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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077804/the-complex-genetics-of-gait-speed-genome-wide-meta-analysis-approach
#1
Dan Ben-Avraham, David Karasik, Joe Verghese, Kathryn L Lunetta, Jennifer A Smith, John A Eicher, Rotem Vered, Joris Deelen, Alice M Arnold, Aron S Buchman, Toshiko Tanaka, Jessica D Faul, Maria Nethander, Myriam Fornage, Hieab H Adams, Amy M Matteini, Michele L Callisaya, Albert V Smith, Lei Yu, Philip L De Jager, Denis A Evans, Vilmundur Gudnason, Albert Hofman, Alison Pattie, Janie Corley, Lenore J Launer, Davis S Knopman, Neeta Parimi, Stephen T Turner, Stefania Bandinelli, Marian Beekman, Danielle Gutman, Lital Sharvit, Simon P Mooijaart, David C Liewald, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Claes Ohlsson, Matthijs Moed, Vincent J Verlinden, Dan Mellström, Jos N van der Geest, Magnus Karlsson, Dena Hernandez, Rebekah McWhirter, Yongmei Liu, Russell Thomson, Gregory J Tranah, Andre G Uitterlinden, David R Weir, Wei Zhao, John M Starr, Andrew D Johnson, M Arfan Ikram, David A Bennett, Steven R Cummings, Ian J Deary, Tamara B Harris, Sharon L R Kardia, Thomas H Mosley, Velandai K Srikanth, Beverly G Windham, Ann B Newman, Jeremy D Walston, Gail Davies, Daniel S Evans, Eline P Slagboom, Luigi Ferrucci, Douglas P Kiel, Joanne M Murabito, Gil Atzmon
Emerging evidence suggests that the basis for variation in late-life mobility is attributable, in part, to genetic factors, which may become increasingly important with age. Our objective was to systematically assess the contribution of genetic variation to gait speed in older individuals. We conducted a meta-analysis of gait speed GWASs in 31,478 older adults from 17 cohorts of the CHARGE consortium, and validated our results in 2,588 older adults from 4 independent studies. We followed our initial discoveries with network and eQTL analysis of candidate signals in tissues...
January 10, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071815/effect-of-glenohumeral-elevation-on-subacromial-supraspinatus-compression-risk-during-simulated-reaching
#2
Rebekah L Lawrence, Dustin M Schlangen, Katelyn A Schneider, Jonathan Schoenecker, Andrea L Senger, William C Starr, Justin L Staker, Jutta M Ellermann, Jonathan P Braman, Paula M Ludewig
Mechanical subacromial rotator cuff compression is one theoretical mechanism in the pathogenesis of rotator cuff disease. However, the relationship between shoulder kinematics and mechanical subacromial rotator cuff compression across the range of humeral elevation motion is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of humeral elevation on subacromial compression risk of the supraspinatus during a simulated functional reaching task. Three-dimensional anatomical models were reconstructed from shoulder magnetic resonance images acquired from 20 subjects (10 asymptomatic, 10 symptomatic)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052849/population-pharmacokinetics-of-piperacillin-in-non-obese-obese-and-morbidly-obese-critically-ill-patients
#3
Abdulaziz S Alobaid, Steven C Wallis, Paul Jarrett, Therese Starr, Janine Stuart, Melissa Lassig-Smith, Jenny Lisette Ordóñez Mejia, Michael S Roberts, Claire Roger, Andrew A Udy, Jeffrey Lipman, Jason A Roberts
OBJECTIVES: Treating infections in critically ill obese and morbidly obese patients is challenging because of the combined physiological changes that result from obesity and critical illness. The aim of this study was to describe the population pharmacokinetics of piperacillin in a cohort of critically ill patients including obese and morbidly obese patients. METHODS: Critically ill patients who received piperacillin/tazobactam were classified according to their body mass index (BMI) as non-obese; obese; and morbidly obese...
