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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444124/predicting-discharge-to-institutional-long-term-care-following-acute-hospitalisation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Jennifer Kirsty Harrison, Katherine E Walesby, Lorna Hamilton, Carolyn Armstrong, John M Starr, Emma L Reynish, Alasdair M J MacLullich, Terry J Quinn, Susan D Shenkin
Background: moving into long-term institutional care is a significant life event for any individual. Predictors of institutional care admission from community-dwellers and people with dementia have been described, but those from the acute hospital setting have not been systematically reviewed. Our aim was to establish predictive factors for discharge to institutional care following acute hospitalisation. Methods: we registered and conducted a systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42015023497)...
April 21, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443533/childhood-adversity-adult-stress-and-the-risk-of-major-depression-or-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-us-soldiers-a-test-of-the-stress-sensitization-hypothesis
#2
G Bandoli, L Campbell-Sills, R C Kessler, S G Heeringa, M K Nock, A J Rosellini, N A Sampson, M Schoenbaum, R J Ursano, M B Stein
BACKGROUND: The stress sensitization theory hypothesizes that individuals exposed to childhood adversity will be more vulnerable to mental disorders from proximal stressors. We aimed to test this theory with respect to risk of 30-day major depressive episode (MDE) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among new US Army soldiers. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 436 new soldier recruits in the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience (Army STARRS). Generalized linear models were constructed, and additive interactions between childhood maltreatment profiles and level of 12-month stressful experiences on the risk of 30-day MDE and GAD were analyzed...
April 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440081/hydropyridylation-of-olefins-by-intramolecular-minisci-reaction
#3
Samuele Bordi, Jeremy T Starr
An unprecedented cheap, mild and easy methodology for an intramolecular Minisci reaction based on a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) initiated hydrofunctionalization of olefins was developed. The method is suitable for the construction of unusual dihydropyrano-pyridine and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthiridine structures and, unlike most similar reactions, does not require exclusion of air from the reaction medium.
April 25, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439103/brain-age-predicts-mortality
#4
J H Cole, S J Ritchie, M E Bastin, M C Valdés Hernández, S Muñoz Maniega, N Royle, J Corley, A Pattie, S E Harris, Q Zhang, N R Wray, P Redmond, R E Marioni, J M Starr, S R Cox, J M Wardlaw, D J Sharp, I J Deary
Age-associated disease and disability are placing a growing burden on society. However, ageing does not affect people uniformly. Hence, markers of the underlying biological ageing process are needed to help identify people at increased risk of age-associated physical and cognitive impairments and ultimately, death. Here, we present such a biomarker, 'brain-predicted age', derived using structural neuroimaging. Brain-predicted age was calculated using machine-learning analysis, trained on neuroimaging data from a large healthy reference sample (N=2001), then tested in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N=669), to determine relationships with age-associated functional measures and mortality...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434149/solvent-dependent-transformation-of-aflatoxin-b1-in-soil
#5
James M Starr, Blake R Rushing, Mustafa I Selim
To date, all studies of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) transformation in soil or in purified mineral systems have identified aflatoxins B2 (AFB2) and G2 (AFG2) as the primary transformation products. However, identification in these studies was made using thin layer chromatography which has relatively low resolution, and these studies did not identify a viable mechanism by which such transformations would occur. Further, the use of methanol as the solvent delivery vehicle in these studies may have contributed to formation of artifactual transformation products...
