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Alpha defensin

Justin B Schaal, Thorsten Maretzky, Dat Q Tran, Patti A Tran, Prasad Tongaonkar, Carl P Blobel, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Theta-defensins (θ-defensins) are macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in granulocytes and selected epithelia of Old World monkeys.  They contribute to anti-pathogen host defense responses by directly killing a diverse range of microbes.  Of note, θ-defensins also modulate microbe-induced inflammation by affecting the production of soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF) and other proinflammatory cytokines.  Here, we report that natural rhesus macaque θ-defensin (RTD) isoforms regulate sTNF cellular release by inhibiting TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE; also known as a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17; ADAM17), the primary pro-TNF sheddase...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Thorsten Gehrke, Christian Lausmann, Mustafa Citak, Tommaso Bonanzinga, Lars Frommelt, Akos Zahar
BACKGROUND: Alpha defensin is a new biomarker that has been shown to have a very high accuracy to rule out periprosthetic joint infection. Recently, a new rapid lateral flow version of the alpha defensin test was developed and introduced to detect high levels of alpha defensin in synovial fluid quickly and with ease. We conducted a single-center prospective clinical study to compare the results of the Synovasure Alpha Defensin Test with those of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, which are considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Yuting Wang, Zhiyong Zeng, Xinhui Zhang, Qiong Shi, Chaogang Wang, Zhangli Hu, Hui Li
Defensin is one of the most diversified groups of antimicrobial peptides in invertebrate. In the present study, a novel defensin member referred as Pv-Def was identified and characterized from Asian green mussel Perna viridis. Using in silico survey of several EST databases released from diverse tissues of P. viridis, a single peptide referred as Pv-Def was predicted as defensin homologue with Mytilus counterparts. Further analysis on gene structure revealed that Pv-Def was 1001 nt in length and consisted of 3 exons and 2 introns...
December 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xi Li, Chao Yuan, Licong Xing, Philippe Humbert
This study evaluated cutaneous microbial distribution, and microbial co-occurrence at different body sites and skin environments in Chinese women (39.6 ± 11.9 years, N = 100) during the winter season. Microbial distribution (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonadaceae, and Malassezia furfur), association with biomarkers (antimicrobial peptides: LL-37, β-defensins [HBD-2, HBD-3]), and claudin-1) and skin biophysical parameters (transepidermal water loss, pH, skin scaliness and roughness, sebum and hydration levels) were also determined...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Atsuhito Kubota, Masaki Kobayashi, Sota Sarashina, Reiko Takeno, Keisuke Okamoto, Katsuya Narumi, Ayako Furugen, Yuji Suzuki, Natsuko Takahashi, Ken Iseki
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion and alpha-defensins play a role in the innate immune system to protect against infection. Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (Reishi) is a well-known mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. This study aimed to determine the effects of Reishi on IgA secretion from Peyer's patch (PP) cells and alpha-defensin-5 (RD-5) and RD-6 expression in the rat small intestine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats received an oral injection of 0...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Morgana K B Prado, Gisele A Locachevic, Karina F Zoccal, Francisco W G Paula-Silva, Caroline Fontanari, Joseane C Ferreira, Priscilla A T Pereira, Luiz G Gardinassi, Simone G Ramos, Carlos A Sorgi, Ana Lúcia C Darini, Lúcia H Faccioli
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is essential for host immune defence. It increases neutrophil recruitment, phagocytosis and pathogen clearance, and decreases oedema and inflammasome activation. The host response and the role of LTB4 during Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection remain unexplored. Wild-type (129sv) and LTB4 deficient (Alox5 -/-) mice were intratracheally infected with A. xylosoxidans. Wild-type 129sv infected mice survived beyond the 8th day post-infection, exhibited increased levels of LTB4 in the lung on the 1st day, while levels of PGE2 increased on the 7th day post-infection...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
He Jiang, Yazhen Hu, Xiaolei Wei, Xun Xiao, Ivan Jakovlić, Xiaoling Liu, Jianguo Su, Gailing Yuan
Besides their function as a physical barrier against pathogens, β-defensins possess the ability to induce direct or indirect chemotaxis in leukocytes of mammals. However little is known about the ability of defensins to guide the migration of macrophages in fish. The objective of our study was to investigate whether β-defensin 1 (maBD1) can recruit leukocytes (specifically macrophages) in vivo and in vitro in a farmed cyprinid fish Megalobrama amblycephala. The M. amblycephala β-defensin 1 (maBD1) gene was amplified from the head-kidney transcriptome...
