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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804862/oncological-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit-prognosis-decision-making-therapies-and-end-of-life-care
#1
Ewelina Biskup, Fengfeng Cai, Marcus Vetter, Stephan Marsch
The effectiveness of intensive care unit (ICU) care for cancer patients remains controversial. Advances in antitumour and supportive care led to major improvements in outcomes of oncological patients in the ICU. Improved cancer therapies and supportive management of organ dysfunctions have contributed to improved survival rates. As a consequence, the number of cancer patients requiring ICU admission is rising. Frequently, cancer patients have a poor performance status and are vulnerable. It is a heterogeneous population, where the nature and curability of the neoplasm and the severity of critical illness cause a plethora of issues about ICU admissions...
August 14, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803701/contemporary-practice-patterns-and-survival-outcomes-for-locally-advanced-urethral-malignancies-a-national-cancer-database-analysis
#2
David B Cahn, Elizabeth Handorf, Benjamin T Ristau, Daniel M Geynisman, Jay Simhan, Alexander Kutikov, Richard E Greenberg, Rosalia Viterbo, David Y T Chen, Robert G Uzzo, Marc C Smaldone
PURPOSE: Primary urethral carcinoma (PUC) has an aggressive natural history; however, controversy exists regarding the role of multimodal therapy for its treatment. Our objective was to examine practice patterns and survival outcomes for locally advanced urethral cancers. METHODS: The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with T2-4 or N1-2M0 PUC with urothelial, squamous, or adenocarcinoma histology from 2004 to 2013. Temporal trends for receipt of local or definitive surgery, radiotherapy (XRT), and systemic therapy were assessed...
August 10, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803136/anti-inflammatory-activity-of-natural-stilbenoids-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Marcela Dvorakova, Premysl Landa
Resveratrol and other natural stilbenoids, including piceatannol, pterostilbene, and gnetol, are well-known anti-inflammatory compounds with indisputable activity in vitro as well as in vivo. Their molecular targets include inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenases, leukotrienes, nuclear factor kappa B, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins and many more. This anti-inflammatory activity together with their antioxidant activity is believed to stand behind their other positive health effects against cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases or diabetes...
August 9, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803033/the-risk-of-tumour-recurrence-in-patients-undergoing-renal-transplantation-for-end-stage-renal-disease-after-previous-treatment-for-a-urological-cancer-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Romain Boissier, Vital Hevia, Harman Max Bruins, Klemens Budde, Arnaldo Figueiredo, Enrique Lledó-García, Jonathon Olsburgh, Heinz Regele, Claire Fraser Taylor, Rhana Hassan Zakri, Cathy Yuhong Yuan, Alberto Breda
CONTEXT: Renal transplantation is the gold standard renal replacement therapy in end-stage renal disease owing to its superior survival and quality of life compared with dialysis. When the potential recipient has a history of cancer, the waiting period before radiotherapy is usually based on the Cincinnati Registry. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review all available evidence on the risk of cancer recurrence in end-stage renal disease patients with a history of urological cancer...
August 9, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800701/a-new-indole-derivative-decreased-sall4-gene-expression-in-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-cell-line-nb4
#5
Zahra Sheikhrezaei, Parisa Heydari, Alireza Farsinezhad, Ahmad Fatemi, Soudeh Khanamani Falahati-Pour, Shokoofeh Darakhshan, Mojgan Noroozi Karimabad, Ali Darekordi, Hossein Khorramdelazad, Gholamhossein Hassanshahi
Background: Acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) is a clonal disorder due to bone marrow failure and uncontrolled proliferation of myeloid lineage. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of AML. Heterocyclic compounds, such as indole, are considered as attractive candidates for cancer therapy, due to their abundance in nature and known biological activity. Sal-like protein (SALL4) is a zinc finger transcription factor involving in the multi-potency of stem cells, in the NB4 cell line...