April 22, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426838/a-second-wave-of-salmonella-t3ss1-activity-prolongs-the-lifespan-of-infected-epithelial-cells
#6
Ciaran E Finn, Audrey Chong, Kendal G Cooper, Tregei Starr, Olivia Steele-Mortimer
Type III secretion system 1 (T3SS1) is used by the enteropathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to establish infection in the gut. Effector proteins translocated by this system across the plasma membrane facilitate invasion of intestinal epithelial cells. One such effector, the inositol phosphatase SopB, contributes to invasion and mediates activation of the pro-survival kinase Akt. Following internalization, some bacteria escape from the Salmonella-containing vacuole into the cytosol and there is evidence suggesting that T3SS1 is expressed in this subpopulation...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424895/risk-and-protective-factors-for-structural-brain-ageing-in-the-eighth-decade-of-life
#7
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Simon R Cox, David Alexander Dickie, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Janie Corley, Natalie A Royle, Paul Redmond, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alison Pattie, Benjamin S Aribisala, Adele M Taylor, Toni-Kim Clarke, Alan J Gow, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Individuals differ markedly in brain structure, and in how this structure degenerates during ageing. In a large sample of human participants (baseline n = 731 at age 73 years; follow-up n = 488 at age 76 years), we estimated the magnitude of mean change and variability in changes in MRI measures of brain macrostructure (grey matter, white matter, and white matter hyperintensity volumes) and microstructure (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity from diffusion tensor MRI). All indices showed significant average change with age, with considerable heterogeneity in those changes...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424776/socially-responsible-surgery-building-recognition-and-coalition
#8
Tyler D Robinson, Thiago M Oliveira, Theresa R Timmes, Jacqueline M Mills, Nichole Starr, Matthew Fleming, Megan Janeway, Diane Haddad, Feroze Sidhwa, Ryan D Macht, Douglas F Kauffman, Tracey A Dechert
IMPORTANCE: Socially responsible surgery (SRS) integrates surgery and public health, providing a framework for research, advocacy, education, and clinical practice to address the social barriers of health that decrease surgical access and worsen surgical outcomes in underserved patient populations. These patients face disparities in both health and in health care, which can be effectively addressed by surgeons in collaboration with allied health professionals. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the current state of surgical access and outcomes of underserved populations in American rural communities, American urban communities, and in low- and middle-income countries...
2017: Frontiers in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418400/short-telomere-length-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-performance-in-european-ancestry-cohorts
#9
S Hägg, Y Zhan, R Karlsson, L Gerritsen, A Ploner, S J van der Lee, L Broer, J Deelen, R E Marioni, A Wong, A Lundquist, G Zhu, N K Hansell, E Sillanpää, I O Fedko, N A Amin, M Beekman, A J M de Craen, S Degerman, S E Harris, K-J Kan, C M Martin-Ruiz, G W Montgomery, A N Adolfsson, C A Reynolds, N J Samani, H E D Suchiman, A Viljanen, T von Zglinicki, M J Wright, J-J Hottenga, D I Boomsma, T Rantanen, J A Kaprio, D R Nyholt, N G Martin, L Nyberg, R Adolfsson, D Kuh, J M Starr, I J Deary, P E Slagboom, C M van Duijn, V Codd, N L Pedersen
The association between telomere length (TL) dynamics on cognitive performance over the life-course is not well understood. This study meta-analyses observational and causal associations between TL and six cognitive traits, with stratifications on APOE genotype, in a Mendelian Randomization (MR) framework. Twelve European cohorts (N=17 052; mean age=59.2±8.8 years) provided results for associations between qPCR-measured TL (T/S-ratio scale) and general cognitive function, mini-mental state exam (MMSE), processing speed by digit symbol substitution test (DSST), visuospatial functioning, memory and executive functioning (STROOP)...
April 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416595/nonsinusoidal-beta-oscillations-reflect-cortical-pathophysiology-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Scott R Cole, Roemer van der Meij, Erik J Peterson, Coralie de Hemptinne, Philip A Starr, Bradley Voytek
Oscillations in neural activity play a critical role in neural computation and communication. There is intriguing new evidence that the nonsinusoidal features of the oscillatory waveforms may inform underlying physiological and pathophysiological characteristics. Time-domain waveform analysis approaches stand in contrast to traditional Fourier-based methods, which alter or destroy subtle waveform features. Recently it has been shown that the waveform features of oscillatory beta (13-30 Hz) events-a prominent motor cortical oscillation-may reflect near-synchronous excitatory synaptic inputs onto cortical pyramidal neurons...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412108/emergence-of-the-arterial-switch-procedure-for-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-and-the-potential-cost-of-surgical-innovation
#11
EDITORIAL
Craig S Broberg, Irving Shen, Victor Menashe, Albert Starr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410726/surgical-techniques-and-adjuvants-for-the-management-of-primary-and-recurrent-pterygia
#12
REVIEW
John A Hovanesian, Christopher E Starr, David T Vroman, Francis S Mah, Jose A P Gomes, Marjan Farid, Neda Shamie, Richard S Davidson, Thomas John, Edward J Holland, Terry Kim
The removal and rate of recurrence of pterygium have been discussed for years. The disorder is highly associated with environmental factors, and recurrence rates can be unacceptably high and cannot be successfully predicted. New techniques and graft preparations and postoperative management strategies are helping to reduce the recurrence rates and provide an ocular surface that is near ideal for future cataract or refractive surgery. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various treatment strategies...
