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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323069/minicircle-classes-heterogeneity-within-the-tciii-and-tciv-discrete-typing-units-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#1
S Ortiz, G Osorio, A Solari
The taxon Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, is composed of several discrete typing units (DTUs) named TcI-TcVI, and Tcbat. The history of the taxon T. cruzi is known, even though several controversial aspects remain as the relationships between TcIII and TcIV. We analyzed cloned T. cruzi stocks pertaining to the seven DTUs by filter hybridization tests of PCR amplicons from minicircle variable regions and kinetoplast DNA probes. Minicircle DNA blots from the cloned stocks and filter hybridization with one TcI, one TcII, one TcV, one TcVI, three TcIII, one TcIV from North America and one TcIV kinetoplast DNA probes from South America revealed minicircle variable region cross-reaction in some T...
March 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295355/frequency-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-parasitemia-among-infected-blood-donors-with-a-potential-association-between-parasite-lineage-and-transfusion-transmission
#2
David A Leiby, Megan L Nguyen, Melanie C Proctor, Rebecca L Townsend, Susan L Stramer
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic to the Americas where it demonstrates multiple lineages over a vast geographic range (i.e., United States to Argentina). These lineages possess divergent geographic and biologic characteristics, including variations in disease manifestations. Herein, we report the frequency of parasitemia among seropositive US blood donors and the potential association between parasite lineage and transfusion transmission. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood donors identified as T...
March 14, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267773/a-self-perpetuating-repressive-state-of-a-viral-replication-protein-blocks-superinfection-by-the-same-virus
#3
Xiao-Feng Zhang, Rong Sun, Qin Guo, Shaoyan Zhang, Tea Meulia, Randal Halfmann, Dawei Li, Feng Qu
Diverse animal and plant viruses block the re-infection of host cells by the same or highly similar viruses through superinfection exclusion (SIE), a widely observed, yet poorly understood phenomenon. Here we demonstrate that SIE of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) is exclusively determined by p28, one of the two replication proteins encoded by this virus. p28 expressed from a TCV replicon exerts strong SIE to a different TCV replicon. Transiently expressed p28, delivered simultaneously with, or ahead of, a TCV replicon, largely recapitulates this repressive activity...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257478/human-norovirus-binding-to-select-bacteria-representative-of-the-human-gut-microbiota
#4
Erin A Almand, Matthew D Moore, Janie Outlaw, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Recent reports describe the ability of select bacterial strains to bind human norovirus, although the specificity of such interactions is unknown. The purpose of this work was to determine if a select group of bacterial species representative of human gut microbiota bind to human norovirus, and if so, to characterize the intensity and location of that binding. The bacteria screened included naturally occurring strains isolated from human stool (Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp., Bacillus spp., Enterococcus faecium and Hafnia alvei) and select reference strains (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179526/a-sequence-independent-unstructured-ires-is-responsible-for-internal-expression-of-the-coat-protein-of-turnip-crinkle-virus
#5
Jared May, Philip Johnson, Huma Saleem, Anne E Simon
To maximize the coding potential of viral genomes, internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) can be used to bypass the traditional requirement of a 5' cap and some/all of the associated translation initiation factors. Although viral IRES typically contain higher order RNA structure, an unstructured sequence of about 84-nt immediately upstream of the Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) coat protein (CP) ORF has been found to promote internal expression of the CP from the genomic (g)RNA both in vitro and in vivo Absence of extensive RNA structure was predicted using RNA folding algorithms and confirmed by SHAPE structure probing...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179034/hosts-and-vectors-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-discrete-typing-units-in-the-chagas-disease-endemic-region-of-the-paraguayan-chaco
#6
Nidia Acosta, Elsa López, Michael D Lewis, Martin S Llewellyn, Ana Gómez, Fabiola Román, Michael A Miles, Matthew Yeo
Active Trypanosoma cruzi transmission persists in the Gran Chaco region, which is considered hyperendemic for Chagas disease. Understanding domestic and sylvatic transmission cycles and therefore the relationship between vectors and mammalian hosts is crucial to designing and implementing improved effective control strategies. Here we describe the species of triatomine vectors and the sylvatic mammal reservoirs of T. cruzi, in different localities of the Paraguayan and Bolivian Chaco. We identify the T. cruzi genotypes discrete typing units (DTUs) and provide a map of their geographical distribution...
February 9, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095298/molecular-identification-and-genotyping-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-dna-in-autochthonous-chagas-disease-patients-from-texas-usa
#7
Melissa N Garcia, Hadley Burroughs, Rodion Gorchakov, Sarah M Gunter, Eric Dumonteil, Kristy O Murray, Claudia P Herrera
The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed throughout the Americas, from the southern United States (US) to northern Argentina, and infects at least 6 million people in endemic areas. Much remains unknown about the dynamics of T. cruzi transmission among mammals and triatomine vectors in sylvatic and peridomestic eco-epidemiological cycles, as well as of the risk of transmission to humans in the US. Identification of T. cruzi DTUs among locally-acquired cases is necessary for enhancing our diagnostic and clinical prognostic capacities, as well as to understand parasite transmission cycles...
