infection, hematologic malignancy, or transplantation, a small subset of fungi can cause devastating, systemic infection. The most deadly of the opportunistic environmental fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, is estimated to cause hundreds of thousands of deaths per year, mostly in the context of HIV co-infection...
May 19, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524210/sulfur-dioxide-foe-or-friend-for-life
#2
REVIEW
Xin-Bao Wang, Hong Cui, Xiaohong Liu, Jun-Bao Du
Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO2 can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats...
May 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470140/temporal-structure-function-variation-in-cultured-differentiated-human-nasal-epithelium-associated-with-acute-single-exposure-to-tobacco-smoke-or-e-cigarette-vapor
#3
Johnny L Carson, Laura Zhou, Luisa Brighton, Katherine H Mills, Haibo Zhou, Ilona Jaspers, Milan Hazucha
OBJECTIVE: Mucociliary clearance sustains a baseline functionality and an "on demand" capability to upregulate clearance upon irritant exposure involving mucus hypersecretion and accelerated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) modulated by nitric oxide (NO). This study characterized these elements as well as cellular and exogenous NO concentrations subsequent to a single exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) or e-cigarette vapor (EV) on cultured human airway epithelium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-liquid interface (ALI) airway epithelial cultures per nonsmoking human subjects were subjected to single TS or EV exposures...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461289/associations-in-asthma-between-quantitative-computed-tomography-and%C3%A2-bronchial-biopsy-derived-airway-remodelling
#4
Rachid Berair, Ruth Hartley, Vijay Mistry, Ajay Sheshadri, Sumit Gupta, Amisha Singapuri, Sherif Gonem, Richard P Marshall, Ana R Sousa, Aarti Shikotra, Richard Kay, Andrew Wardlaw, Peter Bradding, Salman Siddiqui, Mario Castro, Christopher E Brightling
Airway remodelling in asthma remains poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the association of airway remodelling measured on bronchial biopsies with 1) lung function impairment and 2) thoracic quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-derived morphometry and densitometry measures of proximal airway remodelling and air trapping.Subjects were recruited from a single centre. Bronchial biopsy remodelling features that were the strongest predictors of lung function impairment and QCT-derived proximal airway morphometry and air trapping markers were determined by stepwise multiple regression...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450548/evidence-for-age-dependent-air-space-enlargement-contributing-to-loss-of-lung-tissue-elastic-recoil-pressure-and-increased-shear-modulus-in-older-age
#5
Karthik Subramaniam, Haribalan Kumar, Merryn H Tawhai
As a normal part of mature ageing, lung tissue undergoes microstructural changes such as alveolar airspace enlargement and redistribution of collagen and elastin away from the alveolar duct. The older lung also experiences an associated decrease in elastic recoil pressure and an increase in specific tissue elastic moduli, but how this relates mechanistically to microstructural remodeling is not well understood. In this study we use a structure-based mechanics analysis to elucidate the contributions of age-related airspace enlargement and redistribution of elastin and collagen to loss of lung elastic recoil pressure and increase in tissue elastic moduli...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448484/tissue-engineered-3d-human-lymphatic-microvascular-network-for-in-vitro-studies-of-lymphangiogenesis
#6
Laure Gibot, Todd Galbraith, Jennifer Bourland, Anita Rogic, Mihaela Skobe, François A Auger
This protocol describes a unique in vitro method for the generation of a 3D human lymphatic network within native connective tissue devoid of any exogenous material such as scaffolds or growth factors. In this five-stage protocol, human lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) cocultured with dermal fibroblasts spontaneously organize into a stable 3D lymphatic capillary network. Stage 1 involves the isolation of primary fibroblasts and LECs from human skin. Fibroblasts are then cultured to produce connective tissue rich in extracellular matrix (stage 2), onto which LECs are seeded to form a network (stage 3)...
May 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426774/the-role-of-air-pollution-in-myocardial-remodeling
#7
A M de Oliveira-Fonoff, C Mady, F G Pessoa, K C B Fonseca, V M C Salemi, F Fernandes, P H N Saldiva, F J A Ramires
BACKGROUND: Excessive air pollution in urban environments can impact morbidity and mortality. The authors evaluated the role of particulate matter2.5 (PM2.5) in structural, geometric, and functional remodeling in hearts, using an experimental model of myocardial infarction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Seventy-five rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CG), CG exposed to PM2.5 pollution (CGP), myocardial infarcted group (MI), infarcted group immediately exposed to pollution (IGP-I), and infarcted group previously exposed to pollution and kept exposed after infarction (IGP-II)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412860/modeling-vascular-inflammation-and-atherogenicity-after-inhalation-of-ambient-levels-of-ozone-exploratory-lessons-from-transcriptomics
#8
Andrea Tham, Dominic Lullo, Sarah Dalton, Siyang Zeng, Ian van Koeverden, Mehrdad Arjomandi
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have linked inhalation of air pollutants such as ozone to cardiovascular mortality. Human exposure studies have shown that inhalation of ambient levels of ozone causes airway and systemic inflammation and an imbalance in sympathetic/parasympathetic tone. METHODS: To explore molecular mechanisms through which ozone inhalation contributes to cardiovascular mortality, we compared transcriptomics data previously obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells obtained from healthy subjects after inhalational exposure to ozone (200 ppb for 4 h) to those of various cell samples from 11 published studies of patients with atherosclerotic disease using the Nextbio genomic data platform...