January 4, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029927/regression-of-glioblastoma-after-chimeric-antigen-receptor-t-cell-therapy
#4
Christine E Brown, Darya Alizadeh, Renate Starr, Lihong Weng, Jamie R Wagner, Araceli Naranjo, Julie R Ostberg, M Suzette Blanchard, Julie Kilpatrick, Jennifer Simpson, Anita Kurien, Saul J Priceman, Xiuli Wang, Todd L Harshbarger, Massimo D'Apuzzo, Julie A Ressler, Michael C Jensen, Michael E Barish, Mike Chen, Jana Portnow, Stephen J Forman, Behnam Badie
A patient with recurrent multifocal glioblastoma received chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells targeting the tumor-associated antigen interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13Rα2). Multiple infusions of CAR T cells were administered over 220 days through two intracranial delivery routes - infusions into the resected tumor cavity followed by infusions into the ventricular system. Intracranial infusions of IL13Rα2-targeted CAR T cells were not associated with any toxic effects of grade 3 or higher...
29, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024345/bound-layers-cloak-nanoparticles-in-strongly-interacting-polymer-nanocomposites
#5
Francis W Starr, Jack F Douglas, Dong Meng, Sanat K Kumar
Polymer-nanoparticle (NP) interfacial interactions are expected to strongly influence the properties of nanocomposites, but surprisingly, experiments often report small or no changes in the glass transition temperature, Tg. To understand this paradoxical situation, we simulate nanocomposites over a broad range of polymer-NP interaction strengths, ε. When ε is stronger than the polymer-polymer interaction, a distinct relaxation that is slower than the main α-relaxation emerges, arising from an adsorbed "bound" polymer layer near the NP surface...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010827/-is-it-all-right-for-me-to-have-a-baby-or-not-men-living-with-hiv-discuss-fertility-desires-and-interactions-with-providers
#6
Shannon Weber, Jennifer M Zakaras, Starr Hilliard, Deborah Cohan, Shari L Dworkin
To our knowledge, no study in the United States has qualitatively examined fertility desires, experiences communicating with health care providers about sexual and reproductive health, and attitudes toward reproductive counseling and services in men living with HIV (MLWH) who have sex with women. We conducted focus groups and interviews with MLWH (N = 17) who have sex with women seeking HIV care in San Francisco. The men conveyed limited awareness of safer conception strategies. While many men expressed the desire to have a child, most reported that their providers had not discussed reproduction with them...
January 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009436/pharmacological-characterisation-of-n-2s-5-6-fluoro-3-pyridinyl-2-3-dihydro-1h-inden-2-yl-2-propanesulfonamide-a-novel-clinical-ampa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator
#7
Simon E Ward, Paul Beswick, Novella Calcinaghi, Lee A Dawson, Jane Gartlon, Francesca Graziani, Declan N C Jones, Laurent Lacroix, M H Selina Mok, Beatrice Oliosi, Joanne Pardoe, Kathryn Starr, Marie L Woolley, Mark H Harries
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators represent a potential therapeutic strategy to improve cognition in people with schizophrenia. These studies collectively constitute the pre-clinical pharmacology data package used to build confidence in the pharmacology of this molecule and enable a clinical trial application. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: [N-[(2S)-5-(6-fluoro-3-pyridinyl)-2,3-dihydro 1H-inden-2-yl]-2-propanesulfonamide] (UoS12258) was profiled in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies to highlight its suitability as a novel therapeutic agent...
