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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558467/cerebral-white-matter-disease-and-functional-decline-in-older-adults-from-the-northern-manhattan-study-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#1
Mandip S Dhamoon, Ying-Kuen Cheung, Yeseon Moon, Janet DeRosa, Ralph Sacco, Mitchell S V Elkind, Clinton B Wright
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on MRI are common and associated with vascular and functional outcomes. However, the relationship between WMHs and longitudinal trajectories of functional status is not well characterized. We hypothesized that whole brain WMHs are associated with functional decline independently of intervening clinical vascular events and other vascular risk factors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), a population-based racially/ethnically diverse prospective cohort study, 1,290 stroke-free individuals underwent brain MRI and were followed afterwards for a mean 7...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556290/identification-of-a-novel-hras-variant-and-its-association-with-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#2
Rui Dou, Lili Zhang, Tingxia Lu, Dong Liu, Fang Mei, Jian Huang, Linxue Qian
HRas proto-oncogene ( HRAS ) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in thyroid cancer, with mutations frequently occurring in the follicular and Hurthle cell subtypes. However, the contribution of mutations in HRAS to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) progression and the tall-cell variant (TCV) is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the somatic genetic variants present in HRAS in patients with PTC, and to investigate the association of these mutations with PTC. The present study is a retrospective case-control study using tumor samples collected from 139 patients with PTC and blood samples from 195 healthy individuals...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538364/quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-assessments-of-autosomal-recessive-polycystic-kidney-disease-arpkd-progression-and-response-to-therapy-in-an-animal-model
#3
Bernadette O Erokwu, Christian E Anderson, Chris A Flask, Katherine M Dell
BACKGROUND: Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease (ARPKD) is associated with significant mortality and morbidity and there are currently no disease-specific treatments available for ARPKD patients. One major limitation in establishing new therapies for ARPKD is a lack of sensitive measures of kidney disease progression. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide multiple quantitative assessments of disease. METHODS: We applied quantitative image analysis of high resolution (non-contrast) T2-weighted MRI techniques to study cystic kidney disease progression and response to therapy in the PCK rat model of ARPKD...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513740/cop1-a-negative-regulator-of-photomorphogenesis-positively-regulates-plant-disease-resistance-via-double-stranded-rna-binding-proteins
#4
Gah-Hyun Lim, Timothy Hoey, Shifeng Zhu, Marion Clavel, Keshun Yu, Duroy Navarre, Aardra Kachroo, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pradeep Kachroo
The E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 (Constitutive Photomorphogenesis 1) is a well known component of the light-mediated plant development that acts as a repressor of photomorphogenesis. Here we show that COP1 positively regulates defense against turnip crinkle virus (TCV) and avrRPM1 bacteria by contributing to stability of resistance (R) protein HRT and RPM1, respectively. HRT and RPM1 levels and thereby pathogen resistance is significantly reduced in the cop1 mutant background. Notably, the levels of at least two double-stranded RNA binding (DRB) proteins DRB1 and DRB4 are reduced in the cop1 mutant background suggesting that COP1 affects HRT stability via its effect on the DRB proteins...
March 7, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510745/randomized-phase-ii-trial-of-autologous-dendritic-cell-vaccines-versus-autologous-tumor-cell-vaccines-in-metastatic-melanoma-5-year-follow-up-and-additional-analyses
#5
Robert O Dillman, Andrew N Cornforth, Gabriel I Nistor, Edward F McClay, Thomas T Amatruda, Carol Depriest
BACKGROUND: Despite improved survival following checkpoint inhibitors, there is still a potential role for anti-cancer therapeutic vaccines. Because of biological heterogeneity and neoantigens resulting from each patient's mutanome, autologous tumor may be the best source of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) for vaccines. Ex vivo loading of autologous dendritic cells with TAA may be associated with superior clinical outcome compared to injecting irradiated autologous tumor cells. We conducted a randomized phase II trial to compare autologous tumor cell vaccines (TCV) and autologous dendritic cell vaccines (DCV) loaded with autologous TAA...