February 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402512/defective-trophoblast-invasion-underlies-fetal-growth-restriction-and-pre-eclampsia-like-symptoms-in-the-stroke-prone-spontaneously-hypertensive-rat
#9
G Barrientos, M Pussetto, M Rose, A C Staff, S M Blois, J E Toblli
STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of chronic hypertension on placental development, fetal growth and maternal outcome in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: SHRSP showed an impaired remodeling of the spiral arteries and abnormal pattern of trophoblast invasion during placentation, which were associated with subsequent maternal glomerular injury and increased baseline hypertension as well as placental insufficiency and asymmetric fetal growth restriction...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400369/in-utero-particulate-matter-exposure-produces-heart-failure-electrical-remodeling-and-epigenetic-changes-at-adulthood
#10
Vineeta Tanwar, Matthew W Gorr, Markus Velten, Clayton M Eichenseer, Victor P Long, Ingrid M Bonilla, Vikram Shettigar, Mark T Ziolo, Jonathan P Davis, Stephen H Baine, Cynthia A Carnes, Loren E Wold
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM; PM2.5 [PM with diameters of <2.5 μm]) exposure during development is strongly associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes at adulthood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that in utero PM2.5 exposure alone could alter cardiac structure and function at adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: Female FVB mice were exposed either to filtered air or PM2.5 at an average concentration of 73.61 μg/m(3) for 6 h/day, 7 days/week throughout pregnancy...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390080/changes-in-acute-pulmonary-vascular-responsiveness-to-hypoxia-during-a-progressive-ascent-to-high-altitude-5-300%C3%A2-m
#11
Andrew M Luks, Denny Levett, Daniel S Martin, Christopher Goss, Kay Mitchell, Bernadette O Fernandez, Martin Feelisch, Michael P Grocott, Erik R Swenson
We sought to determine whether changes in pulmonary artery pressure responses to hypoxia suggestive of vascular remodeling occur during progressive exposure to high altitude and whether such alterations are related to changes in concentrations of circulating biomarkers with known or suspected actions on the pulmonary vasculature during ascent. We measured tricuspid valve transvalvular pressure gradients (TVPG) in healthy volunteers breathing air at sea level (London, UK) and under hypoxic conditions simulating the PI O2 at two locations in Nepal, Namche Bazaar (NB, elevation 3,500 m) and Everest Base Camp (EBC, elevation 5,300 m)...
April 8, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368678/functional-characterization-of-a-novel-3d-model-of-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-trophic-unit
#12
Fabio Bucchieri, Alessandro Pitruzzella, Alberto Fucarino, Antonella Marino Gammazza, Celeste Caruso Bavisotto, Vito Marcianò, Massimo Cajozzo, Giorgio Lo Iacono, Roberto Marchese, Giovanni Zummo, Stephen T Holgate, Donna E Davies
BACKGROUND/AIM: Epithelial-mesenchymal communication plays a key role in tissue homeostasis and abnormal signaling contributes to chronic airways disease such as COPD. Most in vitro models are limited in complexity and poorly represent this epithelial-mesenchymal trophic unit. We postulated that cellular outgrowth from bronchial tissue would enable development of a mucosal structure that recapitulates better in vivo tissue architecture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bronchial tissue was embedded in Matrigel and outgrowth cultures monitored using time-lapse microscopy, electrical resistance, light and electron microscopy...
March 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361885/exposure-to-ambient-particulate-matter-induced-copd-in-a-rat-model-and-a-description-of-the-underlying-mechanism
#13
Fang He, Baoling Liao, Jinding Pu, Chenglong Li, Mengning Zheng, Lingmei Huang, Yumin Zhou, Dongxing Zhao, Bing Li, Pixin Ran
While the health effects of air pollution have been an international public health concern since at least the 1950s, recent research has focused on two broad sources of air pollution, namely, biomass fuel (BMF) and motor vehicle exhaust (MVE). Many studies have shown associations between air pollution PM and exacerbations of pre-existing COPD, but the role of air pollution PM in the development and progression of COPD is still uncertain. The current study indicates that rats can develop pronounced COPD following chronic exposure to air pollution PM (BMF and MVE), as characterized by lung function reduction, mucus metaplasia, lung and systemic inflammation, emphysema, and small airway remodeling...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303134/bronchial-epithelial-cells-from-asthmatic-patients-display-less-functional-hla-g-isoform-expression
#14
Federico Carlini, Christophe Picard, Céline Garulli, David Piquemal, Pierre Roubertoux, Jacques Chiaroni, Pascal Chanez, Delphine Gras, Julie Di Cristofaro
Not all asthmatic patients adequately respond to current available treatments, such as inhaled corticosteroids or omalizumab(®). New treatments will aim to target the bronchial epithelium-immune response interaction using different pathways. HLA-G is involved in immunomodulation and may promote epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. HLA-G protein has several isoforms generated by alternative splicing that might have differential functionalities. HLA-G protein expression and genetic polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279671/functional-results-in-airflow-improvement-using-a-flip-flap-alar-technique-our-experience
#15
Arianna Di Stadio, Carlo Macro
INTRODUCTION: Pinched nasal point can be arising as congenital malformation or as results of unsuccessfully surgery. The nasal valve alteration due to this problem is not only an esthetic problem but also a functional one because can modify the nasal airflow. Several surgical techniques were proposed in literature, we proposed our. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is the evaluation of nose airway flow using our flip-flap technique for correction of pinched nasal tip...
