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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411149/pharmacological-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#1
REVIEW
Asher Ornoy
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral problem found in 2-5% of adults. Stimulants and drugs that affect the dopaminergic, noradrenergic and/or serotonergic systems are effective treatment and are increasingly prescribed to women at child bearing age. It is consequently important that reliable information on the safety of these drugs in pregnancy is available so that appropriate therapeutic choices can be made. RESULTS: The data on stimulants (methylphenidate and amphetamines) are generally showing that there is no increase in the rate of major congenital anomalies...
February 6, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404031/multi-spectroscopic-characterization-of-bovine-serum-albumin-upon-interaction-with-atomoxetine
#2
Arunkumar T Buddanavar, Sharanappa T Nandibewoor
The quenching interaction of atomoxetine (ATX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied in vitro under optimal physiological condition (pH=7.4) by multi-spectroscopic techniques. The mechanism of ATX-BSA system was a dynamic quenching process and was confirmed by the fluorescence spectra and lifetime measurements. The number of binding sites, binding constants and other binding characteristics were computed. Thermodynamic parameters ∆H° and ∆S° indicated that intermolecular hydrophobic forces predominantly stabilized the drug-protein system...
June 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389748/clinical-trials-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-evidence-challenges-and-future-directions
#3
Evdokia Anagnostou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this manuscript is to review the evidence generated by clinical trials of pharmaceuticals in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), describe challenges in the conduct of such trials, and discuss future directions RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical trials in ASD have produced several compounds to adequately support the pharmacological treatment of associated symptom domains: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (methylphenidate, atomoxetine, and alpha agonists), irritability/aggression (risperidone and aripiprazole), sleep (melatonin), and weight gain associated with atypical antipsychotic use (metformin)...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383573/fatigue-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-prevalence-burden-and-pharmacological-approaches-to-management
#4
REVIEW
Helia Ghanean, Amanda K Ceniti, Sidney H Kennedy
Fatigue is a frequently reported symptom in major depressive disorder, occurring in over 90% of patients. Clinical presentations of fatigue within major depressive disorder encompass overlapping physical, cognitive and emotional aspects. While this review addresses the epidemiology, burden, functional impact and management of fatigue in major depressive disorder, the main focus is on available pharmacotherapy options and their comparative efficacies. Our review of the effects of pharmacological treatments on fatigue in major depressive disorder found that medications with dopaminergic and/or noradrenergic action such as modafinil, flupenthixol and atomoxetine were most effective in improving symptoms of fatigue and low energy...
January 30, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368813/selective-noradrenaline-reuptake-inhibitors-for-schizophrenia
#5
REVIEW
Paul R L Matthews, Jamie Horder, Michael Pearce
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is frequently a chronic and disabling illness with a heterogeneous range of symptoms. The positive symptoms usually respond to antipsychotics but the cognitive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia are difficult to treat with conventional antipsychotics and significantly impact on quality of life and social outcomes. Selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) increase prefrontal dopamine and noradrenaline levels without significantly affecting subcortical dopamine levels, making them an attractive candidate for treating cognitive and negative symptoms...
January 25, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349890/case-report-cytochrome-p450-implications-for-comorbid-adhd-and-ocd-pharmacotherapy
#6
Michaela K Hogan, Nikhil P Rao
TOPIC: This case report details the treatment of an early adolescent already receiving treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder who presents with recurrent obsessive-compulsive disorder. Potential atomoxetine (Strattera) and fluoxetine (Prozac) interactions via Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) pathways are examined and alternate therapies are recommended. PURPOSE: Provide a discussion of psychopharmacogenomics, especially in the case of combining medications, CYP450 enzymes, and clinical implications in the context of the burgeoning field of precision medicine...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339319/treatment-with-the-noradrenaline-re-uptake-inhibitor-atomoxetine-alone-and-in-combination-with-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist-idazoxan-attenuates-loss-of-dopamine-and-associated-motor-deficits-in-the-lps-inflammatory-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Justin D Yssel, Eoin O'Neill, Yvonne M Nolan, Thomas J Connor, Andrew Harkin
The impact of treatment with the noradrenaline (NA) re-uptake inhibitor atomoxetine and the α2-adrenoceptor (AR) antagonist idazoxan in an animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) was assessed. Concurrent systemic treatment with atomoxetine and idazoxan, a combination which serves to enhance the extra-synaptic availability of NA, exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects following delivery of an inflammatory stimulus, the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the substantia nigra. Lesion-induced deficits in motor function (akinesia, forelimb-use asymmetry) and striatal dopamine (DA) loss were rescued to varying degrees depending on the treatment...
