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Alpha defensin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637910/excellent-diagnostic-characteristics-for-ultra-fast-gene-profiling-of-defa1-il1b-ltf-in-the-detection-of-prosthetic-joint-infections
#1
Regina Fillerova, Jiri Gallo, Martin Radvansky, Veronika Kraiczova, Milos Kudelka, Eva Kriegova
The timely and exact diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is crucial for surgical decision-making. Intra-operatively, delivery of the result within an hour is required. Alpha-defensin lateral immunoassay of joint fluid (JF) is precise in the intra-operative exclusion of PJI, however in patients with a limited amount of JF and/or when the JF is bloody this test is unhelpful. Important information is hidden in the periprosthetic tissues that could much better reflect the current status of implant pathology...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622386/alpha-defensin-dependent-enhancement-of-enteric-viral-infection
#2
Sarah S Wilson, Beth A Bromme, Mayumi K Holly, Mayim E Wiens, Anshu P Gounder, Youngmee Sul, Jason G Smith
The small intestinal epithelium produces numerous antimicrobial peptides and proteins, including abundant enteric α-defensins. Although they most commonly function as potent antivirals in cell culture, enteric α-defensins have also been shown to enhance some viral infections in vitro. Efforts to determine the physiologic relevance of enhanced infection have been limited by the absence of a suitable cell culture system. To address this issue, here we use primary stem cell-derived small intestinal enteroids to examine the impact of naturally secreted α-defensins on infection by the enteric mouse pathogen, mouse adenovirus 2 (MAdV-2)...
June 16, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465471/alpha-ketoglutarate-akg-lowers-body-weight-and-affects-intestinal-innate-immunity-through-influencing-intestinal-microbiota
#3
Shuai Chen, Peng Bin, Wenkai Ren, Wei Gao, Gang Liu, Jie Yin, Jielin Duan, Yinghui Li, Kang Yao, Ruilin Huang, Bie Tan, Yulong Yin
Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), a precursor of glutamate and a critical intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, shows beneficial effects on intestinal function. However, the influence of AKG on the intestinal innate immune system and intestinal microbiota is unknown. This study explores the effect of oral AKG administration in drinking water (10 g/L) on intestinal innate immunity and intestinal microbiota in a mouse model. Mouse water intake, feed intake and body weight were recorded throughout the entire experiment...
June 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461959/the-role-of-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#4
AliSina Shahi, Javad Parvizi
The role of serum erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as the first line for evaluating a patient with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) has been debunked.We are living in the era of biomarkers for the diagnosis of PJI, and to that effect, several biomarkers have been introduced such as synovial fluid alpha defensin and leukocyte esterase.The synovial fluid leukocyte esterase test has a low cost, is accessible, and has provided promising results for diagnosing PJI.There is an urgent need for an accurate and reliable serum biomarker for diagnosing patients with PJI...
July 2016: EFORT Open Rev
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455476/synovial-calprotectin-a-potential-biomarker-to-exclude-a-prosthetic-joint-infection
#5
M Wouthuyzen-Bakker, J J W Ploegmakers, G A Kampinga, L Wagenmakers-Huizenga, P C Jutte, A C Muller Kobold
AIMS: Recently, several synovial biomarkers have been introduced into the algorithm for the diagnosis of a prosthetic joint infection (PJI). Alpha defensin is a promising biomarker, with a high sensitivity and specificity, but it is expensive. Calprotectin is a protein that is present in the cytoplasm of neutrophils, is released upon neutrophil activation and exhibits anti-microbial activity. Our aim, in this study, was to determine the diagnostic potential of synovial calprotectin in the diagnosis of a PJI...
May 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449029/a-genome-wide-association-study-identifies-nucleotide-variants-at-siglec5-and-defa1a3-as-risk-loci-for-periodontitis
#6
Matthias Munz, Christina Willenborg, Gesa M Richter, Yvonne Jockel-Schneider, Christian Graetz, Ingmar Staufenbiel, Jürgen Wellmann, Klaus Berger, Bastian Krone, Per Hoffmann, Nathalie van der Velde, André G Uitterlinden, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Amr H Sawalha, Haner Direskeneli, Güher Saruhan-Direskeneli, Esra Guzeldemir-Akcakanat, Gencay Keceli, Matthias Laudes, Barbara Noack, Alexander Teumer, Birte Holtfreter, Thomas Kocher, Peter Eickholz, Jörg Meyle, Christof Doerfer, Corinna Bruckmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Andre Franke, Stefan Schreiber, Rahime M Nohutcu, Jeanette Erdmann, Bruno G Loos, Soeren Jepsen, Henrik Dommisch, Arne S Schaefer
Periodontitis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases, with a prevalence of 11% worldwide for the severe forms and an estimated heritability of 50%. The disease is characterized by destruction of the alveolar bone due to an aberrant host inflammatory response to a dysbiotic oral microbiome. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported several suggestive susceptibility loci. Here, we conducted a GWAS using a German and Dutch case-control sample of aggressive periodontitis (AgP, 896 cases, 7,104 controls), a rare but highly severe and early-onset form of periodontitis, validated the associations in a German sample of severe forms of the more moderate phenotype chronic periodontitis (CP) (993 cases, 1,419 controls)...