February 21, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248570/the-diacetyl-exposed-human-airway-epithelial-secretome-new-insights-into-flavoring-induced-airways-disease
#16
David M Brass, William M Gwinn, Ashlee M Valente, Francine L Kelly, Christie D Brinkley, Andrew E Nagler, M Arthur Moseley, Daniel L Morgan, Scott M Palmer, Matthew W Foster
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is an increasingly important lung disease characterized by fibroproliferative airway lesions and decrements in lung function. Occupational exposure to the artificial food flavoring ingredient diacetyl, commonly used to impart a buttery flavor to microwave popcorn, has been associated with BO development. In the occupational setting, diacetyl vapor is first encountered by the airway epithelium. To better understand the effects of diacetyl vapor on the airway epithelium we used an unbiased proteomic approach to characterize both the apical and basolateral secretomes of air liquid interface cultures of primary human airway epithelial cells from four unique donors after exposure to an occupationally relevant ~1100 ppm of diacetyl vapor or PBS as a control on alternating days...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202489/nicotinamide-phosphoribosyltransferase-promotes-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-and-is-a-therapeutic-target-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#17
Jiwang Chen, Justin R Sysol, Sunit Singla, Shuangping Zhao, Aya Yamamura, Daniela Valdez-Jasso, Taimur Abbasi, Krystyna M Shioura, Sakshi Sahni, Vamsi Reddy, Arvind Sridhar, Hui Gao, Jaime Torres, Sara M Camp, Haiyang Tang, Shui Q Ye, Suzy Comhair, Raed Dweik, Paul Hassoun, Jason X-J Yuan, Joe G N Garcia, Roberto F Machado
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe and progressive disease, a hallmark of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a cytozyme that regulates intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels and cellular redox state, regulates histone deacetylases, promotes cell proliferation, and inhibits apoptosis. We hypothesized that NAMPT promotes pulmonary vascular remodeling and that inhibition of NAMPT could attenuate pulmonary hypertension...
April 18, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185902/lung-remodeling-in-aging-surfactant-protein-d-deficient-mice
#18
Jan Philipp Schneider, Martina Arkenau, Lars Knudsen, Dirk Wedekind, Matthias Ochs
Pulmonary surfactant, a mixture of lipids and proteins at the air-liquid interface of alveoli, prevents the lungs from collapsing due to surface tension. One constituent is surfactant-associated protein-D (SP-D), a protein involved in surfactant homeostasis and innate immunity. Mice deficient in SP-D (SP-D (-/-)) has been described as developing a characteristic phenotype which affects the surfactant system (including changes in the intra-cellular and intra-alveolar surfactant pool, alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages), lung architecture and its inflammatory state (development of an emphysema-like pathology, inflammatory cell infiltration)...
February 7, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174048/the-effects-of-particulate-matter-on-inflammation-of-respiratory-system-differences-between-male-and-female
#19
Kelly Yoshizaki, Jôse Mára Brito, Luiz Fernando Silva, Adriana Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Daniela Perroni Frias, Renata Calciolari Rossi E Silva, Luís Fernando Amato-Lourenço, Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo Tibério, Thais Mauad, Mariangela Macchione
Air pollution is known to exacerbate respiratory diseases and epidemiological studies have shown that women present more chronic respiratory symptoms than man exposed to traffic pollution, however, the reason why is unclear. This study evaluated the inflammatory differences in BALB/c mouse males (n=34) and females (n=111) in three phases of the estrous cycle that were exposed to ambient air (AA) or concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Tracheal hyperreactivity to methacholine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and immunohistochemical of airways and lung parenchyma were studied...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162182/-therapeutic-effects-of-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-givinostat-on-air-inflammation-and-high-airway-resistance-in-a-murine-asthma-model
#20
X M Su, Y Ren, L F Kong, J Kang
Objective: To investigate the therapeutic effects of givinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), on the development of chronic asthma with airway inflammation, airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Methods: BALB/C mice were randomly divided into control group, asthma group, dexamethasone group and givinostat group (n=12 per group). AHR was assessed. Total cell numbers and differential counts, interleukin-4(IL-4), interleukin-5(IL-5) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured in the above 4 groups...
February 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
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