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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346381/multifaceted-applications-of-chitosan-in-cancer-drug-delivery-and-therapy
#1
REVIEW
Anish Babu, Rajagopal Ramesh
Chitosan is a versatile polysaccharide of biological origin. Due to the biocompatible and biodegradable nature of chitosan, it is intensively utilized in biomedical applications in scaffold engineering as an absorption enhancer, and for bioactive and controlled drug release. In cancer therapy, chitosan has multifaceted applications, such as assisting in gene delivery and chemotherapeutic delivery, and as an immunoadjuvant for vaccines. The present review highlights the recent applications of chitosan and chitosan derivatives in cancer therapy...
March 27, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345485/the-effect-of-tamoxifen-on-thin-endometrium-in-patients-undergoing-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfer
#2
Hanni Ke, Jingjing Jiang, Mingdi Xia, Rong Tang, Yingying Qin, Zi-Jiang Chen
Tamoxifen has played a vital role in endocrine therapy for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. We examined the effect of tamoxifen in patients with a thin endometrium in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles and compared the improvement in endometrial thickness (EMT) and pregnancy outcomes stratified by different etiologies of thin endometrium. A total of 226 women were recruited for a new tamoxifen protocol; all had an EMT of less than 7.5 mm in previous cycles, including natural cycle (NC), hormone replacement treatment (HRT), and ovulation induction (OI) cycles...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344883/acquisition-of-tumor-cell-phenotypic-diversity-along-the-emt-spectrum-under-hypoxic-pressure-consequences-on-susceptibility-to-cell-mediated-cytotoxicity
#3
Stéphane Terry, Stéphanie Buart, Tuan Zea Tan, Gwendoline Gros, Muhammad Zaeem Noman, James B Lorens, Fathia Mami-Chouaib, Jean Paul Thiery, Salem Chouaib
Tumor escape to immunosurveillance and resistance to immune attacks present a major hurdle in cancer therapy, especially in the current era of new cancer immunotherapies. We report here that hypoxia, a hallmark of most solid tumors, orchestrates carcinoma cell heterogeneity through the induction of phenotypic diversity and the acquisition of distinct epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) states. Using lung adenocarcinoma cells derived from a non-metastatic patient, we demonstrated that hypoxic stress induced phenotypic diversity along the EMT spectrum, with induction of EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs) SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST1, and ZEB2 in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A)-dependent or -independent manner...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344662/nivolumab-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-latest-evidence-and-clinical-potential
#4
REVIEW
Camille Mazza, Bernard Escudier, Laurence Albiges
Similar to melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been historically considered as an immunogenic tumor, with interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interferon alpha (IFN-α) being the first approved treatments in the 1990s. However, these therapies were effective in only 10-20% of cases and were not well tolerated. Recently, new insights on the interaction between the immune system and tumor have identified the programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) pathway to be a key player in evading host immune responses...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343623/biological-therapy-and-development-of-neoplastic-disease-in-patients-with-juvenile-rheumatic-disease-a-systematic-review
#5
Vanessa Patricia L Pereira, Teresa Cristina Martins Vicente Robazzi
Juvenile rheumatic diseases affect the musculoskeletal system and begin before the age of 18. These conditions have varied, identifiable or unknown etiologies, but those of an autoimmune inflammatory nature have been associated with an increased risk of development of cancer, regardless of treatment. This study aims to assess, through a systematic review of the literature according to Prisma (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) quality criteria, the risk of cancer in patients with juvenile rheumatic disease, and its association with biological agents...
March 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343398/an-anti-programmed-death-1-antibody-a%C3%AF-pd-1-fusion-protein-that-self-assembles-into-a-multivalent-and-functional-apd-1-nanoparticle
#6
Peng Zhao, Djordje Atanackovic, Shuyun Dong, Hideo Yagita, Xiao He, Mingnan Chen
Cancer immune checkpoint therapy has achieved remarkable clinical successes in various cancers. However, current immune checkpoint inhibitors block the checkpoint of not only the immune cells that are important to cancer therapy but also the immune cells that are irrelevant to the therapy. Such an indiscriminate blockade limits the efficacy and causes the autoimmune toxicity of the therapy. It might be beneficial to use a carrier to target immune checkpoint inhibitors to cancer-reactive immune cells. Here, we explore a method to load the inhibitors into carriers...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343019/a-new-opportunity-for-nanomedicines-micellar-cytochrome-p450-inhibitors-to-improve-drug-efficacy-in-a-cancer-therapy-model
#7
Marion Paolini, Laurence Poul, Audrey Darmon, Matthieu Germain, Agnès Pottier, Laurent Levy, Eric Vibert
Nanomedicines are mainly used as drug delivery systems; here we evaluate a new application - to inhibit a drug's metabolism thereby enhancing its effective dose. Micelles containing the natural furanocoumarin 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB), a known CYP450 inhibitor, were developed to transiently block hepatic CYP450-mediated drug metabolism and increase the bioavailability of the oncology drug docetaxel. Administered in mice 24hours prior to the drug, DHB-micelles enhanced antitumor efficacy in the tumor xenograft models HT-29 and MDA-MB-231, when compared to the drug alone...
