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Starr J Solomon, Jukka Savolainen, W Alex Mason, Jouko Miettunen, Stacy-Ann A January, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
Purpose: Early exposure to multiple risk factors is known to predict involvement in criminal offending. The purpose of this study was to examine the processes responsible for this association. Specifically, the focus was on the capacity of adolescent educational experience to mediate the effect of childhood cumulative risk (CCR) on criminal offending, net of expected continuity in antisocial propensity and behavior. Methods: Data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1986 (n = 5,743) were used to estimate a structural equation model to examine the hypothesized pathways...
September 2017: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
Michelle C Starr, Sangeeta R Hingorani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the role prematurity plays in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to discuss potential reasons for this association including decreased nephron mass, as well as postnatal insults such as neonatal acute kidney injury (nAKI). RECENT FINDINGS: New observational studies in humans and experimental studies in animal models have strengthened the association between prematurity, low birth weight and CKD...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Douglas Starr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2, 2018: Science
Charmaine J Simeonovic, Sarah K Popp, Lora M Starrs, Debra J Brown, Andrew F Ziolkowski, Barbara Ludwig, Stefan R Bornstein, J Dennis Wilson, Alberto Pugliese, Thomas W H Kay, Helen E Thomas, Thomas Loudovaris, Fui Jiun Choong, Craig Freeman, Christopher R Parish
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-producing beta cells in pancreatic islets are progressively destroyed. Clinical trials of immunotherapies in recently diagnosed T1D patients have only transiently and partially impacted the disease course, suggesting that other approaches are required. Our previous studies have demonstrated that heparan sulfate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan conventionally expressed in extracellular matrix, is present at high levels inside normal mouse beta cells. Intracellular HS was shown to be critical for beta cell survival and protection from oxidative damage...
2018: PloS One
Debra J Audus, Francis W Starr, Jack F Douglas
Patchy particles have emerged as an attractive model to mimic phase separation and self-assembly of globular proteins solutions, colloidal patchy particles, and molecular fluids where directional interactions are operative. In our previous work, we extensively explored the coupling of directional and isotropic interactions on both the phase separation and self-assembly in a system of patchy particles with five spots. Here, we extend this work to consider different patch valences and isotropic interaction strengths with an emphasis on self-assembly...
February 7, 2018: Soft Matter
Alhaji Saffa, Anna Tate, Ifeoma Ezeoke, Jasmine Jacobs-Wingo, Maryam Iqbal, Jennifer Baumgartner, Anne Fine, Bianca R Perri, Natasha McIntosh, Natalie Levy Stennis, Kristen Lee, Eric Peterson, Lucretia Jones, Lisa Helburn, Caroline Heindrichs, Seth Guthartz, Shadi Chamany, David Starr, Allison Scaccia, Marisa Raphael, Jay K Varma, Neil M Vora
The CDC recommended active monitoring of travelers potentially exposed to Ebola virus during the 2014 West African Ebola virus disease outbreak, which involved daily contact between travelers and health authorities to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for 21 days after the travelers' last potential Ebola virus exposure. From October 25, 2014, to December 29, 2015, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) monitored 5,359 persons for Ebola virus disease, corresponding to 5,793 active monitoring events...
February 6, 2018: Health Security
Annie Robitaille, Ardo van den Hout, Robson J M Machado, David A Bennett, Iva Čukić, Ian J Deary, Scott M Hofer, Emiel O Hoogendijk, Martijn Huisman, Boo Johansson, Andriy V Koval, Maaike van der Noordt, Andrea M Piccinin, Judith J M Rijnhart, Archana Singh-Manoux, Johan Skoog, Ingmar Skoog, John Starr, Lisa Vermunt, Sean Clouston, Graciela Muniz Terrera
INTRODUCTION: This study examines the role of educational attainment, an indicator of cognitive reserve, on transitions in later life between cognitive states (normal Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), mild MMSE impairment, and severe MMSE impairment) and death. METHODS: Analysis of six international longitudinal studies was performed using a coordinated approach. Multistate survival models were used to estimate the transition patterns via different cognitive states...
January 25, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Claire J Starrs, J Christopher Perry
Maladaptive coping has been shown to be related to increased symptoms of distress and lower levels of well-being, whereas the use of adaptive coping has been shown to diminish distress and improve functioning. This suggests that change in coping may constitute a significant mechanism of change in psychotherapy. Utilizing a novel observer-rating method for assessing coping, the current report examined changes in overall coping functioning (OCF) in three participants with diverse personality disorders who were undergoing two different types of psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy and dynamic therapy) for recurrent major depression...
January 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Svjetlana Miocinovic, Nicole C Swann, Coralie de Hemptinne, Andrew Miller, Jill L Ostrem, Philip A Starr
We describe a novel electrophysiologic signal from the motor cortex of patients with generalized dystonia - a discrete gamma-band oscillation induced by movement and associated with emergence of dystonia. This was observed using both invasive and non-invasive methods. This phenomenon is similar to the gamma oscillation reported in parkinsonian dyskinesia.
January 19, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Michele Schiano di Visconte, Francesco Nicolì, Arianna Pasquali, Gabriele Bellio
PURPOSE: The long-term efficacy of stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) for surgical management of obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) has not been evaluated. Therefore, we investigated the long-term efficacy (>10 years) of STARR for treatment of ODS related to rectocele or rectal intussusception and the factors that predict treatment outcome. METHODS: This study was a retrospective cohort analysis conducted on prospectively collected data. Seventy-four consecutive patients who underwent STARR for ODS between January 2005 and December 2006 in two Italian hospitals were included...
