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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897352/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-in-vivo-quantification-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-the-sugen-5416-hypoxia-mouse
#1
Ellen C Breen, Miriam Scadeng, N Chin Lai, Fiona Murray, Timothy D Bigby
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressures and right heart failure. PAH mouse models are instrumental in understanding disease pathophysiology. However, few methods are available to evaluate right cardiac function in small animals. In this study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure in vivo cardiac dimensions in the Sugen 5416/hypoxia mouse model. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) was induced in C57BL/6 mice by three weeks of exposure to 10% oxygen and VEGF receptor inhibition (20 mg kg(-1) SU5416)...
November 29, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878968/proprotein-convertase-inhibition-promotes-ciliated-cell-differentiation-a-potential-mechanism-for-the-inhibition-of-notch1-signalling-by-decanoyl-rvkr-chloromethylketone
#2
Sang-Nam Lee, In-Suk Choi, Hyun Jun Kim, Eun Jin Yang, Hyun Jin Min, Joo-Heon Yoon
Chronic repetitive rounds of injury and repair in the airway lead to airway remodelling, including ciliated cell loss and mucous cell hyperplasia. Airway remodelling is mediated by many growth and differentiation factors including Notch1, which are proteolytically processed by proprotein convertases (PCs). The present study evaluated a novel approach for controlling basal cell-type determination based on the inhibition of PCs. It was found that decanoyl-RVKR-chloromethylketone (CMK), a PC inhibitor, promotes ciliated cell differentiation and has no effect on the ciliary beat frequency in air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs)...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860185/sildenafil-attenuates-hypoxic-pulmonary-remodelling-by-inhibiting-bone-marrow-progenitor-cells
#3
Shirley Favre, Elisa Gambini, Patrizia Nigro, Alessandro Scopece, Paola Bianciardi, Anna Caretti, Giulio Pompilio, Antonio F Corno, Giuseppe Vassalli, Ludwig K von Segesser, Michele Samaja, Giuseppina Milano
The recruitment of bone marrow (BM)-derived progenitor cells to the lung is related to pulmonary remodelling and the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Although sildenafil is a known target in PH treatment, the underlying molecular mechanism is still elusive. To test the hypothesis that the therapeutic effect of sildenafil is linked to the reduced recruitment of BM-derived progenitor cells, we induced pulmonary remodelling in rats by two-week exposure to chronic hypoxia (CH, 10% oxygen), a trigger of BM-derived progenitor cells...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783217/lung-surfactant-metabolism-early-in-life-early-in-disease-and-target-in-cell-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Elena Lopez-Rodriguez, Gemma Gay-Jordi, Adele Mucci, Nico Lachmann, Anna Serrano-Mollar
Lung surfactant is a complex mixture of lipids and proteins lining the alveolar epithelium. At the air-liquid interface, surfactant lowers surface tension, avoiding alveolar collapse and reducing the work of breathing. The essential role of lung surfactant in breathing and therefore in life, is highlighted by surfactant deficiency in premature neonates, which causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and results in early death after birth. In addition, defects in surfactant metabolism alter lung homeostasis and lead to disease...
October 25, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768904/gill-remodelling-and-growth-rate-of-striped-catfish-pangasianodon-hypophthalmus-under-impacts-of-hypoxia-and-temperature
#5
Le My Phuong, Do Thi Thanh Huong, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Mark Bayley
Gill morphometric and gill plasticity of the air-breathing striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) exposed to different temperatures (present day 27°C and future 33°C) and different air saturation levels (92% and 35%) during 6weeks were investigated using vertical sections to estimate the respiratory lamellae surface areas, harmonic mean barrier thicknesses, and gill component volumes. Gill respiratory surface area (SA) and harmonic mean water - blood barrier thicknesses (HM) of the fish were strongly affected by both environmental temperature and oxygen level...