December 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002499/targeting-abundant-fish-stocks-while-avoiding-overfished-species-video-and-fishing-surveys-to-inform-management-after-long-term-fishery-closures
#8
Richard M Starr, Mary G Gleason, Corina I Marks, Donna Kline, Steve Rienecke, Christian Denney, Anne Tagini, John C Field
Historically, it has been difficult to balance conservation goals and yield objectives when managing multispecies fisheries that include stocks with various vulnerabilities to fishing. As managers try to maximize yield in mixed-stock fisheries, exploitation rates can lead to less productive stocks becoming overfished. In the late 1990s, population declines of several U.S. West Coast groundfish species caused the U.S. Pacific Fishery Management Council to create coast-wide fishery closures, known as Rockfish Conservation Areas, to rebuild overfished species...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993690/a-seasonal-switch-in-histone-deacetylase-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamus-and-their-capacity-to-modulate-nuclear-signaling-pathways
#9
Patrick N Stoney, Diana Rodrigues, Gisela Helfer, Thabat Khatib, Anna Ashton, Elizabeth A Hay, Robert Starr, Dagmara Kociszewska, Peter Morgan, Peter McCaffery
Seasonal animals undergo changes in physiology and behavior between summer and winter conditions. These changes are in part driven by a switch in a series of hypothalamic genes under transcriptional control by hormones and, of recent interest, inflammatory factors. Crucial to the control of transcription are histone deacetylases (HDACs), generally acting to repress transcription by local histone modification. Seasonal changes in hypothalamic HDAC transcripts were investigated in photoperiod-sensitive F344 rats by altering the day-length (photoperiod)...
December 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986995/the-effect-of-atrazine-on-louisiana-gulf-coast-estuarine-phytoplankton
#10
Alexis V Starr, Sibel Bargu, Kanchan Maiti, Ronald D DeLaune
Pesticides may enter water bodies in areas with a high proportion of agricultural land use through surface runoff, groundwater discharge, and erosion and thus negatively impact nontarget aquatic organisms. The herbicide atrazine is used extensively throughout the Midwest and enters the Mississippi River through surface runoff and groundwater discharge. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of atrazine contamination in Louisiana's estuaries from Mississippi River water under different flow and nutrient regimes (spring and summer) and its effect on the biomass and oxygen production of the local phytoplankton community...
December 16, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984880/potential-energy-landscape-of-the-apparent-first-order-phase-transition-between-low-density-and-high-density-amorphous-ice
#11
Nicolas Giovambattista, Francesco Sciortino, Francis W Starr, Peter H Poole
The potential energy landscape (PEL) formalism is a valuable approach within statistical mechanics to describe supercooled liquids and glasses. Here we use the PEL formalism and computer simulations to study the pressure-induced transformations between low-density amorphous ice (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA) at different temperatures. We employ the ST2 water model for which the LDA-HDA transformations are remarkably sharp, similar to what is observed in experiments, and reminiscent of a first-order phase transition...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974647/dementia-risk-in-renal-dysfunction-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#12
Kay Deckers, Ileana Camerino, Martin P J van Boxtel, Frans R J Verhey, Kate Irving, Carol Brayne, Miia Kivipelto, John M Starr, Kristine Yaffe, Peter W de Leeuw, Sebastian Köhler
OBJECTIVE: Renal dysfunction has been linked with increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia, but studies are conflicting. For that reason, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarize the best available evidence on the prospective association between potential markers of renal dysfunction and development of cognitive impairment or dementia. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for potential publications until August 1, 2016...
