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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630074/the-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-effector-espw-triggers-actin-remodeling-in-a-rac1-dependent-manner
#1
Pamela Sandu, Valerie F Crepin, Hauke Drechsler, Andrew D McAinsh, Gad Frankel, Cedric N Berger
Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a diarrheagenic pathogen that colonizes the gut mucosa and induces attaching-and-effacing lesions. EHEC employs a type III secretion system (T3SS) to translocate 50 effector proteins that hijack and manipulate host cell signalling pathways, which allow bacterial colonization, subversion of immune responses and disease progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the T3SS effector EspW. We found espW in the sequenced O157:H7 and non-O157 EHEC strains as well as in Shigella boydii Furthermore, a truncated version of EspW, containing the first 206 residues is present in EPEC strains belonging to serotype O55:H7...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626343/anti-osm-antibody-inhibits-tubulointerstitial-lesion-in-a-murine-model-of-lupus-nephritis
#2
Qingjuan Liu, Yunxia Du, Kejun Li, Wei Zhang, Xiaojuan Feng, Jun Hao, Hongbo Li, Shuxia Liu
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of oncostatin M (OSM) in tubulointerstitial lesion (TIL) in lupus nephritis (LN). We found that OSM was highly expressed in the renal tissue of LN mice. OSM is one of the interleukin-6 cytokine family members. In order to clarify the role and mechanism of OSM in LN, mice with LN were treated with anti-OSM antibody or isotype antibody. We evaluated the tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) by detecting the E-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibronectin (FN) expression...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614543/cytopathologic-evaluation-of-patients-submitted-to-radiotherapy-for-uterine-cervix-cancer
#3
Cátia Martins Leite Padilha, Mário Lúcio Cordeiro Araújo, Sergio Augusto Lopes de Souza
Cervical cancer is an important public health problem. Pap smear is the leading strategy of screening programs for cervical cancer worldwide. However, delayed diagnosis leads to more aggressive and less effective treatments. Patients with uterine cervix malignancies who are referred for radiotherapy have advanced-stage disease, which results in high rates of locoregional recurrence. The use of radiotherapy as a treatment for cervical cancer causes morphological changes in neoplastic and non-neoplastic epithelial cells, as well as in stromal cells, which make it difficult to diagnose the residual lesion, resulting in a dilemma in cytopathological routine...
April 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606962/endothelin-1-promotes-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-migration-across-the-artery-wall-a-mechanism-contributing-to-vascular-remodelling-and-intimal-hyperplasia-in-giant-cell-arteritis
#4
Ester Planas-Rigol, Nekane Terrades-Garcia, Marc Corbera-Bellalta, Ester Lozano, Marco A Alba, Marta Segarra, Georgina Espígol-Frigolé, Sergio Prieto-González, José Hernández-Rodríguez, Sara Preciado, Rodolfo Lavilla, Maria C Cid
BACKGROUND: Giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is an inflammatory disease of large/medium-sized arteries, frequently involving the temporal arteries (TA). Inflammation-induced vascular remodelling leads to vaso-occlusive events. Circulating endothelin-1 (ET-1) is increased in patients with GCA with ischaemic complications suggesting a role for ET-1 in vascular occlusion beyond its vasoactive function. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ET-1 induces a migratory myofibroblastic phenotype in human TA-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) leading to intimal hyperplasia and vascular occlusion in GCA...
June 12, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602263/immunohistochemical-and-histochemical-characterization-of-intraosseous-arteriovenous-malformations-of-the-jaws-analysis-of-16-cases-with-emphasis-on-glut-1-immunophenotype
#5
Reda Taleb, Ioannis G Koutlas, Prokopios P Argyris
OBJECTIVES: Intraosseous vascular lesions of the craniofacial region are rare and may cause diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The purpose of this study was to characterize 16 cases of intraosseous arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) affecting the jaws. STUDY DESIGN: Immunohistochemical evaluation was performed using antibodies against α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), desmin, CD31, D2-40, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1). Staining with elastic Verhoeff-Van Gieson and Masson trichrome histochemical stains was also performed...
April 25, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597477/effective-expression-of-drebrin-in-hippocampus-improves-cognitive-function-and-alleviates-lesions-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-app-swe-ps1-%C3%AE-e9-mice
#6
Yan Liu, Yan-Feng Xu, Ling Zhang, Lan Huang, Pin Yu, Hua Zhu, Wei Deng, Chuan Qin
AIMS: Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive development dementia, is increasingly impacting patients' living conditions worldwide. Despite medical care and funding support, there are still no highly individualized drugs and practical strategies for clinical prevention and treatment. Developmentally regulated brain protein (abbreviated as Drebrin or Dbn, also known as Dbn1 in mouse) exists in neurons, especially in dendrites, and is an actin-binding protein that modulates synaptic morphology and long-term memory...