March 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409730/chronic-multisite-brain-recordings-from-a-totally-implantable-bidirectional-neural-interface-experience-in-5-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Nicole C Swann, Coralie de Hemptinne, Svjetlana Miocinovic, Salman Qasim, Jill L Ostrem, Nicholas B Galifianakis, Marta San Luciano, Sarah S Wang, Nathan Ziman, Robin Taylor, Philip A Starr
OBJECTIVE Dysfunction of distributed neural networks underlies many brain disorders. The development of neuromodulation therapies depends on a better understanding of these networks. Invasive human brain recordings have a favorable temporal and spatial resolution for the analysis of network phenomena but have generally been limited to acute intraoperative recording or short-term recording through temporarily externalized leads. Here, the authors describe their initial experience with an investigational, first-generation, totally implantable, bidirectional neural interface that allows both continuous therapeutic stimulation and recording of field potentials at multiple sites in a neural network...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407108/realizing-the-promise-of-the-partnership-for-maternal-newborn-and-child-health
#14
Hareya Fassil, John Borrazzo, Richard Greene, Troy Jacobs, Maureen Norton, Mary Ellen Stanton, Nana Taona Kuo, K Rogers, Luwei Pearson, Ted Chaiban, Anshu Banerjee, Shyama Kuruvilla, Marta Seaone, Ann Starrs, Betsy McCallon, Stefan Germann, Anshu Mohan, Flavia Bustreo, Helga Fogstad, C K Mishra
Reflecting on Storeng and Béhague ("Lives in the balance": the politics of integration in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. Health Policy and Planning Storeng and Béhague (2016).) historical ethnography of the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH), this commentary provides a more current account of PMNCH's trajectory since its inception in 2005. It highlights PMNCH's distinct characteristics and how it is positioned to play an instrumental role in the current global health landscape...
April 12, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400371/retinal-microvascular-network-geometry-and-cognitive-abilities-in-community-dwelling-older-people-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1936-study
#15
Sarah McGrory, Adele M Taylor, Mirna Kirin, Janie Corley, Alison Pattie, Simon R Cox, Baljean Dhillon, Joanna M Wardlaw, Fergus N Doubal, John M Starr, Emanuele Trucco, Thomas J MacGillivray, Ian J Deary
AIM: To examine the relationship between retinal vascular morphology and cognitive abilities in a narrow-age cohort of community-dwelling older people. METHODS: Digital retinal images taken at age ∼73 years from 683 participants of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) were analysed with Singapore I Vessel Assessment (SIVA) software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine cross-sectional associations between retinal vascular parameters and general cognitive ability (g), memory, processing speed, visuospatial ability, crystallised cognitive ability and change in IQ from childhood to older age...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395002/monitored-anesthesia-care-vs-intubation-for-vertebrobasilar-stroke-endovascular-therapy
#16
Ashutosh P Jadhav, Mehdi Bouslama, Amin Aghaebrahim, Leticia C Rebello, Matthew T Starr, Diogo C Haussen, Manasa Ranginani, Matthew K Whalin, Tudor G Jovin, Raul G Nogueira
Importance: No consensus regarding the ideal sedation treatment for stroke endovascular therapy has been reached, and practices remain largely based on local protocols and clinician preferences. Most studies have focused on anterior circulation strokes; therefore, little is known regarding the optimal anesthesia type for vertebrobasilar occlusion strokes. Objective: To compare clinical and angiographic outcomes between monitored anesthesia care (MAC) and general anesthesia (GA) in patients presenting with vertebrobasilar occlusion strokes...