August 12, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798777/mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-metastasis-of-lung-cancer-cells-by-downregulating-systemic-antitumor-immune-response
#6
Marina Gazdic, Bojana Simovic Markovic, Nemanja Jovicic, Maja Misirkic-Marjanovic, Valentin Djonov, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Nebojsa Arsenijevic, Miodrag L Lukic, Vladislav Volarevic
Since majority of systemically administered mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) become entrapped within the lungs, we used metastatic model of lung cancer, induced by intravenous injection of Lewis lung cancer 1 (LLC1) cells, to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in MSC-mediated modulation of metastasis. MSCs significantly augmented lung cancer metastasis, attenuate concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-17), and increase levels of immunosuppressive IL-10, nitric oxide, and kynurenine in sera of LLC1-treated mice...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798749/enhancement-of-adjuvant-functions-of-natural-killer-t-cells-using-nanovector-delivery-systems-application-in-anticancer-immune-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Reem Ghinnagow, Luis Javier Cruz, Elodie Macho-Fernandez, Christelle Faveeuw, François Trottein
Type I natural killer T (NKT) cells have gained considerable interest in anticancer immune therapy over the last decade. This "innate-like" T lymphocyte subset has the unique ability to recognize foreign and self-derived glycolipid antigens in association with the CD1d molecule expressed by antigen-presenting cells. An important property of these cells is to bridge innate and acquired immune responses. The adjuvant function of NKT cells might be exploited in the clinics. In this review, we discuss the approaches currently being used to target NKT cells for cancer therapy...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793338/anti-tumor-activity-of-nanomicelles-encapsulating-cxcr4-peptide-antagonist-e5
#8
Xiaocui Fang, Hanyi Xie, Hongyang Duan, Ping Li, Maryam Yousaf, Haiyan Xu, Yanlian Yang, Chen Wang
Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, and metastasis is the main attribute to cancer death. CXCR4 and its natural ligand CXCL12 have been known to play a critical role in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. Therefore, designing a new CXCR4 antagonist to prevent tumor metastasis will be of great significance. Herein, a novel chemically synthesized peptide (E5) that has an ability to target CXCR4/CXCL12 axis was loaded in micelle glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) block copolymer to form micelle-encapsulated E5 (M-E5)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790402/h-ferritin-nanocaged-olaparib-a-promising-choice-for-both-brca-mutated-and-sporadic-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#9
S Mazzucchelli, M Truffi, F Baccarini, M Beretta, L Sorrentino, M Bellini, M A Rizzuto, R Ottria, A Ravelli, P Ciuffreda, D Prosperi, F Corsi
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors represent a promising strategy toward the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which is often associated to genomic instability and/or BRCA mutations. However, clinical outcome is controversial and no benefits have been demonstrated in wild type BRCA cancers, possibly due to poor drug bioavailability and low nuclear delivery. In the attempt to overcome these limitations, we have developed H-Ferritin nanoformulated olaparib (HOla) and assessed its anticancer efficacy on both BRCA-mutated and non-mutated TNBC cells...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789926/commentary-on-redirecting-abiraterone-metabolism-to-fine-tune-prostate-cancer-anti-androgen-therapy-li-z-alyamani-m-li-j-rogacki-k-abazeed-m-upadhyay-sk-balk-sp-taplin-me-auchus-rj-sharifi-n-nature-2016-may-25-533-7604-547-51
#10
Byron H Lee
Abiraterone blocks androgen synthesis and prolongs survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer, which is otherwise driven by intratumoral androgen synthesis. Abiraterone is metabolized in patients to Δ(4)-abiraterone (D4A), which has even greater antitumour activity and is structurally similar to endogenous steroidal 5α-reductase substrates, such as testosterone. Here, we show that D4A is converted to at least three 5α-reduced and three 5β-reduced metabolites in human serum. The initial 5α-reduced metabolite, 3-keto-5α-abiraterone, is present at higher concentrations than D4A in patients with prostate cancer taking abiraterone, and is an androgen receptor agonist, which promotes prostate cancer progression...