March 22, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337319/bifunctional-inhibitors-as-a-new-tool-to-reduce-cancer-cell-invasion-by-impairing-mmp-9-homodimerization
#8
Elisa Nuti, Lea Rosalia, Doretta Cuffaro, Caterina Camodeca, Chiara Giacomelli, Eleonora Da Pozzo, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Barbara Costa, Claudia Antoni, Laura Vera, Lidia Ciccone, Elisabetta Orlandini, Susanna Nencetti, Vincent Dive, Claudia Martini, Enrico A Stura, Armando Rossello
Protein homodimers play important roles in physiological and pathological processes, including cancer invasion and metastasis. Recently, MMP-9 natural homodimerization via the PEX domain has been correlated with high migration rates of aggressive cancer cells. Here we propose that bifunctional MMP-9 inhibitors designed to impair natural MMP-9 homodimerization promoted by PEX-PEX interactions might be an effective tool to fight cancer cell invasion. Elaborating a previously described dimeric hydroxamate inhibitor 1, new ligands were synthesized with different linker lengths and branch points...
March 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335614/therapeutic-targeting-of-protein-kinase-ck2-gene-expression-in-feline-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-naturally-occurring-large-animal-model-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#9
Claire Cannon, Janeen Trembley, Betsy Kren, Gretchen Unger, M Gerard O'Sullivan, Ingrid Cornax, Jaime Modiano, Khalil Ahmed
Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) is a highly promising target for cancer therapy and anti-CK2 gene expression therapy has shown effectiveness in rodent models of human head and neck cancer (HNC). To date, there has been no large animal model of cancer in which to further explore anti-CK2 therapies. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) has been proposed as a large animal model for human HNC and we have previously shown that CK2 is a rational target in FOSCC. We hypothesized that a novel tenfibgen coated tumor-specific nanocapsule carrying RNAi oligonucleotides targeting feline CK2α and CK2α' (TBG-RNAi-fCK2αα') would be safe in cats with FOSCC...
March 23, 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335344/a-targeted-nanoprobe-based-on-carbon-nanotubes-natural-biopolymer-chitosan-composites
#10
Baoyan Wu, Na Zhao
A novel targeting theranostic nanoprobe based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)-natural biopolymer chitosan composites was developed for cancer cell targeting imaging and fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy. First, chitosan was respectively conjugated with a tumor-homing molecule folic acid, or a photosensitizing drug pyropheophorbide a using a water-soluble carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Chitosan was fluorescently labeled by fluorescein isothiocyanate via the covalently linkage of the isothiocyanate group with the amino group...
November 17, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334682/phytochemical-induced-nucleolar-stress-results-in-the-inhibition-of-breast-cancer-cell-proliferation
#11
Anna Lewinska, Diana Bednarz, Jagoda Adamczyk-Grochala, Maciej Wnuk
The nucleolus is a stress sensor and compromised nucleolar activity may be considered as an attractive anticancer strategy. In the present study, the effects of three plant-derived natural compounds, i.e., sulforaphane (SFN), ursolic acid (UA) and betulinic acid (BA) on nucleolar state were investigated in breast cancer cell lines of different receptor status, namely MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells. Cytostatic action of phytochemicals against breast cancer cells was observed at low micromolar concentration window (5-20µM) and mediated by elevated p21 levels, and cell proliferation of SFN-, UA- and BA-treated normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) was unaffected...
March 14, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331999/the-acidic-microenvironment-as-a-possible-niche-of-dormant-tumor-cells
#12
REVIEW
Silvia Peppicelli, Elena Andreucci, Jessica Ruzzolini, Anna Laurenzana, Francesca Margheri, Gabriella Fibbi, Mario Del Rosso, Francesca Bianchini, Lido Calorini
Although surgical excision, chemo-, and radio-therapy are clearly advanced, tumors may relapse due to cells of the so-called "minimal residual disease". Indeed, small clusters of tumor cells persist in host tissues after treatment of the primary tumor elaborating strategies to survive and escape from immunological attacks before their relapse: this variable period of remission is known as "cancer dormancy". Therefore, it is crucial to understand and consider the major concepts addressing dormancy, to identify new targets and disclose potential clinical strategies...
March 22, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331743/psychiatric-symptoms-and-psychosocial-problems-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Filiz İzci, Ahmet Serkan İlgün, Ebru Fındıklı, Vahit Özmen
Cancer is a physical disease and also one of the leading clinical manifestations where psychosocial problems are prevalent. Psychosocial problems that these patients may have in the long run include anxiety, uneasiness, mourning, helplessness, fatigue, impairment of concentration, sleep disorders, mental and cognitive reservation, sexual dysfunction, infertility, psychological distress, and psychiatric disorders. Psychosocial problems have a nature of underpinning the emergence of psychological troubles. The prevalence of psychological disorders in patients with cancer range from 29% to 47%...