December 14, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956467/linc-complexes-promote-homologous-recombination-in-part-through-inhibition-of-nonhomologous-end-joining
#13
Katherine S Lawrence, Erin C Tapley, Victor E Cruz, Qianyan Li, Kayla Aung, Kevin C Hart, Thomas U Schwartz, Daniel A Starr, JoAnne Engebrecht
The Caenorhabditis elegans SUN domain protein, UNC-84, functions in nuclear migration and anchorage in the soma. We discovered a novel role for UNC-84 in DNA damage repair and meiotic recombination. Loss of UNC-84 leads to defects in the loading and disassembly of the recombinase RAD-51. Similar to mutations in Fanconi anemia (FA) genes, unc-84 mutants and human cells depleted of Sun-1 are sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents, and sensitivity is rescued by the inactivation of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955815/salmonella-meningitis-associated-with-monocyte-infiltration-in-mice
#14
Timothy J Bauler, Tregei Starr, Toni A Nagy, Sushmita Sridhar, Dana Scott, Clayton W Winkler, Olivia Steele-Mortimer, Corrella S Detweiler, Karin E Peterson
In the current study, we examined the ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to infect the central nervous system and cause meningitis following the natural route of infection in mice. C57BL/6J mice are extremely susceptible to systemic infection by Salmonella Typhimurium because of loss-of-function mutations in Nramp1 (SLC11A1), a phagosomal membrane protein that controls iron export from vacuoles and inhibits Salmonella growth in macrophages. Therefore, we assessed the ability of Salmonella to disseminate to the central nervous system (CNS) after oral infection in C57BL/6J mice expressing either wild-type (resistant) or mutant (susceptible) alleles of Nramp1...
January 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955697/dna-methylation-signatures-of-chronic-low-grade-inflammation-are-associated-with-complex-diseases
#15
Symen Ligthart, Carola Marzi, Stella Aslibekyan, Michael M Mendelson, Karen N Conneely, Toshiko Tanaka, Elena Colicino, Lindsay L Waite, Roby Joehanes, Weihua Guan, Jennifer A Brody, Cathy Elks, Riccardo Marioni, Min A Jhun, Golareh Agha, Jan Bressler, Cavin K Ward-Caviness, Brian H Chen, Tianxiao Huan, Kelly Bakulski, Elias L Salfati, Giovanni Fiorito, Simone Wahl, Katharina Schramm, Jin Sha, Dena G Hernandez, Allan C Just, Jennifer A Smith, Nona Sotoodehnia, Luke C Pilling, James S Pankow, Phil S Tsao, Chunyu Liu, Wei Zhao, Simonetta Guarrera, Vasiliki J Michopoulos, Alicia K Smith, Marjolein J Peters, David Melzer, Pantel Vokonas, Myriam Fornage, Holger Prokisch, Joshua C Bis, Audrey Y Chu, Christian Herder, Harald Grallert, Chen Yao, Sonia Shah, Allan F McRae, Honghuang Lin, Steve Horvath, Daniele Fallin, Albert Hofman, Nicholas J Wareham, Kerri L Wiggins, Andrew P Feinberg, John M Starr, Peter M Visscher, Joanne M Murabito, Sharon L R Kardia, Devin M Absher, Elisabeth B Binder, Andrew B Singleton, Stefania Bandinelli, Annette Peters, Melanie Waldenberger, Giuseppe Matullo, Joel D Schwartz, Ellen W Demerath, André G Uitterlinden, Joyce B J van Meurs, Oscar H Franco, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Daniel Levy, Stephen T Turner, Ian J Deary, Kerry J Ressler, Josée Dupuis, Luigi Ferrucci, Ken K Ong, Themistocles L Assimes, Eric Boerwinkle, Wolfgang Koenig, Donna K Arnett, Andrea A Baccarelli, Emelia J Benjamin, Abbas Dehghan
BACKGROUND: Chronic low-grade inflammation reflects a subclinical immune response implicated in the pathogenesis of complex diseases. Identifying genetic loci where DNA methylation is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation may reveal novel pathways or therapeutic targets for inflammation. RESULTS: We performed a meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), which is a sensitive marker of low-grade inflammation, in a large European population (n = 8863) and trans-ethnic replication in African Americans (n = 4111)...
December 12, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936816/altered-subjective-reward-valuation-among-female-heavy-marijuana-users
#16
Kathryn R Hefner, Mark J Starr
Maladaptive decision-making is a cardinal feature of drug use, contributing to ongoing use, and reflecting alterations in how drug users assess uncertain reward value. Accumulating evidence indicates the consequences of heavy marijuana use are worse for female versus male animals and humans, but research assessing sex differences in reward-related decision-making among marijuana users remains scarce. We examined sex differences in the subjective valuation of certain and uncertain rewards among heavy marijuana users (52; 26 male and 26 female) and controls (52; 26 male and 26 female)...