October 18, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763528/up-regulation-of-claudin-6-in-the-distal-lung-impacts-secondhand-smoke-induced-inflammation
#6
Joshua B Lewis, Dallin C Milner, Adam L Lewis, Todd M Dunaway, Kaleb M Egbert, Scott C Albright, Brigham J Merrell, Troy D Monson, Dallin S Broberg, Jason R Gassman, Daniel B Thomas, Juan A Arroyo, Paul R Reynolds
It has long been understood that increased epithelial permeability contributes to inflammation observed in many respiratory diseases. Recently, evidence has revealed that environmental exposure to noxious material such as cigarette smoke reduces tight junction barrier integrity, thus enhancing inflammatory conditions. Claudin-6 (Cldn6) is a tetraspanin transmembrane protein found within the tight junctional complex and is implicated in maintaining lung epithelial barriers. To test the hypothesis that increased Cldn6 ameliorates inflammation at the respiratory barrier, we utilized the Tet-On inducible transgenic system to conditionally over-express Clnd6 in the distal lung...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713609/secondhand-smoke-exposure-enhances-cardiac-fibrosis-effects-on-the-aging-rat-hearts
#7
Jia-Ping Wu, Shu Nu Chang-Lee, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Tsung-Jung Ho, Vijaya Padma Viswanadha, Li-Chin Chung, Jin-Ming Hwang, Gwo-Ping Jong, Wei-Wen Kuo, Chih-Yang Huang
BACKGROUND: Examining aging rats exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) engenders changes in left ventricular remodeling due to age- or disease-dependent alterations. METHODS: Rats were placed in whole-body exposure chambers and exposed to 10 cigarettes. Filtered air was introduced into the chamber at a low rate. Rats were exposed to SHS for 30 min, twice a day, 5 days per week for 1 month. After 4 weeks SHS exposure, rats were sacrificed for morphological study with trichome staining and left ventricular remodeling related protein analysis using western blot...
September 2016: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703346/inhaled-corticosteroid-normalizes-some-but-not-all-airway-vascular-remodeling-in-copd
#8
Amir Soltani, Eugene Haydn Walters, David W Reid, Shakti Dhar Shukla, Kaosia Nowrin, Chris Ward, H Konrad Muller, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the effects of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) on airway vascular remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS: Thirty-four subjects with mild-to-moderate COPD were randomly allocated 2:1 to ICS or placebo treatment in a double-blinded clinical trial over 6 months. Available tissue was compared before and after treatment for vessel density, and expression of VEGF, TGF-β1, and TGF-β1-related phosphorylated transcription factors p-SMAD 2/3...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694473/simvastatin-prevents-and-reverses-chronic-pulmonary-hypertension-in-newborn-rats-via-pleiotropic-inhibition-of-rhoa-signaling
#9
Mathew J Wong, Crystal Kantores, Julijana Ivanovska, Amish Jain, Robert P Jankov
Chronic neonatal pulmonary hypertension (PHT) frequently results in early death. Systemically administered Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors prevent and reverse chronic PHT in neonatal rats, but at the cost of severe adverse effects, including systemic hypotension and growth restriction. Simvastatin has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on isoprenoid intermediates that may limit activity of RhoA, which signals upstream of ROCK. We therefore hypothesized that statin treatment would safely limit pulmonary vascular RhoA activity and prevent and reverse experimental chronic neonatal PHT via downstream inhibitory effects on pathological ROCK activity...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693345/biosurfactants-and-surfactants-interacting-with-membranes-and-proteins-same-but-different
#10
Daniel E Otzen
Biosurfactants (BS) are surface-active molecules produced by microorganisms. For several decades they have attracted interest as promising alternatives to current petroleum-based surfactants. Aside from their green profile, they have remarkably low critical micelle concentrations, reduce the air/water surface tension to very low levels and are excellent emulsifiers, all of which make them comparable or superior to their synthetic counterparts. These remarkable physical properties derive from their more complex chemical structures in which hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions are not as clearly separated as chemical surfactants but have a more mosaic distribution of polarity as well as branched or circular structures...