July 2016: J Breast Health (2013)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330230/isolation-and-biological-evaluation-of-n-4-aminocyclooctyl-3-5-dinitrobenzamide-a-new-semisynthetic-derivative-from-the-mangrove-associated-actinomycete-pseudonocardia-endophytica-vuk-10
#14
Usha Kiranmayi Mangamuri, Muvva Vijayalakshmi, Sudhakar Poda, Bramanandam Manavathi, Bhujangarao Chitturi, Venkateswarlu Yenamandra
The present study was aimed to isolate novel bioactive compounds from actinomycetes species isolated from mangrove habitats. With this connection, Pseudonocardia endophytica (VUK-10) was isolated using dilution plate technique and was examined for its secondary metabolite profiling. After successive purification and spectroscopic characterization viz., FTIR, mass, NMR, DEPT, HMQC, HMBC, and COSY spectroscopy, two compounds were identified including a semi synthetic derivative N-(4-aminocyclooctyl)-3, 5-dinitrobenzamide (1), obtained from the precursor of novel natural product cyclooctane-1,4-diamine (3), along with a known compound 3-((1H-indol-6-yl) methyl) hexahydropyrrolo [1, 2-a] pyrazine-1, 4-dione (2)...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328092/neferine-enhances-the-antitumor-effect-of-mitomycin-c-in-hela-cells-through-the-activation-of-p38-mapk-pathway
#15
Wassim Eid, Wafaa Abdel-Rehim
Current treatment options for patients with cervical cancer are far from desirable, with cervical cancer remaining to be one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths; this highlights the need to formulate strategies that enhance the efficacy of available therapies. Mitomycin C (MMC) possesses antitumor effect in different cancers. However, the efficacy of MMC depends on other drugs in the combinational therapy and is often hampered by side-effects. Neferine, a natural alkaloid, exhibits antitumor effects in various cancers...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327183/modeling-multi-mutation-and-drug-resistance-analysis-of-some-case-studies
#16
Mitra Shojania Feizabadi
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced resistance is one the major obstacles that may lead to therapeutic failure during cancer treatment. Different genetic alterations occur when tumor cells divide. Among new generations of tumor cells, some may express intrinsic resistance to a specific chemotherapeutic agent. Also, some tumor cells may carry a gene that can develop resistance induced by the therapeutic drug. The methods by which the therapeutic approaches need to be revised in the occurrence of drug induced resistance is still being explored...
March 21, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326191/global-histone-modification-fingerprinting-in-human-cells-using-epigenetic-reverse-phase-protein-array
#17
Marina Partolina, Hazel C Thoms, Kenneth G MacLeod, Giovanny Rodriguez-Blanco, Matthew N Clarke, Anuroop V Venkatasubramani, Rima Beesoo, Vladimir Larionov, Vidushi S Neergheen-Bhujun, Bryan Serrels, Hiroshi Kimura, Neil O Carragher, Alexander Kagansky
The balance between acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of genomic functions. Aberrations in global levels of histone modifications are linked to carcinogenesis and are currently the focus of intense scrutiny and translational research investments to develop new therapies, which can modify complex disease pathophysiology through epigenetic control. However, despite significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of epigenetic machinery in various genomic contexts and cell types, the links between epigenetic modifications and cellular phenotypes are far from being clear...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326081/the-smac-mimetic-bv6-improves-nk-cell-mediated-killing-of-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells-by-simultaneously-targeting-tumor-and-effector-cells
#18
Kyra Fischer, Sara Tognarelli, Stefanie Roesler, Cathinka Boedicker, Ralf Schubert, Alexander Steinle, Thomas Klingebiel, Peter Bader, Simone Fulda, Evelyn Ullrich
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324720/highly-sensitive-electrochemical-detection-of-palmatine-using-a-biocompatible-multiwalled-carbon-nanotube-poly-l-lysine-composite
#19
Balamurugan Thirumalraj, Subbiramaniyan Kubendhiran, Shen-Ming Chen, Kuan-Yu Lin
To date, the natural alkaloids are mostly used in the field of pharmacological applications and the active substance of palmatine was extensively used in cancer therapy and other biomedical applications. Hence, in this study we report a simple preparation of poly-l-lysine (PLL) electro-polymerized on the surface of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNT) for electrochemical detection of palmatine content in human serum and urine samples. The active amino group of PLL plays a vital role towards the oxidation palmatine and exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324583/revisiting-cdk-inhibitors-for-treatment-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#20
REVIEW
Dorota Lubanska, Lisa Porter
Despite extensive efforts and continual progress in research and medicine, outcomes for patients with high-grade glioma remain exceptionally poor. Over the past decade, research has revealed a great deal about the complex biology behind glioma development, and has brought to light some of the major barriers preventing successful treatment. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (stage 4 astrocytoma) is a highly dynamic tumour and one of the most extreme examples of intratumoural heterogeneity, making targeting with specific therapeutics an inefficient and highly unpredictable goal...
March 21, 2017: Drugs in R&D
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