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Alpha defensin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151645/management-of-staphylococcus-mediated-systemic-infection-by-enhancing-the-resurging-activity-of-co-trimoxazole-in-presence-of-cryptdin-2
#1
Amrita Kaur, Shiv Kumar Chabba, Ujjwal Jit Kaur, Arashdeep Kaur, Simran Preet, Praveen Rishi
Resurgence of sensitivity of the antibiotics, to which the pathogen had developed resistance in the past, requires special attention for strengthening the reservoir of antimicrobial compounds. Reports in the recent past have suggested that co-trimoxazole (COT) has regained its activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The present study exploited the use of COT in the presence of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), cryptdin-2 (a murine Paneth cell alpha defensin), in order to reduce the selective pressure of the antibiotic on the pathogen...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135456/probiotics-and-their-use-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975890/identification-and-validation-of-novel-prognostic-markers-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#3
Maj Rabjerg
Kidney cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)) is one of the most deadly malignancies due to frequent late diagnosis and poor treatment options. Histologically, RCC embraces a wide variety of different subtypes with the clear cell variant (ccRCC) being the most common, accounting for 75-90% of all RCCs. At present, the surveillance protocols for follow-up of RCC patients after radical nephrectomy are based on the American Joint Committee on Cancers (AJCC) pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification system...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963626/diagnostic-accuracy-of-alpha-defensin-in-periprosthetic-joint-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Jun Yuan, Yufei Yan, Jiong Zhang, Bibo Wang, Jianmin Feng
BACKGROUND: Alpha-defensin, a novel biomarker, has shown great potential for the accurate diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in recent years: many published studies have presented encouraging results. Nevertheless, the diagnostic accuracy of alpha-defensin is inconsistent across published studies. Moreover, the optimum value of the diagnostic threshold urgently needs to be ascertained. This meta-analysis sought to estimate the precision of alpha-defensin for the diagnosis of PJI and, where possible, to confirm the threshold...
December 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860397/diagnosis-of-prosthetic-joint-infection-with-alpha-defensin-using-a-lateral-flow-device-a-multicentre-study
#5
MULTICENTER STUDY
P Berger, M Van Cauter, R Driesen, J Neyt, O Cornu, J Bellemans
AIMS: The purpose of this current multicentre study is to analyse the presence of alpha-defensin proteins in synovial fluid using the Synovasure lateral flow device and to determine its diagnostic reliability and accuracy compared with the prosthetic joint infection (PJI) criteria produced by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 121 patients comprising 85 total knee arthroplasties and 36 total hip arthroplasties was prospectively evaluated between May 2015 and June 2016 in three different orthopaedic centres...
September 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817680/human-alpha-defensin-5-is-a-candidate-biomarker-to-delineate-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Amanda D Williams, Olga Y Korolkova, Amos M Sakwe, Timothy M Geiger, Samuel D James, Roberta L Muldoon, Alan J Herline, J Shawn Goodwin, Michael G Izban, Mary K Washington, Duane T Smoot, Billy R Ballard, Maria Gazouli, Amosy E M'Koma
Inability to distinguish Crohn's colitis from ulcerative colitis leads to the diagnosis of indeterminate colitis. This greatly effects medical and surgical care of the patient because treatments for the two diseases vary. Approximately 30 percent of inflammatory bowel disease patients cannot be accurately diagnosed, increasing their risk of inappropriate treatment. We sought to determine whether transcriptomic patterns could be used to develop diagnostic biomarker(s) to delineate inflammatory bowel disease more accurately...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748179/structure-activity-relationships-of-insect-defensins
#7
REVIEW
Johannes Koehbach
Insects make up the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth with several million species to exist in total. Considering the sheer number of insect species and the vast variety of ways they interact with their environment through chemistry, it is clear that they have significant potential as a source of new lead molecules. They have adapted to a range of ecological habitats and exhibit a symbiotic lifestyle with various microbes such as bacteria and fungi. Accordingly, numerous antimicrobial compounds have been identified including for example defensin peptides...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637910/excellent-diagnostic-characteristics-for-ultrafast-gene-profiling-of-defa1-il1b-ltf-in-detection-of-prosthetic-joint-infections
#8
Regina Fillerova, Jiri Gallo, Martin Radvansky, Veronika Kraiczova, Milos Kudelka, Eva Kriegova