July 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589900/mir-26a-contributes-to-the-pdgf-bb-induced-phenotypic-switch-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-by-suppressing-smad1
#7
Xiaoyan Yang, Mei Dong, Hao Wen, Xiaoling Liu, Meng Zhang, Lianyue Ma, Cheng Zhang, Xiaorong Luan, Huixia Lu, Yun Zhang
The phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a key event in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis. Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical modulators of VSMC function. In the present study, miR-26a was significantly increased in cultured VSMCs stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and in arteries with neointimal lesion formation. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-26a regulates the expression of VSMC differentiation marker genes such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), calponin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) in PDGF-BB-treated VSMCs...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580871/pharmacoeconomic-evaluations-in-the-treatment-of-actinic-keratoses
#8
Keith Tolley, Giuseppe Argenziano, Pier Giacomo Calzavara-Pinton, Thomas Larsson, Lasse Ryttig
Actinic keratoses (AKs) develop as a consequence of chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure and exist on a continuum with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). As one of the most common conditions treated by dermatologists, AK places a significant burden on patients and the healthcare system. A range of treatments are used, including topical treatments that target the visible and subclinical lesions. The goal of such therapies is to achieve complete clearance of AKs and eliminate the risk of progression to SCC. Robust meta-analyses of trial data can provide valuable information for the optimal management of AK and cost-effectiveness evaluations of topical treatments, such as ingenol mebutate gel and diclofenac...
June 2017: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579816/tattoo-removal-with-ingenol-mebutate
#9
Sarah-Jane Cozzi, Thuy T Le, Steven M Ogbourne, Cini James, Andreas Suhrbier
An increasing number of people are getting tattoos; however, many regret the decision and seek their removal. Lasers are currently the most commonly used method for tattoo removal; however, treatment can be lengthy, costly, and sometimes ineffective, especially for certain colors. Ingenol mebutate is a licensed topical treatment for actinic keratoses. Here, we demonstrate that two applications of 0.1% ingenol mebutate can efficiently and consistently remove 2-week-old tattoos from SKH/hr hairless mice. Treatment was associated with relocation of tattoo microspheres from the dermis into the posttreatment eschar...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574925/the-phosphodiesterase-iii-inhibitor-cilostazol-protects-the-brain-microvasculature-from-collagenase-injury
#10
Takahiko Imai, Haruka Matsukawa, Toshinori Takagi, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
A patient's prognosis, including mortality, after intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is strongly related to the disruption of the blood-brain barrier caused by damage to vascular endothelial cells (ECs). We reported previously that cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, ameliorated collagenase-induced ICH in a mouse model. We also reported that cilostazol protected cultured ECs in a blood-brain barrier model. However, the influence of cilostazol on vascular structure and cell morphology remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether cilostazol exerts protective effects on vascular structures, such as the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
July 5, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570006/primary-conjunctival-myxoma-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Dolores Ríos Y Valles-Valles, Ivette Hernández-Ayuso, Héctor A Rodríguez-Martínez, Armando Medina-Cruz, Guillermo Salcedo-Casillas, Abelardo A Rodríguez-Reyes
AIMS: Myxomas are benign soft tissue tumors resembling primitive mesenchyme. They rarely involve ocular structures and have been recognized in conjunctiva, eyelids, cornea and orbit. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinicopathological features of 7 patients with primary conjunctival myxoma seen at Dr. Luis Sánchez Bulnes Hospital an ophthalmologic referral center in Mexico City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the clinical, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies of patients with documented myxoma of the conjunctiva diagnosed in our hospital...
June 1, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570000/morphological-and-molecular-characterization-of-actinic-lentigos-reveals-alterations-of-the-dermal-extracellular-matrix
#12
E Warrick, C Duval, S Nouveau, P Bastien, V Piffaut, B Chalmond, J-P Ortonne, O de Lacharrière, F Bernerd
BACKGROUND: Actinic lentigos (AL) are benign hyperpigmented skin lesions associated with photoageing. Despite their high prevalence, biological mechanisms driving their formation remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To provide new insights about the physiopathology of AL through a comprehensive description of their histological and molecular features. METHODS: Quantitative analysis of dermoscopic images was used to select AL containing elongated patterns, predicted to display a highly deformed dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), on the back of hands of 15 Caucasian women...
June 1, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562437/use-of-skin-biopsies-among-dermatologists
#13
David A Weinstein, Sasank Konda, Brett M Coldiron
BACKGROUND: Skin biopsies are essential to establish a diagnosis in many skin diseases. Utilization has been increasing rapidly and represents a significant health care cost. There are no benchmarks or baselines to guide the practice of skin biopsies. OBJECTIVE: To create a reference data set of biopsy behavior among dermatologists. METHODS: Five hundred eighty-eight dermatologists belonging to the American Dermatological Association (ADA) were surveyed...
