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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669270/eye-movements-provide-insight-into-individual-differences-in-children-s-analogical-reasoning-strategies
#1
Ariel Starr, Michael S Vendetti, Silvia A Bunge
Analogical reasoning is considered a key driver of cognitive development and is a strong predictor of academic achievement. However, it is difficult for young children, who are prone to focusing on perceptual and semantic similarities among items rather than relational commonalities. For example, in a classic A:B::C:? propositional analogy task, children must inhibit attention towards items that are visually or semantically similar to C, and instead focus on finding a relational match to the A:B pair. Competing theories of reasoning development attribute improvements in children's performance to gains in either executive functioning or semantic knowledge...
April 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665419/widespread-associations-between-trait-conscientiousness-and-thickness-of-brain-cortical-regions
#2
Gary J Lewis, David Alexander Dickie, Simon R Cox, Sherif Karama, Alan C Evans, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
The neural correlates of human personality have been of longstanding interest; however, most studies in the field have relied on modest sample sizes and few replicable results have been reported to date. We investigated relationships between personality and brain gray matter in a sample of generally healthy, older (mean age 73 years) adults from Scotland drawn from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Participants (N = 578) completed a brain MRI scan and self-reported Big Five personality trait measures. Conscientiousness trait scores were positively related to brain cortical thickness in a range of regions, including bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral fusiform gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex...
April 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661966/pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-disrupts-pallidal-beta-oscillations-and-coherence-with-primary-motor-cortex-in-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Doris D Wang, Coralie de Hemptinne, Svjetlana Miocinovic, Jill L Ostrem, Nicholas B Galifianakis, Marta San Luciano, Philip A Starr
In Parkinson's disease (PD), subthalamic nucleus beta band oscillations are decreased by therapeutic deep brain stimulation (DBS) and this has been proposed as important to the mechanism of therapy. The globus pallidus is a common alternative target for PD with similar motor benefits as subthalamic DBS, but effects of pallidal stimulation in PD are not well studied, and effects of pallidal DBS on cortical function in PD are unknown. Here, in 20 PD and 14 isolated dystonia human patients of both genders undergoing pallidal DBS lead implantation, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the globus pallidus and in a subset of these, recorded simultaneous sensorimotor cortex electrocorticography (ECoG) potentials...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659687/obesity-interventions-for-older-adults-diet-as-a-determinant-of-physical-function
#4
Connie W Bales, Kathryn N Porter Starr
Throughout the world, a high prevalence of obesity in older populations has created a new phenotype of frailty: the obese, functionally frail older adult. The convergence of the obesity epidemic with global graying will undoubtedly increase the prevalence of this concern. Barriers to treatment include ambiguities about the appropriate level of obesity that should trigger an intervention, due to age-related physiologic changes and a lack of consensus on specific criteria and cutoffs. Moreover, obesity interventions for this population have been limited by concerns about negative effects on lean mass, bone mineral density, and even mortality...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658748/cognitive-ability-does-not-predict-objectively-measured-sedentary-behavior-evidence-from-three-older-cohorts
#5
Iva Čukić, Richard Shaw, Geoff Der, Sebastien F M Chastin, Manon L Dontje, Jason M R Gill, John M Starr, Dawn A Skelton, Ratko Radaković, Simon R Cox, Philippa M Dall, Catharine R Gale, Ian J Deary
Higher cognitive ability is associated with being more physically active. Much less is known about the associations between cognitive ability and sedentary behavior. Ours is the first study to examine whether historic and contemporaneous cognitive ability predicts objectively measured sedentary behavior in older age. Participants were drawn from 3 cohorts (Lothian Birth Cohort, 1936 [LBC1936] [n = 271]; and 2 West of Scotland Twenty-07 cohorts: 1950s [n = 310] and 1930s [n = 119]). Regression models were used to assess the associations between a range of cognitive tests measured at different points in the life course, with sedentary behavior in older age recorded over 7 days...
March 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644932/the-starr-county-border-health-initiative-focus-groups-on-diabetes-prevention-in-mexican-americans
#6
Sharon A Brown, William B Perkison, Alexandra A García, Heather E Cuevas, Mary M Velasquez, Mary A Winter, Craig L Hanis
Purpose The purpose of the study was to conduct focus groups with Mexican Americans in an impoverished rural community on the Texas-Mexico border to identify current barriers to adopting healthier lifestyles and to obtain recommendations for diabetes prevention. Methods Three separate 2-hour focus groups were led by an experienced bilingual Mexican American moderator. Interviews included questions about cultural factors and barriers that influence lifestyle behaviors, aspects of previous diabetes self-management interventions that were helpful for motivating behavioral change, and recommendations for diabetes prevention...