January 15, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009980/a-comparison-of-the-clinicopathological-features-and-prognoses-of-the-classical-and-the-tall-cell-variant-of-papillary-thyroid-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#8
Zeming Liu, Wen Zeng, Tianwen Chen, Yawen Guo, Chao Zhang, Chunping Liu, Tao Huang
Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) accounts for 80-90% of all thyroid malignancies. The tall cell variant (TCV) is a rare aggressive histotype of PTC. We performed a meta-analysis to compare the clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors of TCV with those of classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC). A literature search was performed using the PubMed and EMBASE databases using Medical Subject Headings and keywords. Twenty studies that included 1871 patients with TCV and 75323 patients with cPTC were included in our meta-analysis...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940065/identification-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-discrete-typing-units-dtus-in-latin-american-migrants-in-barcelona-spain
#9
Alba Abras, Montserrat Gállego, Carmen Muñoz, Natalia A Juiz, Juan Carlos Ramírez, Carolina I Cura, Silvia Tebar, Anna Fernández-Arévalo, María-Jesús Pinazo, Leonardo de la Torre, Elizabeth Posada, Ferran Navarro, Paula Espinal, Cristina Ballart, Montserrat Portús, Joaquim Gascón, Alejandro G Schijman
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is divided into six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs): TcI-TcVI. We aimed to identify T. cruzi DTUs in Latin-American migrants in the Barcelona area (Spain) and to assess different molecular typing approaches for the characterization of T. cruzi genotypes. Seventy-five peripheral blood samples were analyzed by two real-time PCR methods (qPCR) based on satellite DNA (SatDNA) and kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA). The 20 samples testing positive in both methods, all belonging to Bolivian individuals, were submitted to DTU characterization using two PCR-based flowcharts: multiplex qPCR using TaqMan probes (MTq-PCR), and conventional PCR...
April 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910401/a-novel-carbon-coating-technique-for-foil-bolometers
#10
U A Sheikh, B P Duval, B Labit, F Nespoli
Naked foil bolometers can reflect a significant fraction of incident energy and therefore cannot be used for absolute measurements. This paper outlines a novel coating approach to address this problem by blackening the surface of gold foil bolometers using physical vapour deposition. An experimental bolometer was built containing four standard gold foil bolometers, of which two were coated with 100+ nm of carbon. All bolometers were collimated and observed the same relatively high temperature, ohmically heated plasma...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903288/untangling-the-transmission-dynamics-of-primary-and-secondary-vectors-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-colombia-parasite-infection-feeding-sources-and-discrete-typing-units
#11
Carolina Hernández, Camilo Salazar, Helena Brochero, Aníbal Teherán, Luz Stella Buitrago, Mauricio Vera, Hugo Soto, Zulibeth Florez-Rivadeneira, Sussane Ardila, Gabriel Parra-Henao, Juan David Ramírez
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease. Due to its genetic diversity has been classified into six Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) in association with transmission cycles. In Colombia, natural T. cruzi infection has been detected in 15 triatomine species. There is scarce information regarding the infection rates, DTUs and feeding preferences of secondary vectors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine T. cruzi infection rates, parasite DTU, ecotopes, insect stages, geographical location and bug feeding preferences across six different triatomine species...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846858/lineage-specific-serology-confirms-brazilian-atlantic-forest-lion-tamarins-leontopithecus-chrysomelas-and-leontopithecus-rosalia-as-reservoir-hosts-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-ii-tcii
#12
Charlotte L Kerr, Tapan Bhattacharyya, Samanta C C Xavier, Juliana H Barros, Valdirene S Lima, Ana M Jansen, Michael A Miles
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease in humans, has a vast reservoir of mammalian hosts in the Americas, and is classified into six genetic lineages, TcI-TcVI, with a possible seventh, TcBat. Elucidating enzootic cycles of the different lineages is important for understanding the ecology of this parasite, the emergence of new outbreaks of Chagas disease and for guiding control strategies. Direct lineage identification by genotyping is hampered by limitations of parasite isolation and culture...
November 15, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834723/evolution-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-into-tall-cell-variant-and-tenis-syndrome
#13
Avik Chakraborty, S V Kane, Yogita Pawer, Sandip Basu
We herein report an unusual case of a 55-y-old woman with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, who presented with multiple recurrences, with its subsequent evolution to tall cell variant and thyroglobulin-elevated negative iodine scintigraphy (TENIS) syndrome. During the course of the disease the lesions became non-iodine-concentrating with an increased proportion of tall cells and evidence of local and distant metastasis. Molecular analysis of the tissue specimen demonstrated BRAF(V600E) and I582 M mutations along with upregulation of tumor markers in metastatic tissue...