The timely and exact diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is crucial for surgical decision-making. Intraoperatively, delivery of the result within an hour is required. Alpha-defensin lateral immunoassay of joint fluid (JF) is precise for the intraoperative exclusion of PJI; however, for patients with a limited amount of JF and/or in cases where the JF is bloody, this test is unhelpful. Important information is hidden in periprosthetic tissues that may much better reflect the current status of implant pathology...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622386/alpha-defensin-dependent-enhancement-of-enteric-viral-infection
#9
Sarah S Wilson, Beth A Bromme, Mayumi K Holly, Mayim E Wiens, Anshu P Gounder, Youngmee Sul, Jason G Smith
The small intestinal epithelium produces numerous antimicrobial peptides and proteins, including abundant enteric α-defensins. Although they most commonly function as potent antivirals in cell culture, enteric α-defensins have also been shown to enhance some viral infections in vitro. Efforts to determine the physiologic relevance of enhanced infection have been limited by the absence of a suitable cell culture system. To address this issue, here we use primary stem cell-derived small intestinal enteroids to examine the impact of naturally secreted α-defensins on infection by the enteric mouse pathogen, mouse adenovirus 2 (MAdV-2)...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465471/alpha-ketoglutarate-akg-lowers-body-weight-and-affects-intestinal-innate-immunity-through-influencing-intestinal-microbiota
#10
Shuai Chen, Peng Bin, Wenkai Ren, Wei Gao, Gang Liu, Jie Yin, Jielin Duan, Yinghui Li, Kang Yao, Ruilin Huang, Bie Tan, Yulong Yin
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of glutamate and a critical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, shows beneficial effects on intestinal function. However, the influence of AKG on the intestinal innate immune system and intestinal microbiota is unknown. This study explores the effect of oral AKG administration in drinking water (10 g/L) on intestinal innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in a mouse model. Mouse water intake, feed intake and body weight were recorded throughout the entire experiment...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461959/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#11
AliSina Shahi, Javad Parvizi
The role of serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as the first line for evaluating a patient with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been debunked.We are living in the era of biomarkers for the diagnosis of PJI, and to that effect, several biomarkers have been introduced such as synovial fluid alpha defensin and leukocyte esterase.The synovial fluid leukocyte esterase test has a low cost, is accessible, and has provided promising results for diagnosing PJI.There is an urgent need for an accurate and reliable serum biomarker for diagnosing patients with PJI...
July 2016: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455476/synovial-calprotectin-a-potential-biomarker-to-exclude-a-prosthetic-joint-infection
#12
M Wouthuyzen-Bakker, J J W Ploegmakers, G A Kampinga, L Wagenmakers-Huizenga, P C Jutte, A C Muller Kobold
AIMS: Recently, several synovial biomarkers have been introduced into the algorithm for the diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Alpha defensin is a promising biomarker, with a high sensitivity and specificity, but it is expensive. Calprotectin is a protein that is present in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, is released upon neutrophil activation and exhibits anti-microbial activity. Our aim, in this study, was to determine the diagnostic potential of synovial calprotectin in the diagnosis of a PJI...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449029/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-nucleotide-variants-at-siglec5-and-defa1a3-as-risk-loci-for-periodontitis
#13
Matthias Munz, Christina Willenborg, Gesa M Richter, Yvonne Jockel-Schneider, Christian Graetz, Ingmar Staufenbiel, Jürgen Wellmann, Klaus Berger, Bastian Krone, Per Hoffmann, Nathalie van der Velde, André G Uitterlinden, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Amr H Sawalha, Haner Direskeneli, Güher Saruhan-Direskeneli, Esra Guzeldemir-Akcakanat, Gencay Keceli, Matthias Laudes, Barbara Noack, Alexander Teumer, Birte Holtfreter, Thomas Kocher, Peter Eickholz, Jörg Meyle, Christof Doerfer, Corinna Bruckmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Andre Franke, Stefan Schreiber, Rahime M Nohutcu, Jeanette Erdmann, Bruno G Loos, Soeren Jepsen, Henrik Dommisch, Arne S Schaefer
Periodontitis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases, with a prevalence of 11% worldwide for the severe forms and an estimated heritability of 50%. The disease is characterized by destruction of the alveolar bone due to an aberrant host inflammatory response to a dysbiotic oral microbiome. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported several suggestive susceptibility loci. Here, we conducted a GWAS using a German and Dutch case-control sample of aggressive periodontitis (AgP, 896 cases, 7,104 controls), a rare but highly severe and early-onset form of periodontitis, validated the associations in a German sample of severe forms of the more moderate phenotype chronic periodontitis (CP) (993 cases, 1,419 controls)...
