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Alpha defensin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761905/stress-related-salivary-proteins-affect-the-production-of-volatile-sulfur-compounds-by-oral-bacteria
#1
Patricia Oliveira de Lima, Bruno Dias Nani, Barbara Almeida, Fernanda Klein Marcondes, Francisco Carlos Groppo, Antonio Bento Alves de Moraes, Michelle Franz-Montan, Karina Cogo-Müller
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether stress-related substances and sex hormones influence the growth and in vitro production of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) by Solobacterium moorei and Fusobacterium nucleatum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bacteria growth and VSCs production were evaluated in the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-defensin-2, mucin, estradiol, and progesterone. Growth was evaluated by colony counting, and the production of the VSCs hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3 SH) was measured using the Oral Chroma™ instrument...
May 15, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715222/alpha-defensin-lateral-flow-test-for-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-not-a-screening-but-a-confirmatory-test
#2
Nora Renz, Katsiaryna Yermak, Carsten Perka, Andrej Trampuz
BACKGROUND: Determination of alpha defensin in synovial fluid has shown promising results for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The purposes of our study were to assess the performance of alpha defensin lateral flow (ADLF) test for the diagnosis of acute and chronic PJI using 3 classification systems and to compare its performance with the synovial fluid leukocyte count. METHODS: Patients in whom aspiration of a prosthetic hip or knee joint was performed before revision arthroplasty were prospectively included...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701691/paneth-cells-during-viral-infection-and-pathogenesis
#3
REVIEW
Mayumi K Holly, Jason G Smith
Paneth cells are major secretory cells located in the crypts of Lieberkühn in the small intestine. Our understanding of the diverse roles that Paneth cells play in homeostasis and disease has grown substantially since their discovery over a hundred years ago. Classically, Paneth cells have been characterized as a significant source of antimicrobial peptides and proteins important in host defense and shaping the composition of the commensal microbiota. More recently, Paneth cells have been shown to supply key developmental and homeostatic signals to intestinal stem cells in the crypt base...
April 26, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697652/-the-distribution-of-interleukins-and-cytokines-in-the-mucous-membranes-of-the-nose-and-the-nasopharynx-in-the-patients-presenting-with-the-post-nasal-drip-syndrome
#4
G Sumeraga, M Pielmane, L Kise
The objective of the present study was to elucidate the distribution of interleukins and cytokines in the mucous membranes of the nose and the nasopharynx in the patients presenting with the post-nasal drip syndrome. The study included 20 patients with this pathological condition and 20 volunteers who comprised the control group. The samples of the mucous membranes of the nose and the nasopharynx were examined with the use of the immunohistochemical methods to identify the protein gene product 9.5, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, the tumour necrosis factor-alpha, nuclear factor-kB, and beta-defensin...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691908/expression-of-cutaneous-immunity-markers-during-infant-skin-maturation
#5
Frank Kirchner, Kimberly A Capone, M Catherine Mack, Georgios N Stamatas
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Infant skin undergoes a maturation process during the early years of life. Little is known about the skin's innate immunity. We investigated the dynamics of innate immunity markers collected from the surface of infant skin during the first 36 months of life. METHODS: A total of 117 healthy infants aged 3-36 months participated in the study. We extracted human beta defensin-1 and interleukin 1 alpha and its receptor antagonist using transdermal analysis patches from the skin surface of the posterior lower leg area...
April 25, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601620/multi-center-double-blind-vehicle-controlled-clinical-trial-of-an-alpha-and-beta-defensin-containing-anti-aging-skin-care-regimen-with-clinical-histopathologic-immunohistochemical-photographic-and-ultrasound-evaluation
#6
Amy Taub, Vivian Bucay, Gregory Keller, Jay Williams, Darius Mehregan
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Anti-aging strategies utilizing stem cells are in the forefront. Alpha and beta defensins are natural immune peptides that have been shown to activate an LGR6-positive stem cell locus in the hair follicle, identified as the source of most new epidermal cells during acute wound healing. We investigated the ability of biomimetic alpha and beta defensin molecules, supplemented with supportive cosmetic ingredients, formulated into three skin care products, at improving the structure and function of aging skin...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601396/corr-insights%C3%A2-does-the-alpha-defensin-immunoassay-or-the-lateral-flow-test-have-better-diagnostic-value-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection-a-systematic-review
#7
Martin Clauss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601381/does-the-alpha-defensin-immunoassay-or-the-lateral-flow-test-have-better-diagnostic-value-for-periprosthetic-joint-infection-a-systematic-review
#8
Hannah K Eriksson, Jakob Nordström, Katja Gabrysch, Nils P Hailer, Stergios Lazarinis
BACKGROUND: Measuring alpha-defensin concentrations in synovial fluid may help to diagnose periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). There are two commercially available methods for measuring alpha-defensin in synovial fluid: the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based Synovasure® alpha-defensin immunoassay, which gives a numeric readout within 24 hours, and the Synovasure lateral flow test, which gives a binary readout within 20 minutes. There is no compilation of the existing literature to support the use of one of these two tests over the other...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581070/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-alpha-defensin-lateral-flow-device-synovasure%C3%A2-for-periprosthetic-infections-in-microbiologically-complex-situations-a-study-of-42-cases-in-a-french-referral-centre
#9
B de Saint Vincent, H Migaud, E Senneville, C Loiez, G Pasquier, J Girard, S Putman
BACKGROUND: Joint aspiration is currently the reference standard test for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) despite the high rate of false-negative results, of which a major cause is the fastidious nature of some micro-organisms. A rapid diagnostic test that detects alpha defensin (Synovasure™, Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) in joint fluid can provide the diagnosis of PJI within a few minutes across the full spectrum of causative organisms (including mycobacteria and yeasts)...