April 1, 2018: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627883/platelet-transfusion-increases-risk-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-non-massively-transfused-blunt-trauma-patients
#7
George Kasotakis, Nichole Starr, Erek Nelson, Bedabrata Sarkar, Peter Ashley Burke, Daniel George Remick, Ronald Gary Tompkins
PURPOSE: While damage control resuscitation is known to confer a survival advantage in severely injured patients, high-ratio blood component therapy should be initiated only in carefully selected trauma patients, due to the morbidity associated with blood product use. With this project, we aim to identify the effect of platelet transfusion in non-massively transfused bluntly injured patients. METHODS: The Glue Grant database was retrospectively queried and severely injured blunt trauma patients who underwent non-massive transfusion were identified...
April 7, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626131/pervasive-contingency-and-entrenchment-in-a-billion-years-of-hsp90-evolution
#8
Tyler N Starr, Julia M Flynn, Parul Mishra, Daniel N A Bolon, Joseph W Thornton
Interactions among mutations within a protein have the potential to make molecular evolution contingent and irreversible, but the extent to which epistasis actually shaped historical evolutionary trajectories is unclear. To address this question, we experimentally measured how the fitness effects of historical sequence substitutions changed during the billion-year evolutionary history of the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) ATPase domain beginning from a deep eukaryotic ancestor to modern Saccharomyces cerevisiae We found a pervasive influence of epistasis...
April 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617535/association-of-methylation-signals-with-incident-coronary-heart-disease-in-an-epigenome-wide-assessment-of-circulating-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE
#9
Stella Aslibekyan, Golareh Agha, Elena Colicino, Anh N Do, Jari Lahti, Symen Ligthart, Riccardo E Marioni, Carola Marzi, Michael M Mendelson, Toshiko Tanaka, Matthias Wielscher, Devin M Absher, Luigi Ferrucci, Oscar H Franco, Christian Gieger, Harald Grallert, Dena Hernandez, Tianxiao Huan, Stella Iurato, Roby Joehanes, Allan C Just, Sonja Kunze, Honghuang Lin, Chunyu Liu, James B Meigs, Joyce B J van Meurs, Ann Zenobia Moore, Annette Peters, Holger Prokisch, Katri Räikkönen, Wolfgang Rathmann, Michael Roden, Katharina Schramm, Joel D Schwartz, John M Starr, André G Uitterlinden, Pantel Vokonas, Melanie Waldenberger, Chen Yao, Degui Zhi, Andrea A Baccarelli, Stefania Bandinelli, Ian J Deary, Abbas Dehghan, Johan Eriksson, Christian Herder, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Daniel Levy, Donna K Arnett
Importance: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is a proinflammatory cytokine with manifold consequences for mammalian pathophysiology, including cardiovascular disease. A deeper understanding of TNF-α biology may enhance treatment precision. Objective: To conduct an epigenome-wide analysis of blood-derived DNA methylation and TNF-α levels and to assess the clinical relevance of findings. Design, Setting, and Participants: This meta-analysis assessed epigenome-wide associations in circulating TNF-α concentrations from 5 cohort studies and 1 interventional trial, with replication in 3 additional cohort studies...
April 4, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615005/improving-risk-prediction-accuracy-for-new-soldiers-in-the-u-s-army-by-adding-self-report-survey-data-to-administrative-data
#10
Samantha L Bernecker, Anthony J Rosellini, Matthew K Nock, Wai Tat Chiu, Peter M Gutierrez, Irving Hwang, Thomas E Joiner, James A Naifeh, Nancy A Sampson, Alan M Zaslavsky, Murray B Stein, Robert J Ursano, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: High rates of mental disorders, suicidality, and interpersonal violence early in the military career have raised interest in implementing preventive interventions with high-risk new enlistees. The Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (STARRS) developed risk-targeting systems for these outcomes based on machine learning methods using administrative data predictors. However, administrative data omit many risk factors, raising the question whether risk targeting could be improved by adding self-report survey data to prediction models...
April 3, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614547/-hereditary-auditory-neuropathies-stepping-into-precision-management-from-the-discovery
#11
Q J Wang, Arnold Starr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600120/towards-standardization-of-quantitative-retinal-vascular-parameters-comparison-of-siva-and-vampire-measurements-in-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#12
Sarah McGrory, Adele M Taylor, Enrico Pellegrini, Lucia Ballerini, Mirna Kirin, Fergus N Doubal, Joanna M Wardlaw, Alex S F Doney, Baljean Dhillon, John M Starr, Emanuele Trucco, Ian J Deary, Thomas J MacGillivray
Purpose: Semiautomated software applications derive quantitative retinal vascular parameters from fundus camera images. However, the extent of agreement between measurements from different applications is unclear. We evaluate the agreement between retinal measures from two software applications, the Singapore "I" Vessel Assessment (SIVA) and the Vessel Assessment and Measurement Platform for Images of the Retina (VAMPIRE), and examine respective associations between retinal and systemic outcomes...