September 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683613/cyp2c44-gene-disruption-exacerbated-pulmonary-hypertension-and-heart-failure-in-female-but-not-male-mice
#11
Sachindra Raj Joshi, Anand Lakhkar, Vidhi Dhagia, Ariadne L Zias, Vasiliki Soldatos, Kaori Oshima, Houli Jiang, Katherine Gotlinger, Jorge H Capdevila, Michal L Schwartzman, Ivan F McMurtry, Sachin A Gupte
Epoxyeicosatrienoicacids (EETs), synthesized from arachidonic acid by epoxygenases of the CYP2C and CYP2J gene subfamilies, contribute to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in mice. Despite their roles in HPV, it is controversial whether EETs mediate or ameliorate pulmonary hypertension (PH). A recent study showed that deficiency of Cyp2j did not protect male and female mice from hypoxia-induced PH. Since CYP2C44 is a functionally important epoxygenase, we hypothesized that knockout of the Cyp2c44 gene would protect both sexes of mice from hypoxia-induced PH...
September 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660200/an-in-vitro-model-of-murine-middle-ear-epithelium
#12
Apoorva Mulay, Khondoker Akram, Debbie Williams, Hannah Armes, Catherine Russell, Derek Hood, Stuart Armstrong, James P Stewart, Steve D M Brown, Lynne Bingle, Colin D Bingle
Otitis media (OM) or middle ear inflammation is the most common pediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at air liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium...
September 22, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647892/nanoparticles-size-dependently-initiate-self-limiting-netosis-driven-inflammation
#13
Luis E Muñoz, Rostyslav Bilyy, Mona H C Biermann, Deborah Kienhöfer, Christian Maueröder, Jonas Hahn, Jan M Brauner, Daniela Weidner, Jin Chen, Marina Scharin-Mehlmann, Christina Janko, Ralf P Friedrich, Dirk Mielenz, Tetiana Dumych, Maxim D Lootsik, Christine Schauer, Georg Schett, Markus Hoffmann, Yi Zhao, Martin Herrmann
The critical size for strong interaction of hydrophobic particles with phospholipid bilayers has been predicted to be 10 nm. Because of the wide spreading of nonpolar nanoparticles (NPs) in the environment, we aimed to reveal the ability of living organisms to entrap NPs via formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Upon interaction with various cell types and tissues, 10- to 40-nm-sized NPs induce fast (<20 min) damage of plasma membranes and instability of the lysosomal compartment, leading to the immediate formation of NETs...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641813/%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-reverses-tnf%C3%AE-induced-increase-in-airway-epithelial-cell-permeability-through-cb2-receptors
#14
Valerie C M Shang, David A Kendall, Richard E Roberts
Despite pharmacological treatment, bronchial hyperresponsiveness continues to deteriorate as airway remodelling persists in airway inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated that the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reverses bronchoconstriction with an anti-inflammatory action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of THC on bronchial epithelial cell permeability after exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα. Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells were cultured at air-liquid interface...
November 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575358/systemic-biomarkers-of-collagen-and-elastin-turnover-are-associated-with-clinically-relevant-outcomes-in-copd
#15
Daiana Stolz, Diana Julie Leeming, Jacob Hull Edfort Kristensen, Morten A Karsdal, Wim Boersma, Renaud Louis, Branislava Milenkovic, Konstantinos Kostikas, Francesco Blasi, Joachim Aerts, Jannie M B Sand, Emiel Fm Wouters, Gernot Rohde, Cristina Prat, Antoni Torres, Tobias Welte, Michael Roth, Eleni Papakonstantinou, Michael Tamm
BACKGROUND: Extracellular matrix remodeling (ECM) of the lung tissue releases protein fragments into the blood, where they may be detected as serological surrogate markers of disease activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We aimed to assess the association of ECM turnover with severity and outcome of COPD. METHODS: In a prospective, observational, multicenter study including 506 patients with COPD, GOLD grades II-IV, we analyzed serum samples at stable state, exacerbation and 4 weeks after exacerbation, for a panel of 5 novel neo-epitopes including fragments of collagen type-III (C3M) and type-VI (C6M), pro-forms of collagen type-III (Pro-C3) and type-VI (Pro-C6) and neutrophil elastase-generated fragments of elastin (EL-NE) by ELISA...