January 24, 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Daniela Pinter, Stuart J Ritchie, Thomas Gattringer, Mark E Bastin, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Janie Corley, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alison Pattie, David A Dickie, Alan J Gow, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas, Joanna Wardlaw
We aimed to assess whether and how changes in brain volume and increases in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) volume over three years predict gait speed and its change independently of demographics, vascular risk factors and physical status. We analyzed 443 individuals from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, at mean age 73 and 76 years. Gait speed at age 76 was predicted by age, grip strength and body mass index at mean age 73, three-year brain volume decrease and WMH volume increase, explaining 26.1% of variance...
January 20, 2018: Aging
Nicole F Angeli, Ian F Lundgren, Clayton G Pollock, Zandy M Hillis-Starr, Lee A Fitzgerald
Population size is widely used as a unit of ecological analysis, yet to estimate population size requires accounting for observed and latent heterogeneity influencing dispersion of individuals across landscapes. In newly established populations, such as when animals are translocated for conservation, dispersal and availability of resources influence patterns of abundance. We developed a process to estimate population size using N-mixture models and spatial models for newly established and dispersing populations...
January 19, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Paul S Larson, Philip A Starr, Alastair J Martin
Interventional and intraoperative MRI approaches to deep brain stimulator implantation are relatively new, and in their purest form represent a distinct departure from traditional stereotactic techniques. They employ a novel means of stereotaxis based on regions of interest in the MR space and simple geometric principles, which eliminate the need for a stereotactic frame. This approach is appropriate for targets that are MR visible, and for whom the local anatomy and function are well characterized. It may also be appropriate for targets that do not have a well-described physiologic signature and for which clinical response to macrostimulation does not play a critical role...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Riccardo E Marioni, Allan F McRae, Jan Bressler, Elena Colicino, Eilis Hannon, Shuo Li, Diddier Prada, Jennifer A Smith, Letizia Trevisi, Pei-Chien Tsai, Dina Vojinovic, Jeannette Simino, Daniel Levy, Chunyu Liu, Michael Mendelson, Claudia L Satizabal, Qiong Yang, Min A Jhun, Sharon L R Kardia, Wei Zhao, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Dena G Hernandez, Andrew B Singleton, Sarah E Harris, John M Starr, Douglas P Kiel, Robert R McLean, Allan C Just, Joel Schwartz, Avron Spiro, Pantel Vokonas, Najaf Amin, M Arfan Ikram, Andre G Uitterlinden, Joyce B J van Meurs, Tim D Spector, Claire Steves, Andrea A Baccarelli, Jordana T Bell, Cornelia M van Duijn, Myriam Fornage, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, Jonathan Mill, Thomas H Mosley, Sudha Seshadri, Ian J Deary
Cognitive functions are important correlates of health outcomes across the life-course. Individual differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, are susceptible to both genetic and environmental factors and may provide insights into individual differences in cognitive functions. Epigenome-wide meta-analyses for blood-based DNA methylation levels at ~420,000 CpG sites were performed for seven measures of cognitive functioning using data from 11 cohorts...
January 8, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Matthew R Starr, Curtis R Louwagie, Diva R Salomao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Natalia Malachowa, Brett Freedman, Daniel E Sturdevant, Scott D Kobayashi, Vinod Nair, Friederike Feldmann, Tregei Starr, Olivia Steele-Mortimer, John C Kash, Jeffery K Taubenberger, Heinz Feldmann, Frank R DeLeo
Neutrophils are essential cells of host innate immunity. Although the role of neutrophils in defense against bacterial and fungal infections is well characterized, there is a relative paucity of information about their role against viral infections. Influenza A virus (IAV) infection can be associated with secondary bacterial coinfection, and it has long been posited that the ability of IAV to alter normal neutrophil function predisposes individuals to secondary bacterial infections. To better understand this phenomenon, we evaluated the interaction of pandemic or seasonal H1N1 IAV with human neutrophils isolated from healthy persons...
January 2018: MSphere
Filippo Pucciani
The primary endpoint of this work was to understand the pathophysiology of fecal incontinence manifested after rectal and anal surgery. A retrospective cohort study with negative colonoscopy patients was created and 169 postoperative incontinent patients were analyzed (114 women and 55 men: mean age 58.9 ± 6.3): clinical evaluation, endoanal ultrasound and anorectal manometry reports were scanned. The duration of incontinence was very long, with a mean of 21.7 months. The mean number of bowel movements/week was 18...
December 30, 2017: Updates in Surgery
Svjetlana Miocinovic, Andrew Miller, Nicole C Swann, Jill L Ostrem, Philip A Starr
OBJECTIVE: To investigate cortical activity using scalp EEG in patients with isolated dystonia treated with chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS), on and off stimulation. METHODS: We analyzed 64-channel scalp EEG in 12 isolated dystonia patients treated with chronic DBS (7 generalized, 5 cervical/segmental; 7 globus pallidus (GP), 5 subthalamic nucleus (STN)), and 20 healthy age-matched controls. Recordings during rest and movement task, and clinical motor scores, were collected with DBS-on and during a 90-min DBS washout...
November 26, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Christian Denney, Ryan Fields, Mary Gleason, Richard Starr
The use of video camera systems in ecological studies of fish continues to gain traction as a viable, non-extractive method of measuring fish lengths and estimating fish abundance. We developed and implemented a rotating stereo-video camera tool that covers a full 360 degrees of sampling, which maximizes sampling effort compared to stationary camera tools. A variety of studies have detailed the ability of static, stereo-camera systems to obtain highly accurate and precise measurements of fish; the focus here was on the development of methodological approaches to quantify fish density using rotating camera systems...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Evan G Starr, John R Doty
We report the case of a 43-year-old woman with severe coronary artery disease, coarctation of the aorta and dextrocardia. Concomitant repair was achieved by coronary artery bypass grafting and ascending-descending bypass of the proximal descending thoracic aorta.
December 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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