December 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807709/prognostic-significance-of-the-proportion-of-tall-cell-components-in-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#14
Yasuhiro Ito, Mitsuyoshi Hirokawa, Akira Miyauchi, Takuya Higashiyama, Minoru Kihara, Akihiro Miya
AIM: Tall cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) shows a poorer prognosis than conventional PTC. The World Health Organization (WHO) classification defines TCV as the tall cell component (TCC) in ≥50% of PTC lesions. We investigated whether and how the proportion of TCC affects the prognosis of patients with PTC with TCC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy patients with TCC in ≥30% of their PTC lesions and 210 age- and gender-matched controls with no TCC who underwent locally curative surgery at Kuma Hospital (2006-2014) were enrolled...
March 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782158/analyses-of-rna-seq-and-srna-seq-data-reveal-a-complex-network-of-anti-viral-defense-in-tcv-infected-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Chao Wu, Xinyue Li, Song Guo, Sek-Man Wong
In order to identify specific plant anti-viral genes related to the miRNA regulatory pathway, RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq were performed using Arabidopsis WT and dcl1-9 mutant line. A total of 5,204 DEGs were identified in TCV-infected WT plants. In contrast, only 595 DEGs were obtained in the infected dcl1-9 mutant plants. GO enrichment analysis of the shared DEGs and dcl1-9 unique DEGs showed that a wide range of biological processes were affected in the infected WT plants. In addition, miRNAs displayed different patterns between mock and infected WT plants...
October 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761560/tall-cell-variant-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma-in-saudi-patients-a-clinicopathological-and-outcomes-analysis
#16
Khalid H Al-Qahtani, Mutahir A Tunio, Mushabbab Al Asiri, Yasser Bayoumi, Walaa A Alshehri, Naji J Aljohani, Ahmed Amir Ali, Hanadi Fatani
To evaluate the clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of papillary thyroid carcinoma tall cell variant (PTC-TCV) in Saudi population. Methods: This retrospective study were medical records of 776 treated PTC patients between December 2007 and 2015, at King Fahad Medical City and King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was probed for PTC-TCV. Total 42 (5.4%) patients were found to have PTC-TCV, which were investigated for demographic, symptoms, histopathological features, and treatment outcomes locoregional control (LRC), distant metastasis control (DMC), disease free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) rates...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602793/immune-responses-to-polyclonal-t-cell-vaccination-in-patients-with-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Galina V Seledtsova, Irina P Ivanova, Alexey A Shishkov, Victor I Seledtsov
The overall objective of disease management in autoimmune diseases is to suppress chronic inflammation and prevent organ damage. Therapies often revolve around five drug classes: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), anti-malarials, steroids, immunosuppressants, and bio-therapies. However, none of these is a 'cure' and each displays a potential for adverse events. In particular, while all of them suppress harmful autoimmune responses, they also impact on useful protective immune responses. T-Cell receptor (TCR) immunogenicity provides a rationale for T-cell vaccinations to induce anti-idiotypic immune responses with the purpose of down-regulating functionality of idiotype-bearing self-reactive T-cells...
November 2016: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571035/over-six-thousand-trypanosoma-cruzi-strains-classified-into-discrete-typing-units-dtus-attempt-at-an-inventory
#18
Simone Frédérique Brenière, Etienne Waleckx, Christian Barnabé
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, presents wide genetic diversity. Currently, six discrete typing units (DTUs), named TcI to TcVI, and a seventh one called TcBat are used for strain typing. Beyond the debate concerning this classification, this systematic review has attempted to provide an inventory by compiling the results of 137 articles that have used it. A total of 6,343 DTU identifications were analyzed according to the geographical and host origins. Ninety-one percent of the data available is linked to South America...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473526/upregulation-of-linc-ap2-is-negatively-correlated-with-ap2-gene-expression-with-turnip-crinkle-virus-infection-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
Ruimin Gao, Peng Liu, Nadia Irwanto, De Rong Loh, Sek-Man Wong
A long intergenic noncoding RNA LINC - AP2 is upregulated and negatively correlated with AP2 gene expression with Turnip crinkle virus infection in Arabidopsis. Plant vegetative growth and floral reproductive structure were severely retarded and distorted in Turnip crinkle virus (TCV)-infected Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared to mock-inoculated plants, the stamen filaments were shorter in flowers of TCV-infected plants. However, TCV-infected plants can still produce normal seeds through artificial pollination, indicating both its pollen and stigma were biologically functional...
November 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440887/an-rna-element-that-facilitates-programmed-ribosomal-readthrough-in-turnip-crinkle-virus-adopts-multiple-conformations
#20
Micki M Kuhlmann, Maitreyi Chattopadhyay, Vera A Stupina, Feng Gao, Anne E Simon
UNLABELLED: Ribosome recoding is used by RNA viruses for translational readthrough or frameshifting past termination codons for the synthesis of extension products. Recoding sites, along with downstream recoding stimulatory elements (RSEs), have long been studied in reporter constructs, because these fragments alone mediate customary levels of recoding and are thus assumed to contain complete instructions for establishment of the proper ratio of termination to recoding. RSEs from the Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae are thought to be exceptions, since they contain a long-distance RNA-RNA connection with the 3' end...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
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