August 26, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561911/adam17-and-egfr-regulate-il-6-receptor-and-amphiregulin-mrna-expression-and-release-in-cigarette-smoke-exposed-primary-bronchial-epithelial-cells-from-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#16
Marta Stolarczyk, Gimano D Amatngalim, Xiao Yu, Mieke Veltman, Pieter S Hiemstra, Bob J Scholte
Aberrant activity of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), also known as TACE, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been suggested to contribute to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) development and progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these proteins in activation of primary bronchial epithelial cells differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI-PBEC) by whole cigarette smoke (CS), comparing cells from COPD patients with non-COPD CS exposure of ALI-PBEC enhanced ADAM17-mediated shedding of the IL-6 receptor (IL6R) and the EGFR agonist amphiregulin (AREG) toward the basolateral compartment, which was more pronounced in cells from COPD patients than in non-COPD controls...
August 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509009/postnatal-growth-restriction-augments-oxygen-induced-pulmonary-hypertension-in-a-neonatal-rat-model-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#17
Stephen Wedgwood, Cris Warford, Sharleen C Agvateesiri, Phung Thai, Sara K Berkelhamer, Marta Perez, Mark A Underwood, Robin H Steinhorn
BACKGROUND: Prematurity and fetal growth restriction are risk factors for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Neonatal rats develop PH and vascular remodeling when exposed to hyperoxia. We hypothesize that postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) due to under-nutrition increases the severity of PH induced by hyperoxia in neonatal rats. METHODS: Pups were randomized at birth to litters maintained in room air or 75% oxygen (hyperoxia), together with litters of normal milk intake (10 pups) or PNGR (17 pups)...
December 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448665/cigarette-smoke-causes-acute-airway-disease-and-exacerbates-chronic-obstructive-lung-disease-in-neonatal-mice
#18
Jie Jia, Thomas M Conlon, Carolina Ballester Lopez, Michael Seimetz, Mariola Bednorz, Zhe Zhou-Suckow, Norbert Weissmann, Oliver Eickelberg, Marcus A Mall, Ali Önder Yildirim
Epidemiological evidence demonstrates a strong link between postnatal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure and increased respiratory morbidity in young children. However, how CS induces early onset airway disease in young children, and how it interacts with endogenous risk factors, remains poorly understood. We, therefore, exposed 10-day-old neonatal wild-type and β-epithelial sodium ion channel (β-ENaC)-transgenic mice with cystic fibrosis-like lung disease to CS for 4 days. Neonatal wild-type mice exposed to CS demonstrated increased numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), which was accompanied by increased levels of Mmp12 and Cxcl1 BALF from β-ENaC-transgenic mice contained greater numbers of macrophages, which did not increase following acute CS exposure; however, there was significant increase in airway neutrophilia compared with filtered air transgenic and CS-exposed wild-type controls...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27427119/asthma-is-associated-with-increased-susceptibility-to-infection
#19
V Patella, M Bocchino, G Steinhilber
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow limitation. Despite respiratory symptoms may be episodic, progressive changes occur in the structure of the airway, leading to its irreversible remodeling. Changes include mucus hypersecretion, injury to epithelial cells, smooth muscle hypertrophy, sub-basement membrane fibrosis and angiogenesis. The risk factors for developing asthma are a combination of genetic predisposition along with environmental exposure to inhaled substances and particles that may provoke allergic reactions or irritate the airways, such as in- and out-door allergens, tobacco smoke, chemical irritants in the workplace and air pollution...
August 2015: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27410394/cross-linked-hyaluronic-acid-in-pressure-ulcer-prevention
#20
P Beniamino, M Vadalà, C Laurino
OBJECTIVE: Long-term bedridden patients are at high risk of acquring pressure ulcers (PUs). In this group of patients, prevention is necessary to cut the health costs, improve quality of life and reduce the mortality. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of a cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) as plastic bulking-agent filling and remodelling the deep dermis and subcutaneous space of the skin areas exposed to the risk of necrosis. Our work hypothesis has been to inflate a sub-dermal elastic cushion, filled with a natural ECM component, with the aim to induce a stronger tissue background resistant to the ulcerative process...
July 2, 2016: Journal of Wound Care
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