August 5, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789661/reference-free-determination-of-tissue-absorption-coefficient-by-modulation-transfer-function-characterization-in-spatial-frequency-domain
#11
Weiting Chen, Huijuan Zhao, Tongxin Li, Panpan Yan, Kuanxin Zhao, Caixia Qi, Feng Gao
BACKGROUND: Spatial frequency domain (SFD) measurement allows rapid and non-contact wide-field imaging of the tissue optical properties, thus has become a potential tool for assessing physiological parameters and therapeutic responses during photodynamic therapy of skin diseases. The conventional SFD measurement requires a reference measurement within the same experimental scenario as that for a test one to calibrate mismatch between the real measurements and the model predictions. Due to the individual physical and geometrical differences among different tissues, organs and patients, an ideal reference measurement might be unavailable in clinical trials...
August 8, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783725/a-braf-kinase-inactive-mutant-induces-lung-adenocarcinoma
#12
Patricia Nieto, Chiara Ambrogio, Laura Esteban-Burgos, Gonzalo Gómez-López, María Teresa Blasco, Zhan Yao, Richard Marais, Neal Rosen, Roberto Chiarle, David G Pisano, Mariano Barbacid, David Santamaría
The initiating oncogenic event in almost half of human lung adenocarcinomas is still unknown, a fact that complicates the development of selective targeted therapies. Yet these tumours harbour a number of alterations without obvious oncogenic function including BRAF-inactivating mutations. Inactivating BRAF mutants in lung predominate over the activating V600E mutant that is frequently observed in other tumour types. Here we demonstrate that the expression of an endogenous Braf(D631A) kinase-inactive isoform in mice (corresponding to the human BRAF(D594A) mutation) triggers lung adenocarcinoma in vivo, indicating that BRAF-inactivating mutations are initiating events in lung oncogenesis...
August 10, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783481/fosaprepitant-for-the-management-of-refractory-pain-in-a-patient-with-cancer-related-dermatomyositis
#13
Jennifer D Dulin, Patrick J Coyne, Nicole M Bohm, Mary Adler
OBJECTIVE: Optimal pain management often requires multiple pharmacological interventions with the goal of disrupting the pain-signaling pathway and targeting the underlying pathophysiology. Off label use of nonpain medications may have a role in treating refractory pain syndromes. BACKGROUND: We report a case of a 60-year-old female with refractory nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Conventional therapies were either ineffective or fraught with side effects. Given the underlying inflammatory nature of her pain syndrome, and the role of substance P (SP) in pain transmission and modulation, we decided to use fosaprepitant, an SP and neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782773/triptolide-and-celastrol-loaded-silk-fibroin-nanoparticles-show-synergistic-effect-against-human-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#14
Baoyue Ding, Md Arif Wahid, Zhijun Wang, Chen Xie, Arvind Thakkar, Sunil Prabhu, Jeffrey Wang
Pancreatic cancer is a lethal disease with a dreadful 5-year survival rate of only 5%. In spite of several treatment options, the prognosis still remains extremely poor. Therefore, novel therapy strategies with combinations of drugs are urgently required to combat this fatal disease. Triptolide (TPL) and celastrol (CL), two main compounds in traditional Chinese medicine isolated from Thunder God Vine, have a broad range of bioactivities including anticancer activity. Silk fibroin (SF), a naturally occurring protein with several unique properties, is an ideal carrier material...
August 7, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782644/dmapt-inhibits-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-and-increases-sensitivity-of-prostate-cancer-cells-to-x-rays-in-vitro-and-in-tumor-xenografts-in-vivo
#15
Marc S Mendonca, William T Turchan, Melanie E Alpuche, Christopher N Watson, Neil C Estabrook, Helen Chin-Sinex, Jeremy B Shapiro, Imade E Imasuen-Williams, Gabriel Rangel, David P Gilley, Nazmul Huda, Peter A Crooks, Ronald H Shapiro
Constitutive activation of the pro-survival transcription factor NF-κB has been associated with resistance to both chemotherapy and radiation therapy in many human cancers, including prostate cancer. Our lab and others have demonstrated that the natural product parthenolide can inhibit NF-κB activity and sensitize PC-3 prostate cancers cells to X-rays in vitro; however, parthenolide has poor bioavailability in vivo and therefore has little clinical utility in this regard. We show here that treatment of PC-3 and DU145 human prostate cancer cells with dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT), a parthenolide derivative with increased bioavailability, inhibits constitutive and radiation-induced NF-κB binding activity and slows prostate cancer cell growth...