March 6, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422912/a-new-mechanistic-model-for-viral-cross-protection-and-superinfection-exclusion
#6
REVIEW
Xiao-Feng Zhang, Shaoyan Zhang, Qin Guo, Rong Sun, Taiyun Wei, Feng Qu
Plants pre-infected with a mild variant of a virus frequently become protected against more severe variants of the same virus through the cross protection phenomenon first discovered in 1929. Despite its widespread use in managing important plant virus diseases, the mechanism of cross protection remains poorly understood. Recent investigations in our labs, by analyzing the whole-plant dynamics of a turnip crinkle virus (TCV) population, coupled with cell biological interrogation of individual TCV variants, revealed possible novel mechanisms for cross protection and the closely related process of superinfection exclusion (SIE)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390679/accounting-for-debye-sheath-expansion-for-proud-langmuir-probes-in-magnetic-confinement-fusion-plasmas
#7
C K Tsui, J A Boedo, P C Stangeby
A Child-Langmuir law-based method for accounting for Debye sheath expansion while fitting the current-voltage I-V characteristic of proud Langmuir probes (electrodes that extend into the volume of the plasma) is described. For Langmuir probes of a typical size used in tokamak plasmas, these new estimates of electron temperature and ion saturation current density values decreased by up to 60% compared to methods that did not account for sheath expansion. Changes to the collection area are modeled using the Child-Langmuir law and effective expansion perimeter lp, and the model is thus referred to as the "perimeter sheath expansion method...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359991/evaluation-of-alum-based-adjuvant-on-the-immunogenicity-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi-conjugates-vaccines
#8
Erman Tritama, Catur Riani, Indra Rudiansyah, Arip Hidayat, Siti Azizah Kharisnaeni, Debbie Sofie Retnoningrum
The function of adjuvant in maintaining the long-term immune response to Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) was evaluated in. Two TCV products, Vi-DT and Vi-TT, were formulated in either aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) or aluminum hydroxide (AlOH) as adjuvants and TCV formulated in phosphate buffer saline were used as controls. In each case, a group of Balb/c mice was injected intramuscularly with two doses of the formulated vaccine at two-week intervals. The anti-Vi IgG responses were monitored by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and the levels of CD4+ T-cells expressing cytokine were characterized using intracellular cytokine staining...
January 23, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351594/sero-efficacy-of-vi-polysaccharide-tetanus-toxoid-typhoid-conjugate-vaccine-typbar-tcv
#9
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard
Background: Salmonella Typhi is the major cause of enteric fever in lower income countries. New conjugate vaccines show promise as public health interventions, however there are no efficacy data available from endemic areas. Methods: Data were obtained from a previously published phase 3 randomised controlled trial comparing Vi-polysaccharide tetanus-toxoid conjugate vaccine (Typbar-TCV; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-TT) with Vi-polysaccharide (Typbar; Bharat Biotech Intl Ltd, India): (Vi-PS) in participants aged 2- 45 years...
January 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348355/genome-sequence-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-strain-bug2148
#10
Francisco Callejas-Hernández, Núria Gironès, Manuel Fresno
Trypanosoma cruzi belongs to the group of mitochondrion-containing eukaryotes and has a highly plastic genome, unusual gene organization, and complex mechanisms for gene expression (polycistronic transcription). We report here the genome sequence of strain Bug2148, the first genomic sequence belonging to cluster TcV, which has been related to vertical transmission.
January 18, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209125/transmitted-cardiovascular-pulsations-on-high-resolution-esophageal-impedance-manometry-and-their-significance-in-dysphagia
#11
Naueen A Chaudhry, Kamran Zahid, Sara Keihanian, Yunfeng Dai, Qing Zhang
AIM: To investigate the behavior of pulsatile pressure zones (PPZ's) as noted on high resolution esophageal impedance manometry (HREIM), and determine their association with dysphagia. METHODS: Retrospective, single center case control design screening HREIM studies for cases (dysphagia) and controls (no dysphagia). Thoracic radiology studies were reviewed further in cases for (thoracic cardiovascular) thoracic cardiovascular (TCV) structures in esophageal proximity to compare with HREIM findings...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187997/internode-morphometrics-and-allometry-of-tonkin-cane-pseudosasa-amabilis
#12
Liang Cheng, Cang Hui, Gadi V P Reddy, Yu-Long Ding, Pei-Jian Shi
Pseudosasa amabilis (McClure) (Poales: Gramineae) is a typical bamboo species naturally distributed in large area of south China and famous for its culm strength. Although bamboos were found to share the same development rule, the detailed internode morphology of bamboo culm was actually not fully expressed. We explored internode morphology of P. amabilis using 11 different physical parameters in different dimensions (1-4). As Taylor's power law (TPL) is generally applicable to describe relationship between mean and variance of population density, here we used TPL to evaluate the differences between internodes, and further, the relationship between dimension and TPL...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161488/identifying-trypanosoma-cruzi-discreet-typing-units-in-triatomines-collected-in-different-natural-regions-of-per%C3%A3%C2%BA
#13
Carlos P Padilla, Uriel Alvarado, Gladis Ventura, Deysi Luna-Caipo, Marcial Suárez, José R Tuñoque, Nancy Ruelas-Llerena, Luis A Fachín, Alina Huiza, Lizandro Gonzáles, Julio César Carranza, Gustavo Adolfo Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo Vallejo, Abraham G Cáceres, Abraham G Cáceres
INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi has been divided by international consensus into six discrete typing units (DTU): TcI, TcII, TcIII, TcIV, TcV y TcVI. The factors determining the dynamics of T. cruzi genotypes vector transmission of Chagas' disease in the different geographical regions of Perú are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To detect and type T. cruzi DTUs from the faeces of seven species of triatomines (Panstrongylus chinai, P. geniculatus, P. herreri, Rhodnius robustus, R...
March 29, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158933/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-thyroid-as-a-result-of-anaplastic-transformation-from-braf-positive-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#14
Alina Basnet, Aakriti Pandita, Joseph Fullmer, Abirami Sivapiragasam
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. Majority of the PTC carries an excellent prognosis. However, patients with tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma have a worse prognosis than those with the classic variant. On the other hand, squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid (SCT) is an unusual neoplasm thought to arise as a primary tumor or as a component of an anaplastic or undifferentiated carcinoma. We report a patient with TCV of PTC presenting years later with squamous transformation...