July 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359759/a-vesicle-trafficking-protein-%C3%AE-snap-regulates-paneth-cell-differentiation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#7
Susana Lechuga, Nayden G Naydenov, Alex Feygin, Antonio J Jimenez, Andrei I Ivanov
A soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein alpha (αSNAP) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that regulates intracellular vesicle trafficking and signaling. In cultured intestinal epithelial cells, αSNAP has been shown to be essential for cell survival, motility, and adhesion; however, its physiologic functions in the intestinal mucosa remain unknown. In the present study, we used a mouse with a spontaneous hydrocephalus with hop gait (hyh) mutation of αSNAP to examine the roles of this trafficking protein in regulating intestinal epithelial homeostasis in vivo...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343232/genetic-polymorphisms-in-defb1-and-mirna202-are-involved-in-salivary-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-levels-and-caries-experience-in-children
#8
Andrea Lips, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Antunes, Júlia Guimarães Barcellos de Abreu, Driely Barreiros, Daniela Silva Barroso de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Batista, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, Gutemberg Gomes Alves, Erika Calvano Küchler
The antimicrobial peptides human β-defensins (hBDs) are encoded by β-defensin genes (DEFBs) and are possibly involved in caries susceptibility. In this study we aimed (1) to investigate the relationship between salivary hBDs and caries and (2) to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms in DEFB1 and microRNA202 (miRNA202) with salivary levels of hBDs and caries experience. Two data sets were available for this study, totalizing 678 Brazilian children. Dental examination and saliva collection were performed in all included children...
2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322925/il-22-suppresses-the-infection-of-porcine-enteric-coronaviruses-and-rotavirus-by-activating-stat3-signal-pathway
#9
Mei Xue, Jing Zhao, Lan Ying, Fang Fu, Lin Li, Yanlong Ma, Hongyan Shi, Jiaoer Zhang, Li Feng, Pinghuang Liu
Interleukin-22 (IL-22), a member of the IL-10 superfamily, plays essential roles in fighting against mucosal microbial infection and maintaining mucosal barrier integrity within the intestine. However, little knowledge exists on the ability of porcine IL-22 (pIL-22) to fight against viral infection in the gut. In this study, we found that recombinant mature pIL-22 (mpIL-22) inhibited the infection of multiple diarrhea viruses, including alpha coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PoRV), in the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line J2 (IPEC-J2) cells...
June 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314986/false-positive-synovial-fluid-alpha-defensin-test-in-a-patient-with-acute-gout-affecting-a-prosthetic-knee
#10
D G Partridge, A Gordon, R Townsend
The alpha-defensin test has demonstrated promising results in studies evaluating it for the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection. There are limited data in the literature regarding its use in patients with other inflammatory joint conditions, but a high specificity for infection has been reported. We describe a patient with a prosthetic knee joint, who had a positive alpha-defensin lateral flow assay but in whom subsequent results confirmed a diagnosis of acute gout with no evidence of infection.
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213038/hydrolysate-from-a-mixture-of-legume-flours-with-antifungal-activity-as-an-ingredient-for-prolonging-the-shelf-life-of-wheat-bread
#11
Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Michela Verni, Stefano Bordignon, Valerio Gramaglia, Marco Gobbetti
Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209477/characterizing-the-biological-and-biochemical-profile-of-six-different-scorpion-venoms-from-the-buthidae-and-scorpionidae-family
#12
Sebastian Estrada-Gómez, Lyz Gomez-Rave, Leidy Johana Vargas-Muñoz, Arie van der Meijden
The objective of this study was to characterize six different scorpion venoms using biological and biochemical methods, including a preliminary MS/MS and a post-translational modifications analysis. Despite the diversity of scorpion species of medical importance in Africa and Colombia, the venoms of these arachnids have been poorly studied in these two regions. We report the biochemical, electrophoretic, chromatographic profile, internal peptide sequences with a post-translational modification report, and a preliminary antitumor activity of five different scorpions of the Buthidae family, Androctonus amoreuxi, Babycurus jacksoni, Grosphus grandidieri, Hottentotta gentili and Tityus fuhrmanni, and one of the Scorpionidae family Pandinus imperator...
February 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160020/diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-using-alpha-defensin-test-or-multiplex-pcr-ideal-diagnostic-test-still-not-found
#13
Arnold J Suda, Marco Tinelli, Nils D Beisemann, Yoram Weil, Amal Khoury, Oliver E Bischel
PURPOSE: Diagnosing periprosthetic infection remains a challenge. Multiplex-PCR and biomarkers such as alpha-defensin are potentially useful and fast methods for detecting periprosthetic infection. This study compared these new methods with clinical assessment, conventional microbiological methods and histo-pathological examination. METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with 30 joints and a mean age of 67.7 years (range 39 to 88) with removal of total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee replacement (TKR) were included in this study...