January 12, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332255/profiling-attention-and-cognition-enhancing-drugs-in-a-rat-touchscreen-based-continuous-performance-test
#8
Zhiyong Ding, Jordan W Brown, Lynne E Rueter, Eric G Mohler
RATIONALE: A novel rodent continuous performance test (CPT) was developed as one of the goals of the NEWMEDS (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia) consortium to improve its translatability to the CPT test used in human subjects. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of attention and cognition enhancing drugs in rodent CPT. METHODS: A single cohort of rats were trained to asymptotic performance in the test...
January 13, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305714/diagnoses-of-cardiovascular-disease-or-substance-addiction-abuse-in-us-adults-treated-for-adhd-with-stimulants-or-atomoxetine-is-use-consistent-with-product-labeling
#9
Kathleen A Fairman, Lindsay E Davis, Alyssa M Peckham, David A Sclar
BACKGROUND: Among US adults, utilization of pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased more than ninefold since 1995-1996. Potential contraindications to ADHD pharmacotherapy include serious cardiovascular disease (CVD) and, for stimulants, addictions and bipolar disorder (BPD). OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of potential contraindications among adults treated with ADHD pharmacotherapy. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using the Truven Health MarketScan® database...
January 5, 2018: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298540/healthcare-utilization-and-costs-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-initiating-atomoxetine-versus-extended-release-guanfacine
#10
Cliff Molife, Virginia S Haynes, Allen Nyhuis, Douglas E Faries, Steve Gelwicks, Douglas K Kelsey, Carlos I Alatorre
OBJECTIVES: To compare 1-year direct healthcare costs and utilization among children and adolescents initiating non-stimulant medications atomoxetine (ATX) or extended-release guanfacine (GXR). METHODS: In this retrospective, observational cohort study, children and adolescents ages 6-17 years with ADHD who had ≥1 prescription claim for ATX or GXR between 12/31/2009-1/1/2011 were identified in the MarketScan Commercial or Multi-State Medicaid claims databases...
January 3, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290742/off-label-prescribing-trends-for-adhd-medications-in-very-young-children
#11
Shannon G Panther, Alice M Knotts, Tamara Odom-Maryon, Kenneth Daratha, Teri Woo, Tracy A Klein
OBJECTIVE: This study examines off-label medication prescribing use and trends in children on Medicaid with ADHD with particular focus on the very young (under age 6 years). METHODS: This was an observational cohort study and retrospective analysis of ADHD medication prescriptions from Oregon Medicaid records (N = 83,190) in 2012. Manufacturer prescribing information was used to determine off-label designation. Children ages 3 to 18 years at the time of prescription who had continuous Medicaid enrollment of at least 10 months during the index year of 2012 were included in the sample frame...
November 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244542/differential-long-term-medication-impact-on-executive-function-and-delay-aversion-in-adhd
#12
Belen Rubio Morell, Sergio Hernández Expósito
The objective was to compare long-term effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) on executive functions (EF) and delay aversion (DAv) in ADHD. A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at three moments (Naive, Post-1, Post-2). ADHD participants who showed deficits in the naive evaluation (n = 26) were randomized to receive either MPH (n = 13; Mage = 11 ± 1, MIQ 96 ± 8) or ATX (n = 13; Mage = 10 ± 1, MIQ 106 ± 16...
December 15, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237331/autism-spectrum-disorder-consensus-guidelines-on-assessment-treatment-and-research-from-the-british-association-for-psychopharmacology
#13
Oliver D Howes, Maria Rogdaki, James L Findon, Robert H Wichers, Tony Charman, Bryan H King, Eva Loth, Gráinne M McAlonan, James T McCracken, Jeremy R Parr, Carol Povey, Paramala Santosh, Simon Wallace, Emily Simonoff, Declan G Murphy
An expert review of the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of autism spectrum disorder, and recommendations for diagnosis, management and service provision was coordinated by the British Association for Psychopharmacology, and evidence graded. The aetiology of autism spectrum disorder involves genetic and environmental contributions, and implicates a number of brain systems, in particular the gamma-aminobutyric acid, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems. The presentation of autism spectrum disorder varies widely and co-occurring health problems (in particular epilepsy, sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and irritability) are common...