2017: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046868/inactive-trans-sialidase-expression-in-its-null-trypanosoma-cruzi-generates-virulent-trypomastigotes
#15
Carla A Pascuale, Juan M Burgos, Miriam Postan, Andrés B Lantos, Adriano Bertelli, Oscar Campetella, M Susana Leguizamón
Disclosing virulence factors from pathogens is required to better understand the pathogenic mechanisms involved in their interaction with the host. In the case of Trypanosoma cruzi several molecules are associated with virulence. Among them, the trans -sialidase (TS) has arisen as one of particular relevance due to its effect on the immune system and involvement in the interaction/invasion of the host cells. The presence of conserved genes encoding for an inactive TS (iTS) isoform is puzzlingly restricted to the genome of parasites from the Discrete Typing Units TcII, TcV, and TcVI, which include highly virulent strains...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037251/cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-1-gene-as-a-dna-barcode-for-discriminating-trypanosoma-cruzi-dtus-and-closely-related-species
#16
Marina Silva Rodrigues, Karina Alessandra Morelli, Ana Maria Jansen
BACKGROUND: The DNA barcoding system using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (cox1 or COI) is highly efficient for discriminating vertebrate and invertebrate species. In the present study, we examined the suitability of cox1 as a marker for Trypanosoma cruzi identification from other closely related species. Additionally, we combined the sequences of cox1 and the nuclear gene glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) to evaluate the occurrence of mitochondrial introgression and the presence of hybrid genotypes...
October 16, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022644/assessment-of-risk-factors-in-metastatic-recurrent-tall-cell-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#17
Kursat Okuyucu, Engin Alagoz, Semra Ince, Nuri Arslan
INTRODUCTION: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common malignant thyroid tumor. A great majority of the cases live a disease-free life with quite favorable prognosis. There are lots of variants of PTC and a few of them exhibit aggressive behaviour. Typical example is the tall cell variant (TCV). Patients experience a greater incidence of recurrence, nodal and extranodal metastases, tumor associated mortality than other variants of PTC. Studies related to TCV almost always compared it with its patient population of PTC according to risk factors and clinicopathologic features...
October 12, 2017: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020884/pathologic-reporting-of-tall-cell-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-cancer-have-we-reached-a-consensus
#18
Juan C Hernandez-Prera, Rosalie A Machado, Sylvia L Asa, Zubair Baloch, William C Faquin, Ronald Ghossein, Virginia A LiVolsi, Ricardo V Lloyd, Ozgur Mete, Yuri E Nikiforov, Raja R Seethala, Saul Suster, Lester D Thompson, Andrew T Turk, Peter M Sadow, Mark L Urken, Bruce M Wenig
BACKGROUND: Tall-cell variant (TCV) is widely believed to be a more aggressive subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Despite the significance of TCV with respect to risk stratification and therapeutic decision making, its diagnosis is subject to inter-observer variability. This study aimed to determine the level of agreement among expert pathologists in the identification and reporting of TCV. METHODS: Seventeen surgical resections for thyroid cancer containing the diagnostic term "tall cell" in their pathology reports and 22 cases diagnosed as classical PTC were selected...
December 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974230/effect-of-day-3-embryo-morphometrics-and-morphokinetics-on-survival-and-implantation-after-slow-freezing-thawing-and-after-vitrification-warming-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Elia Fernandez Gallardo, Carl Spiessens, Thomas D'Hooghe, Sophie Debrock
BACKGROUND: Morphometric and morphokinetic evaluation of in vitro cultured human embryos allows evaluation without time restriction and reduces intra- and inter-observer variability. Even though these technologies have been reported to improve the quality of cleavage stage embryo evaluation during fresh culture, possible advantages in the evaluation of cryopreserved embryos have been scarcely explored. This study aims to compare morphometric and morphokinetic parameters between slow frozen and vitrified embryos and to determine their relationship to embryo survival and implantation rate (IR) after thawing/warming...
October 3, 2017: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967039/heterogeneity-of-multimedia-exposures-to-neurotoxic-elements-al-as-cd-pb-mn-and-hg-in-breastfed-infants-from-porto-velho-brazil
#20
Wanderley R Bastos, Solange M Vieira, Ângelo G Manzatto, José G Dórea, Marcelo C Rubira, Victor Francisco P de Souza, Walkimar A da Costa Junior, Maria T Souza Bastos
Infant exposure to neurotoxic elements is a public health issue that needs monitoring with regard to breast milk composition. We studied six neurotoxic elements in breast milk samples at different stages of lactation in mothers from Porto Velho, Brazil. We used a flow-injection mercury system (FIMS) to determine total Hg concentrations and an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) to determine the concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Pb, and Mn in 106 donors of a human milk bank. Association rules analyses were applied to determine the pattern of binary and ternary mixtures of the measured exposants...
October 1, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
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