April 10, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378354/ecological-regime-shift-drives-declining-growth-rates-of-sea-turtles-throughout-the-west-atlantic
#17
Karen A Bjorndal, Alan B Bolten, Milani Chaloupka, Vincent S Saba, Cláudio Bellini, Maria A G Marcovaldi, Armando J B Santos, Luis Felipe Wurdig Bortolon, Anne B Meylan, Peter A Meylan, Jennifer Gray, Robert Hardy, Beth Brost, Michael Bresette, Jonathan C Gorham, Stephen Connett, Barbara Van Sciver Crouchley, Mike Dawson, Deborah Hayes, Carlos E Diez, Robert P van Dam, Sue Willis, Mabel Nava, Kristen M Hart, Michael S Cherkiss, Andrew G Crowder, Clayton Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Fernando A Muñoz Tenería, Roberto Herrera-Pavón, Vanessa Labrada-Martagón, Armando Lorences, Ana Negrete-Philippe, Margaret M Lamont, Allen M Foley, Rhonda Bailey, Raymond R Carthy, Russell Scarpino, Erin McMichael, Jane A Provancha, Annabelle Brooks, Adriana Jardim, Milagros López-Mendilaharsu, Daniel González-Paredes, Andrés Estrades, Alejandro Fallabrino, Gustavo Martínez-Souza, Gabriela M Vélez-Rubio, Ralf H Boulon, Jaime A Collazo, Robert Wershoven, Vicente Guzmán Hernández, Thomas B Stringell, Amdeep Sanghera, Peter B Richardson, Annette C Broderick, Quinton Phillips, Marta Calosso, John A B Claydon, Tasha L Metz, Amanda L Gordon, Andre M Landry, Donna J Shaver, Janice Blumenthal, Lucy Collyer, Brendan J Godley, Andrew McGowan, Matthew J Witt, Cathi L Campbell, Cynthia J Lagueux, Thomas L Bethel, Lory Kenyon
Somatic growth is an integrated, individual-based response to environmental conditions, especially in ectotherms. Growth dynamics of large, mobile animals are particularly useful as bio-indicators of environmental change at regional scales. We assembled growth rate data from throughout the West Atlantic for green turtles, Chelonia mydas, which are long-lived, highly migratory, primarily herbivorous mega-consumers that may migrate over hundreds to thousands of kilometers. Our dataset, the largest ever compiled for sea turtles, has 9690 growth increments from 30 sites from Bermuda to Uruguay from 1973 to 2015...
April 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373662/thermal-stratification-drives-movement-of-a-coastal-apex-predator
#18
Eneko Aspillaga, Frederic Bartumeus, Richard M Starr, Àngel López-Sanz, Cristina Linares, David Díaz, Joaquim Garrabou, Mikel Zabala, Bernat Hereu
A characterization of the thermal ecology of fishes is needed to better understand changes in ecosystems and species distributions arising from global warming. The movement of wild animals during changing environmental conditions provides essential information to help predict the future thermal response of large marine predators. We used acoustic telemetry to monitor the vertical movement activity of the common dentex (Dentex dentex), a Mediterranean coastal predator, in relation to the oscillations of the seasonal thermocline during two summer periods in the Medes Islands marine reserve (NW Mediterranean Sea)...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370897/associations-of-childhood-bullying-victimization-with-lifetime-suicidal-behaviors-among-new-u-s-army-soldiers
#19
Laura Campbell-Sills, Ronald C Kessler, Robert J Ursano, Anthony J Rosellini, Tracie O Afifi, Lisa J Colpe, Steven G Heeringa, Matthew K Nock, Nancy A Sampson, Jitender Sareen, Michael Schoenbaum, Xiaoying Sun, Sonia Jain, Murray B Stein
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have documented associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors. However, many failed to adjust for concomitant risk factors and none investigated this relationship in military personnel. This study aimed to estimate independent associations of childhood bullying victimization with suicidal behaviors among U.S. Army soldiers. METHODS: Soldiers reporting for basic training completed a cross-sectional survey assessing mental disorders, suicidal behaviors, and childhood adversities including two types of bullying victimization: (1) Physical Assault/Theft and (2) Bullying Comments/Behaviors...
April 3, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369070/probing-the-canonicity-of-the-wnt-wingless-signaling-pathway
#20
Alexandra Franz, Daria Shlyueva, Erich Brunner, Alexander Stark, Konrad Basler
The hallmark of canonical Wnt signaling is the transcriptional induction of Wnt target genes by the beta-catenin/TCF complex. Several studies have proposed alternative interaction partners for beta-catenin or TCF, but the relevance of potential bifurcations in the distal Wnt pathway remains unclear. Here we study on a genome-wide scale the requirement for Armadillo (Arm, Drosophila beta-catenin) and Pangolin (Pan, Drosophila TCF) in the Wnt/Wingless(Wg)-induced transcriptional response of Drosophila Kc cells...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
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