May 25, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562434/treatment-of-actinic-keratoses-a-randomized-split-site-approach-comparison-of-sequential-5-fluorouracil-and-5-aminolevulinic-acid-photodynamic-therapy-to-5-aminolevulinic-acid-photodynamic-monotherapy
#14
Susan Pei, Edidiong C N Kaminska, Maria M Tsoukas
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are skin lesions resulting from sun exposure and carry a risk of developing into squamous cell carcinoma. Current therapies for AK eradication include topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). However, sequential therapy with 5-FU-ALA-PDT may offer improved outcome compared to ALA-PDT alone. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare the long-term efficacy of AK clearance by sequential therapy with 5-FU-ALA-PDT versus ALA-PDT alone...
May 25, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562195/mhealth-app-for-risk-assessment-of-pigmented-and-nonpigmented-skin-lesions-a-study-on-sensitivity-and-specificity-in-detecting-malignancy
#15
Monique Thissen, Andreea Udrea, Michelle Hacking, Tanja von Braunmuehl, Thomas Ruzicka
BACKGROUND: With the advent of smartphone devices, an increasing number of mHealth applications that target melanoma identification have been developed, but none addresses the general context of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer identification. INTRODUCTION: In this study a smartphone application using fractal and classical image analysis for the risk assessment of skin lesions is systematically evaluated to determine its sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer along with actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease...
May 31, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559811/isolated-actinic-lichen-planus-of-the-lower-lip
#16
Ellie Choi, Kong Bing Tan, Nisha Suyien Chandran
Oral lichen planus (LP) is a common manifestation in patients with LP; however, isolated lip LP is rare and may mimic other conditions such as lichenoid drug eruptions, actinic cheilitis, and early carcinoma in situ in the absence of typical skin lesions. Actinic lichen planus (ALP) is a variant of LP occurring on light-exposed areas in patients with dark skin. We report the case of a Chinese female with isolated ALP of the lower lip, mimicking herpes simplex infection at presentation. The presence of prognathism, involvement of the lower lip, and flares associated with sunlight reinforces the role of sun exposure in the development of this condition...
January 2017: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553130/patient-satisfaction-and-reported-outcomes-on-the-management-of-actinic-keratosis
#17
REVIEW
Raveena Khanna, Anshika Bakshi, Yasmin Amir, Gary Goldenberg
Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common dermatologic condition in which hyperplastic epidermal lesions develop in response to excessive and chronic exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. If left untreated, AK can progress to squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. Incidence is rising worldwide as a result of the progressive aging of populations and an increase in lifetime cumulative exposure to UV radiation. Currently, various treatment options exist, which range from topical medications to light-based therapies and procedural modalities...
2017: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543730/treatment-of-disseminated-superficial-actinic-porokeratosis-with-oral-alitretinoin
#18
B J Park, E H Oh, J E Kim, J Y Ko, Y S Ro
Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP), the most common type of porokeratosis, usually presents as large numbers of lesions on sun-exposed skin. Although several treatment options including corticosteroids, keratolytics, 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, vitamin D3 analogues, cryotherapy, curettage, laser therapy and dermabrasion may be considered, there is no evidence-based standard treatment.(1-2) Patient 1 was a 26-year-old female who presented with a 2-year history of progressive scaly macules on both upper and lower extremities...
May 22, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543532/intraepidermal-merkel-cell-carcinoma-a-case-series-of-a-rare-entity-with-clinical-follow-up
#19
George Jour, Phyu P Aung, Eduardo Rozas-Muñoz, Johnathan L Curry, Victor Prieto, Doina Ivan
BACKGROUND: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare but aggressive cutaneous carcinoma. MCC involves typically dermis and although epidermotropism has been reported, MCC strictly intraepidermal or in situ (MCCIS) is exceedingly rare. Most of the cases of MCCIS described so far have associated other lesions, such as squamous or basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, etc. Herein, we describe three patients with MCC strictly in situ, without a dermal component. METHODS: Our patients were elderly, two of the lesions involved the head and neck area and one was on a finger...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538027/dermatoscopic-patterns-of-nonfacial-actinic-keratosis-characterization-of-pigmented-and-nonpigmented-lesions
#20
Clarissa P H Reinehr, Gabriela C Garbin, Renato M Bakos
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are dysplastic proliferations of keratinocytes. Studies evaluating nonfacial dermatoscopic pattern of AKs are scarce. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the dermatoscopic patterns of AKs located in nonfacial sites and to compare their patterns with facial lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with concomitant facial and nonfacial AKs were recruited to participate and evaluated by clinical and dermatoscopic images of their AKs...
May 22, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
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