August 3, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782608/mechanisms-that-drive-inflammatory-tumor-microenvironment-tumor-heterogeneity-and-metastatic-progression
#16
REVIEW
Li Yang, P Charles Lin
of cancer metastases has been largely ineffective. It is paramount to understand the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process, of which the tumor microenvironment is an indispensable participant. What are the critical cellular and molecular players at the primary tumor site where metastatic cascade initiates? How is tumor-associated inflammation regulated? How do altered vasculatures contribute to metastasis? What is the dynamic nature or heterogeneity of primary tumors and what are the challenges to catch a moving target? This review summarizes recent progress, mechanistic understanding, and options for metastasis-targeted therapy...
August 3, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782139/low-doses-of-curcuma-longa-modulates-cell-migration-and-cell-cell-adhesion
#17
Paloma Santos de Campos, Bibiana Franzen Matte, Leonardo Francisco Diel, Luciano Henrique Jesus, Lisiane Bernardi, Alessandro Menna Alves, Pantelis Varvaki Rados, Marcelo Lazzaron Lamers
Cell invasion and metastasis are involved in clinical failures in cancer treatment, and both events require the acquisition of a migratory behavior by tumor cells. Curcumin is a promising natural product with anti-proliferative activity, but its effects on cell migration are still unclear. We evaluated the effects of curcumin on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and cell-cell adhesion of keratinocyte, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and fibroblast cell lines, as well as in a xenograft model of OSCC...
August 7, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781784/prevalence-of-silent-breast-cancer-in-autopsy-specimens-as-studied-by-the-disease-being-held-by-image-guided-biopsies-the-pilot-study-and-literature-review
#18
Zacharoula Sidiropoulou, Ana Paula Vasconcelos, Cristiana Couceiro, Carlos Dos Santos, Ana Virginia Araújo, Inês Alegre, Claudia Santos, Filipa Costa, Vanessa Henriques, Carlos Neves, Fátima Cardoso, Pere Gascon
Breast cancer epidemiological patterns vary in European countries, which present different incidence rates. Data have suggested that the reduction in breast cancer mortality is not only due to the early detection of the disease, but is, in almost equal part, due to screening and to the advances that have been made in molecular medicine and the development of novel therapies. The aim of the present study is to quantify the actual number of cases of breast cancer present in both of the sexes by calculating the prevalence of silent breast cancer in corpses...
August 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780700/natural-killer-cells-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-current-status-and-perspectives-for-future-immunotherapeutic-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Min Yu, Zonghai Li
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is currently the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortalities worldwide. In the last few years, treatments for HCC have significantly improved from a mere surgical resection to a series of minimally invasive therapies and targeted drugs. However, recurrence frequently occurs even upon curative therapeutics, and drug therapies generally produce disappointing results, with the overall prognosis dismal. This challenging clinical scenario warrants new effective and life-prolonging strategies for patients with HCC...
August 5, 2017: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780353/ultra-microsecond-pulsed-curcumin-for-effective-treatment-of-triple-negative-breast-cancers
#20
Lakshya Mittal, Vishak Raman, Ignacio G Camarillo, Raji Sundararajan
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is difficult to treat due to lack of the three receptors, commonly used for treating breast cancers. Current standard of cure is either ineffective or refractive to many patients. Thus, there is a critical need for alternate, affordable therapies for TNBC cancers. Towards this, electrical pulse-mediated chemotherapy, known as electrochemotherapy is a viable option, because it uses the synergy of electrical pulses and the anticancer properties of chemo drug. Considering the cost and the harsh side effects of various commonly administered chemo drugs, in this study, low cost, yet effective, natural phytochemical curcumin is studied for its anticancer effect on MDA-MB-231, TNBC cells...
August 2, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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