March 23, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557491/a-meta-analysis-of-synovial-biomarkers-in-periprosthetic-joint-infection-synovasure%C3%A2-is-less-effective-than-the-elisa-based-alpha-defensin-test
#10
REVIEW
Sufian S Ahmad, Michael T Hirschmann, Roland Becker, Ahmed Shaker, Atesch Ateschrang, Marius J B Keel, Christoph E Albers, Lukas Buetikofer, Sithombo Maqungo, Ulrich Stöckle, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: (1) To determine the overall accuracy of synovial alpha-defensin, synovial C-reactive protein (sCRP), interleukin-6 (sIL-6), and leukocyte esterase (sLE) as diagnostic markers for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and (2) to independantly evaluate the accuracy of both the laboratory-based ELISA alpha-defensin test and the Synovasure™ alpha-defensin test kit. METHODS: An EMBASE and MEDLINE (PubMed) database search was performed using a set of professionally set search terms...
March 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551303/the-2018-definition-of-periprosthetic-hip-and-knee-infection-an-evidence-based-and-validated-criteria
#11
Javad Parvizi, Timothy L Tan, Karan Goswami, Carlos Higuera, Craig Della Valle, Antonia F Chen, Noam Shohat
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in 2011 resulted in improvements in diagnostic confidence and research collaboration. The emergence of new diagnostic tests and the lessons we have learned from the past 7 years using the MSIS definition, prompted us to develop an evidence-based and validated updated version of the criteria. METHODS: This multi-institutional study of patients undergoing revision total joint arthroplasty was conducted at 3 academic centers...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531188/expression-and-regulation-of-avian-beta-defensin-8-protein-in-immune-tissues-and-cell-lines-of-chickens
#12
Deivendran Rengaraj, Anh Duc Truong, Hyun S Lillehoj, Jae Yong Han, Yeong Ho Hong
Objective: Defensins are a large family of antimicrobial peptides and components of the innate immune system that invoke an immediate immune response against harmful pathogens. Defensins are classified into alpha-, beta-, and theta-defensins. Avian species only possess beta-defensins (AvBDs), and approximately 14 AvBDs (AvBD1-AvBD14) have been identified in chickens to date. Although substantial information is available on the conservation and phylogenetics, limited information is available on the expression and regulation of AvBD8 in chicken immune tissues and cells...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500040/innate-immunity-gene-expression-by-epithelial-cells-of-upper-respiratory-tract-in-children-with-adenoid-hypertrophy
#13
Lyudmila Viktorovna Gankovskaya, Valentina Pavlovna Bykova, Leila Seimurovna Namasova-Baranova, Alexander Viktorovich Karaulov, Irina Viktorovna Rahmanova, Viktor Anatolievich Gankovskii, Catherine Dmitrievna Merkushova, Oksana Anatolievna Svitich
BACKGROUND: A major role of the innate immunity in the defence of mucosal tissue is well established. However, a balance between the main components of the immunity such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and defensins in the pathology of upper respiratory tract in children has not been addressed yet. Our aim was to investigate the gene expression of some TLRs as well as alpha and beta-defensins in children suffered from adenoid hyperthrophy in comparison with healthy children. METHODS: Samples (nasal epithelium and adenoids) from patients with hypertrophic adenoids (n = 77) and control group (n = 33) were investigated...