January 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203337/shati-nat8l-knockout-mice-show-behavioral-deficits-ameliorated-by-atomoxetine-and-methylphenidate
#14
Kazuya Toriumi, Junko Tanaka, Takayoshi Mamiya, Tursun Alkam, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Atsumi Nitta, Toshitaka Nabeshima
We previously identified a novel molecule, SHATI/NAT8L, as having an inhibitory effect on methamphetamine dependence. We generated Shati/Nat8l knockout (KO) mice and found that they showed neurochemical changes and behavioral abnormalities related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). In this study, we assessed validities of the Shati/Nat8l KO mice as a new animal model for AD/HD through a behavioral pharmacology approach. We conducted a locomotor activity test in a novel environment, a cliff avoidance test, and an object-based attention assay using Shati/Nat8l KO mice at the ages of 4 and 8 weeks...
December 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180967/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-different-interventions-in-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
Ruiling Luan, Zhiling Mu, Fang Yue, Shaoying He
Background: Our study is an analysis of multiple publications involving assessing the comparable efficacy and tolerability of six interventions, which are lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX), atomoxetine (ATX), methylphenidate (MPH), clonidine hydrochloride (CLON), guanfacine extended release (GXR), and bupropion, for young patients (6-18 years old) suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: A conventional meta-analysis (MA) was performed to give direct comparisons and a network meta-analysis (NMA) was used to show the combination of direct and indirect evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112657/placental-complications-associated-with-psychostimulant-use-in-pregnancy
#16
Jacqueline M Cohen, Sonia Hernández-Díaz, Brian T Bateman, Yoonyoung Park, Rishi J Desai, Kathryn J Gray, Elisabetta Patorno, Helen Mogun, Krista F Huybrechts
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether psychostimulants used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with risk of adverse placental-associated pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, placental abruption, growth restriction, and preterm birth. METHODS: We designed a population-based cohort study in which we examined a cohort of pregnant women and their liveborn neonates enrolled in Medicaid from 2000 to 2010. Women who received amphetamine-dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate monotherapy in the first half of pregnancy were compared with unexposed women...
December 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112459/atomoxetine-parent-training-and-their-effects-on-sleep-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Jill A Hollway, Marrisa Mendoza-Burcham, Rebecca Andridge, Michael G Aman, Benjamin Handen, L Eugene Arnold, Luc Lecavalier, Craig Williams, Laura Silverman, Tristram Smith
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disturbance is often a problem for children with either autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychostimulant medications used to treat ADHD symptoms can exacerbate this problem. For children with ASD and ADHD, atomoxetine (ATX) is a viable alternative to psychostimulants. We investigated the effects of ATX and a manualized parent training (PT) program targeting noncompliance, on the sleep quality of children with ASD and ADHD...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099621/atomoxetine-related-trichotillomania-in-a-boy-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#18
İsmail Akaltun, Tayfun Kara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058089/evidence-based-treatment-of-neurogenic-orthostatic-hypotension-and-related-symptoms
#19
REVIEW
Sabine Eschlböck, Gregor Wenning, Alessandra Fanciulli
Neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, postprandial hypotension and exercise-induced hypotension are common features of cardiovascular autonomic failure. Despite the serious impact on patient's quality of life, evidence-based guidelines for non-pharmacological and pharmacological management are lacking at present. Here, we provide a systematic review of the literature on therapeutic options for neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and related symptoms with evidence-based recommendations according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)...
December 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052031/do-pharmaceuticals-improve-driving-in-individuals-with-adhd-a-review-of-the-literature-and-evidence-for-clinical-practice
#20
REVIEW
Craig B H Surman, Ronna Fried, Lauren Rhodewalt, Heidi Boland
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined as a disorder of impaired attention and/or behavioral control. Studies suggest that the condition can dispose individuals to a higher risk of automobile accidents. ADHD symptoms respond to pharmacotherapy in a majority of uncomplicated cases. Evidence on how pharmacotherapies for ADHD impact driving behavior or outcomes could allow clinicians to support on-road safety rationally. We therefore undertook a review to identify the evidence base to date indicating positive or negative effects of pharmacotherapies on driving behavior in individuals with ADHD...
October 2017: CNS Drugs
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