July 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359759/a-vesicle-trafficking-protein-%C3%AE-snap-regulates-paneth-cell-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#14
Susana Lechuga, Nayden G Naydenov, Alex Feygin, Antonio J Jimenez, Andrei I Ivanov
A soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein alpha (αSNAP) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking and signaling. In cultured intestinal epithelial cells, αSNAP has been shown to be essential for cell survival, motility, and adhesion; however, its physiologic functions in the intestinal mucosa remain unknown. In the present study, we used a mouse with a spontaneous hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) mutation of αSNAP to examine the roles of this trafficking protein in regulating intestinal epithelial homeostasis in vivo...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343232/genetic-polymorphisms-in-defb1-and-mirna202-are-involved-in-salivary-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-levels-and-caries-experience-in-children
#15
Andrea Lips, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Antunes, Júlia Guimarães Barcellos de Abreu, Driely Barreiros, Daniela Silva Barroso de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Batista, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, Gutemberg Gomes Alves, Erika Calvano Küchler
The antimicrobial peptides human β-defensins (hBDs) are encoded by β-defensin genes (DEFBs) and are possibly involved in caries susceptibility. In this study we aimed (1) to investigate the relationship between salivary hBDs and caries and (2) to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms in DEFB1 and microRNA202 (miRNA202) with salivary levels of hBDs and caries experience. Two data sets were available for this study, totalizing 678 Brazilian children. Dental examination and saliva collection were performed in all included children...
2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322925/il-22-suppresses-the-infection-of-porcine-enteric-coronaviruses-and-rotavirus-by-activating-stat3-signal-pathway
#16
Mei Xue, Jing Zhao, Lan Ying, Fang Fu, Lin Li, Yanlong Ma, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Interleukin-22 (IL-22), a member of the IL-10 superfamily, plays essential roles in fighting against mucosal microbial infection and maintaining mucosal barrier integrity within the intestine. However, little knowledge exists on the ability of porcine IL-22 (pIL-22) to fight against viral infection in the gut. In this study, we found that recombinant mature pIL-22 (mpIL-22) inhibited the infection of multiple diarrhea viruses, including alpha coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PoRV), in the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) cells...
June 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314986/false-positive-synovial-fluid-alpha-defensin-test-in-a-patient-with-acute-gout-affecting-a-prosthetic-knee
#17
D G Partridge, A Gordon, R Townsend
The alpha-defensin test has demonstrated promising results in studies evaluating it for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection. There are limited data in the literature regarding its use in patients with other inflammatory joint conditions, but a high specificity for infection has been reported. We describe a patient with a prosthetic knee joint, who had a positive alpha-defensin lateral flow assay but in whom subsequent results confirmed a diagnosis of acute gout with no evidence of infection.
May 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213038/hydrolysate-from-a-mixture-of-legume-flours-with-antifungal-activity-as-an-ingredient-for-prolonging-the-shelf-life-of-wheat-bread
#18
Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Michela Verni, Stefano Bordignon, Valerio Gramaglia, Marco Gobbetti
Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209477/characterizing-the-biological-and-biochemical-profile-of-six-different-scorpion-venoms-from-the-buthidae-and-scorpionidae-family
#19
Sebastian Estrada-Gómez, Lyz Gomez-Rave, Leidy Johana Vargas-Muñoz, Arie van der Meijden
The objective of this study was to characterize six different scorpion venoms using biological and biochemical methods, including a preliminary MS/MS and a post-translational modifications analysis. Despite the diversity of scorpion species of medical importance in Africa and Colombia, the venoms of these arachnids have been poorly studied in these two regions. We report the biochemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic profile, internal peptide sequences with a post-translational modification report, and a preliminary antitumor activity of five different scorpions of the Buthidae family, Androctonus amoreuxi, Babycurus jacksoni, Grosphus grandidieri, Hottentotta gentili and Tityus fuhrmanni, and one of the Scorpionidae family Pandinus imperator...
May 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160020/diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-using-alpha-defensin-test-or-multiplex-pcr-ideal-diagnostic-test-still-not-found
#20
Arnold J Suda, Marco Tinelli, Nils D Beisemann, Yoram Weil, Amal Khoury, Oliver E Bischel
PURPOSE: Diagnosing periprosthetic infection remains a challenge. Multiplex-PCR and biomarkers such as alpha-defensin are potentially useful and fast methods for detecting periprosthetic infection. This study compared these new methods with clinical assessment, conventional microbiological methods and histo-pathological examination. METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with 30 joints and a mean age of 67.7 years (range 39 to 88) with removal of total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee replacement (TKR) were included in this study...
July 2017: International Orthopaedics
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