December 12, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932854/predictors-of-ageing-related-decline-across-multiple-cognitive-functions
#17
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Simon R Cox, Janie Corley, Dominika Dykiert, Paul Redmond, Alison Pattie, Adele M Taylor, Ruth Sibbett, John M Starr, Ian J Deary
It is critical to discover why some people's cognitive abilities age better than others'. We applied multivariate growth curve models to data from a narrow-age cohort measured on a multi-domain IQ measure at age 11 years and a comprehensive battery of thirteen measures of visuospatial, memory, crystallized, and processing speed abilities at ages 70, 73, and 76 years (n = 1091 at age 70). We found that 48% of the variance in change in performance on the thirteen cognitive measures was shared across all measures, an additional 26% was specific to the four ability domains, and 26% was test-specific...
November 2016: Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920671/proceedings-of-the-fourth-annual-deep-brain-stimulation-think-tank-a-review-of-emerging-issues-and-technologies
#18
Wissam Deeb, James J Giordano, Peter J Rossi, Alon Y Mogilner, Aysegul Gunduz, Jack W Judy, Bryan T Klassen, Christopher R Butson, Craig Van Horne, Damiaan Deny, Darin D Dougherty, David Rowell, Greg A Gerhardt, Gwenn S Smith, Francisco A Ponce, Harrison C Walker, Helen M Bronte-Stewart, Helen S Mayberg, Howard J Chizeck, Jean-Philippe Langevin, Jens Volkmann, Jill L Ostrem, Jonathan B Shute, Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Kelly D Foote, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Marvin A Rossi, Michael Oh, Michael Pourfar, Paul B Rosenberg, Peter A Silburn, Coralie de Hemptine, Philip A Starr, Timothy Denison, Umer Akbar, Warren M Grill, Michael S Okun
This paper provides an overview of current progress in the technological advances and the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, as presented by participants of the Fourth Annual DBS Think Tank, which was convened in March 2016 in conjunction with the Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration at the University of Florida, Gainesveille FL, USA. The Think Tank discussions first focused on policy and advocacy in DBS research and clinical practice, formation of registries, and issues involving the use of DBS in the treatment of Tourette Syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917739/do-cognitive-and-physical-functions-age-in-concert-from-age-70-to-76-evidence-from-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936
#19
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, John M Starr, Ian J Deary
The present study concerns the relation of mental and bodily characteristics to one another during ageing. The 'common cause' theory of ageing proposes that declines are shared across multiple, seemingly-disparate functions, including both physical and intellectual abilities. The concept of 'reserve' suggests that healthier cognitive (and perhaps bodily) functions from early in life are protective against the effects of senescence across multiple domains. In three waves of physical and cognitive testing data from the longitudinal Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (n = 1,091 at age 70 years; n = 866 at 73; n = 697 at 76), we used multivariate growth curve modeling to test the 'common cause' and 'reserve' hypotheses...
December 5, 2016: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917459/predictors-of-stress-generation-in-adolescents-in-mainland-china
#20
Claire J Starrs, John R Z Abela, David C Zuroff, Rhonda Amsel, Josephine H Shih, Shuqiao Yao, Xiong Zhao Zhu, Wei Hong
The current longitudinal study examined whether the personality vulnerabilities of self-criticism and dependency prospectively predicted stress generation in Chinese adolescents. Participants included 1,116 adolescents (588 girls and 528 boys), aged 15 to 18 years from rural, urban and ultra-urban mainland China. Participants completed self-report measures of personality, depressive and anxious symptoms and participated in a clinical interview assessing lifetime history of depression. The occurrence of negative life events was measured using a contextual-threat interview every 6-months for a total period of 18-months...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
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