February 27, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467318/adenovirus-infection-of-human-enteroids-reveals-interferon-sensitivity-and-preferential-infection-of-goblet-cells
#14
Mayumi K Holly, Jason G Smith
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are significant human pathogens. Although only a subset of HAdV serotypes commonly cause gastroenteritis in humans, most HAdV species replicate in the gastrointestinal tract. Knowledge of the complex interaction between HAdVs and the human intestinal epithelium has been limited by the lack of a suitable cell culture system containing relevant cell types. Recently, this need has been met by the stable and prolonged cultivation of primary intestinal epithelial cells as enteroids. Human enteroids have been used to reveal novel and interesting aspects of rotavirus, norovirus, and enterovirus replication, prompting us to explore their suitability for HAdV culture...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452973/the-alpha-defensin-test-for-diagnosing-periprosthetic-joint-infection-in-the-setting-of-an-adverse-local-tissue-reaction-secondary-to-a-failed-metal-on-metal-bearing-or-corrosion-at-the-head-neck-junction
#15
Kamil T Okroj, Tyler E Calkins, Erdan Kayupov, Michael M Kheir, Joshua S Bingham, Christopher P Beauchamp, Javad Parvizi, Craig J Della Valle
BACKGROUND: In patients with adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) secondary to a failed metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing or corrosion at the head-neck junction in a metal-on-polyethylene bearing, ruling in or out periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be challenging. Alpha-defensin has emerged as an accurate test for PJI. The purpose of this multicenter, retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of the alpha-defensin synovial fluid test in detecting PJI in patients with ALTR. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 26 patients from 3 centers with ALTR that had an alpha-defensin test performed...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444982/the-unique-features-of-proteins-depicting-the-chicken-amniotic-fluid
#16
Mylène Da Silva, Clara Dombre, Aurélien Brionne, Philippe Monget, Magali Chessé, Marion De Pauw, Maryse Mills, Lucie Combes-Soia, Valérie Labas, Nicolas Guyot, Yves Nys, Sophie Rehault-Godbert
In many amniotes, the amniotic fluid is depicted as a dynamic milieu that participates in the protection of the embryo (cushioning, hydration, and immunity). However, in birds, the protein profile of the amniotic fluid remains unexplored, even though its proteomic signature is predicted to differ compared to human's. In fact, unlike humans, chicken amniotic fluid does not collect excretory products and its protein composition strikingly changes at mid-development due to the massive inflow of egg white proteins, which are thereafter swallowed by the embryo to support its growth...
February 14, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437053/can-next-generation-sequencing-play-a-role-in-detecting-pathogens-in-synovial-fluid
#17
M Tarabichi, N Shohat, K Goswami, J Parvizi
AIMS: The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection can be difficult due to the high rate of culture-negative infections. The aim of this study was to assess the use of next-generation sequencing for detecting organisms in synovial fluid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, single-blinded study, 86 anonymized samples of synovial fluid were obtained from patients undergoing aspiration of the hip or knee as part of the investigation of a periprosthetic infection...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432955/the-evolution-function-and-mechanisms-of-action-for-plant-defensins
#18
REVIEW
Kathy Parisi, Thomas M A Shafee, Pedro Quimbar, Nicole L van der Weerden, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson
Plant defensins are an extensive family of small cysteine rich proteins characterised by a conserved cysteine stabilised alpha beta protein fold which resembles the structure of insect and vertebrate defensins. However, secondary structure and disulphide topology indicates two independent superfamilies of defensins with similar structures that have arisen via an extreme case of convergent evolution. Defensins from plants and insects belong to the cis-defensin superfamily whereas mammalian defensins belong to the trans-defensin superfamily...
February 22, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407691/detection-of-%C3%AE-defensin-in-blister-fluids-as-potential-biomarkers-for-bullous-pemphigoid-patients-by-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#19
Ching-Ying Wu, Li-Hua Lo, Hung Su, Jentaie Shiea
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic blistering disease that manifests as multiple tense bullae on the limbs and body. Detecting biomarkers present in skin fluids may assist in the early diagnosis and treatment of BP. In this study, a modern mass spectrometric method was developed for screening biomarkers in blister fluids collected from patients. METHODS: Blister fluids collected from BP patients and physically injured patients were analyzed and compared using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
April 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317500/macrocyclic-%C3%AE-defensins-suppress-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-tnf-%C3%AE-shedding-by-inhibition-of-tnf-%C3%AE-converting-enzyme
#20
Justin B Schaal, Thorsten Maretzky, Dat Q Tran, Patti A Tran, Prasad Tongaonkar, Carl P Blobel, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Theta-defensins (θ-defensins) are macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in granulocytes and selected epithelia of Old World monkeys. They contribute to anti-pathogen host defense responses by directly killing a diverse range of microbes. Of note, θ-defensins also modulate microbe-induced inflammation by affecting the production of soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF) and other proinflammatory cytokines. Here, we report that natural rhesus macaque θ-defensin (RTD) isoforms regulate sTNF cellular release by inhibiting TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE; also known as <u>a</u><u>d</u>isintegrin <u>a</u>nd <u>m</u>etalloprotease 17; ADAM17), the primary pro-TNF sheddase...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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