February 4, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132857/il-27-facilitates-skin-wound-healing-through-induction-of-epidermal-proliferation-and-host-defense
#14
Bin Yang, Jutamas Suwanpradid, Roberto Sanchez-Lagunes, Hae Woong Choi, Peter Hoang, Donghai Wang, Soman N Abraham, Amanda S MacLeod
Skin wound repair requires a coordinated program of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation as well as resistance to invading microbes. However, the factors that trigger epithelial cell proliferation in this inflammatory process are incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate that IL-27 is rapidly and transiently produced by CD301b(+) cells in the skin after injury. The functional role of IL-27 and CD301b(+) cells is demonstrated by the finding that CD301b-depleted mice exhibit delayed wound closure in vivo, which could be rescued by topical IL-27 treatment...
May 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077642/studies-on-the-interaction-of-tumor-derived-hd5-alpha-defensins-with-adenoviruses-and-implications-for-oncolytic-adenovirus-therapy
#15
Charles Vragniau, Jens-Martin Hübner, Peter Beidler, Sucheol Gil, Kamola Saydaminova, Zhuo-Zhuang Lu, Roma Yumul, Hongjie Wang, Maximilian Richter, Pavel Sova, Charles Drescher, Pascal Fender, André Lieber
Defensins are small antimicrobial peptides capable of neutralizing human adenovirus (HAdV) in vitro by binding capsid proteins and blocking endosomal escape of virus. In humans, the alpha defensin HD5 is produced by specialized epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal and genito-urinary tracts. Here, we demonstrate, using patient biopsy specimens, that HD5 is also expressed as an active, secreted peptide by epithelial ovarian and lung cancer cells in situ This finding prompted us to study the role of HD5 in infection and spread of replication-competent, oncolytic HAdV type 3 (HAdV3)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038935/defense-peptide-repertoire-of-stellaria-media-predicted-by-high-throughput-next-generation-sequencing
#16
Anna A Slavokhotova, Andrey A Shelenkov, Tatyana V Korostyleva, Eugene A Rogozhin, Nataliya V Melnikova, Anna V Kudryavtseva, Tatyana I Odintsova
Being perfectly adapted to diverse environments, chickweed (Stellaria media (L.) Vill), a ubiquitous garden weed, grows widely in Europe and North America. As opposed to the model plants, many weeds, and S. media in particular, have been poorly studied, although they are likely to contain promising components of immunity and novel resistance genes. In this study, for the first time RNA-seq analysis of healthy and infected with Fusarium oxysporum chickweed seedlings, as well as de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation, are presented...
April 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959380/sequencing-and-bioinformatics-analysis-of-the-differentially-expressed-genes-in-herniated-discs-with-or-without-calcification
#17
Jia Shao, Miao Yu, Liang Jiang, Fengliang Wu, Xiaoguang Liu
The purpose of this study was to detect the differentially expressed genes between ossified herniated discs and herniated discs without ossification. In addition, we sought to identify a few candidate genes and pathways by using bioinformatics analysis. We analyzed 6 samples each of ossified herniated discs (experimental group) and herniated discs without ossification (control group). Purified mRNA and cDNA extracted from the samples were subjected to sequencing. The NOISeq method was used to statistically identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 2 groups...
January 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#18
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863510/establishing-a-reference-array-for-the-cs-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-superfamily-of-defensive-peptides
#19
D Ellen K Tarr
BACKGROUND: "Invertebrate defensins" belong to the cysteine-stabilized alpha-beta (CS-αβ), also known as the scorpion toxin-like, superfamily. Some other peptides belonging to this superfamily of defensive peptides are indistinguishable from "defensins," but have been assigned other names, making it unclear what, if any, criteria must be met to qualify as an "invertebrate defensin." In addition, there are other groups of defensins in invertebrates and vertebrates that are considered to be evolutionarily unrelated to those in the CS-αβ superfamily...
November 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714447/alpha-defensin-novel-synovial-fluid-biomarker-for-the-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection
#20
Jakrapun Pupaibool, Eric J Fulnecky, Robert L Swords, William W Sistrunk, Alastair D Haddow
PURPOSE: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) continues to be a significant complication after total joint arthroplasty. Diagnosis of PJI can be challenging and elusive in the absence of a gold standard. This purpose of this article is to review the current evidence on the utility of serum and synovial fluid biomarkers to help aid in the diagnosis of PJI with focusing on synovial fluid alpha-defensin. METHODS: Articles and data for this review were identified by searches of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE up to June 1, 2016...
October 7, 2016: International Orthopaedics
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