March 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594747/pelvic-floor-function-following-ventral-rectopexy-versus-starr-in-the-treatment-of-obstructed-defecation
#13
D F Altomare, A Picciariello, R Memeo, M Fanelli, R Digennaro, N Chetta, M De Fazio
BACKGROUND: Obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS), most commonly found in females, can be treated by a transanal or abdominal approach with good success rate. Nevertheless, patients may experience de novo or persisting pelvic floor dysfunctions after surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the functional outcome of stapled transanal rectal resection (STARR) and ventral rectopexy (VRP) in a series of ODS patients. METHODS: Forty-nine female patients who had surgery for ODS between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively evaluated: 28 (median age 60 years, IQR 54-69 years) had VRP and 21 (median age 58 years, IQR 51-66 years) had STARR...
March 28, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587525/angiographic-aspect-of-longstanding-starr-edwards-valve-for-type-c-ebstein-anomaly
#14
Lucio Careddu, Francesco Dimitri Petridis, Gaetano Domenico Gargiulo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2018: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581344/eligibility-for-endovascular-trial-enrollment-in-the-6-to-24-hour-time-window-analysis-of-a-single-comprehensive-stroke-center
#15
Ashutosh P Jadhav, Shashvat M Desai, Cynthia L Kenmuir, Marcelo Rocha, Matthew T Starr, Bradley J Molyneaux, Bradley A Gross, Brian T Jankowitz, Tudor G Jovin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The results of the DAWN trial (Diffusion-Weighted Imaging or Computerized Tomography Perfusion Assessment With Clinical Mismatch in the Triage of Wake Up and Late Presenting Strokes Undergoing Neurointervention With Trevo) support the benefit of endovascular therapy in patients presenting beyond the 6-hour time window with anterior circulation large vessel occlusions. The impact of these results with respect to additional number of eligible patients in clinical practice remains unknown...
April 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581122/pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-posaconazole-in-critically-ill-patients
#16
Fekade B Sime, Janine Stuart, Jenie Butler, Therese Starr, Steven C Wallis, Saurabh Pandey, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts
To date, there is no information on the IV posaconazole pharmacokinetics in ICU patients. This prospective observational study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of IV posaconazole in critically ill patients. Patients with no history of allergy to triazole antifungals and requiring systemic antifungal therapy were enrolled if aged ≥ 18 years, central venous access was available, were not pregnant, and didn't receive prior posaconazole or drugs interacting with posaconazole. A single dose of 300 mg posaconazole was administered over 90 minutes...
March 26, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577215/-current-status-in-surgical-treatment-of-constipation
#17
Jiexuan Wang, Wei Cai
Chronic constipation is a polysymptomatic heterogeneous disorder with the incidence rising in many countries, and becomes a common disease affecting the quality of life and financial burden. In China surgical guideline, the primary constipation is divided into 3 types: slow transit constipation, outlet obstructive constipation, mixed constipation. The Rome IIII( criteria is usually referred to diagnosis, considering with clinical features and patient complaints. Through detail interrogation, physical examination and various detections, the secondary causes should be excluded, and etiological treatment is worth to try...
March 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575632/newly-described-recessive-myh11-disorder-with-clinical-overlap-of-multisystemic-smooth-muscle-dysfunction-and-megacystis-microcolon-hypoperistalsis-syndromes
#18
Anji T Yetman, Lois J Starr
We describe a neonatal patient with fixed dilated pupils and pulmonary, bladder, and bowel dysfunction suspicious for the presence of ACTA2 R179 mediated multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome. Whole exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations in MYH11 after ACTA2 specific testing revealed no abnormalities. The child lived until 18 months of age and represents the only reported case of an MYH11 compound heterozygote with widespread smooth muscle dysfunction.
April 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568802/evidence-of-early-emergence-of-the-primary-dentition-in-a-northern-plains-american-indian-population
#19
D V Dawson, D R Blanchette, J M Douglass, N Tinanoff, K W O Kramer, J J Warren, K R Phipps, D E Starr, T A Marshall, T R Mabry, K Pagan-Rivera, J A Banas, D R Drake
The purposes of this study were to describe primary tooth emergence in an American Indian (AI) population during the first 36 mo of life to compare 1) patterns of emergence between male and female children and 2) tooth emergence between these AI children and other U.S. ethnic groups. Data were derived from a birth cohort of 239 AI children from a Northern Plains tribe participating in a longitudinal study of early childhood caries, with examination data at target ages of 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 mo of age (±1 mo)...
April 2018: JDR Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559978/human-body-composition-and-immunity-visceral-adipose-tissue-produces-il-15-and-muscle-strength-inversely-correlates-with-nk-cell-function-in-elderly-humans
#20
Ahmad Al-Attar, Steven R Presnell, Jody L Clasey, Douglas E Long, R Grace Walton, Morgan Sexton, Marlene E Starr, Philip A Kern, Charlotte A Peterson, Charles T Lutz
Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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