December 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hadeesha Piyadasa, Mahadevappa Hemshekhar, Christopher Carlsten, Neeloffer Mookherjee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Amanda D Williams, Olga Y Korolkova, Amos M Sakwe, Timothy M Geiger, Samuel D James, Roberta L Muldoon, Alan J Herline, J Shawn Goodwin, Michael G Izban, Mary K Washington, Duane T Smoot, Billy R Ballard, Maria Gazouli, Amosy E M'Koma
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179710.].
2017: PloS One
Jake R Adams, Adam J Schwartz
We present a case of chronic periprosthetic hip infection diagnosed using the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria as the gold standard. The alpha-defensin test was falsely negative. The diagnostic workup of the patient is detailed, along with a discussion regarding the potential reasons behind the misleading alpha-defensin results. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a false-negative alpha-defensin test in the setting of an open sinus tract communicating with a culture-positive total hip implant...
December 2017: Arthroplasty Today
Elena Cerrillo, Inés Moret, Marisa Iborra, David Ramos, Enrique Busó, Luis Tortosa, Esteban Sáez-González, Pilar Nos, Belén Beltrán
BACKGROUND: An impaired expression of α-defensins (α-Defs) in the ileal mucosa and, conversely, increased levels in plasma, have been reported in Crohn's disease (CD). However, the specificity and correlation of these findings with the degree of inflammation are unclear. We aimed to characterize the concentration and utility of ileal and plasma α-Defs in CD and to analyze a potential epigenetic mechanism of α-Def expression. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples and ileal biopsies were obtained from patients at disease onset (aCD), from those who achieved remission (iCD), and from 2 control groups (healthy controls and non-CD-etiology ileitis patients)...
November 28, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Amrita Kaur, Shiv Kumar Chabba, Ujjwal Jit Kaur, Arashdeep Kaur, Simran Preet, Praveen Rishi
Resurgence of sensitivity of the antibiotics, to which the pathogen had developed resistance in the past, requires special attention for strengthening the reservoir of antimicrobial compounds. Reports in the recent past have suggested that co-trimoxazole (COT) has regained its activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The present study exploited the use of COT in the presence of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP), cryptdin-2 (a murine Paneth cell alpha defensin), in order to reduce the selective pressure of the antibiotic on the pathogen...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
Maj Rabjerg
Kidney cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)) is one of the most deadly malignancies due to frequent late diagnosis and poor treatment options. Histologically, RCC embraces a wide variety of different subtypes with the clear cell variant (ccRCC) being the most common, accounting for 75-90% of all RCCs. At present, the surveillance protocols for follow-up of RCC patients after radical nephrectomy are based on the American Joint Committee on Cancers (AJCC) pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification system...
October 2017: Danish Medical Journal
Jun Yuan, Yufei Yan, Jiong Zhang, Bibo Wang, Jianmin Feng
BACKGROUND: Alpha-defensin, a novel biomarker, has shown great potential for the accurate diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in recent years: many published studies have presented encouraging results. Nevertheless, the diagnostic accuracy of alpha-defensin is inconsistent across published studies. Moreover, the optimum value of the diagnostic threshold urgently needs to be ascertained. This meta-analysis sought to estimate the precision of alpha-defensin for the diagnosis of PJI and, where possible, to confirm the threshold...
December 2017: International Orthopaedics
P Berger, M Van Cauter, R Driesen, J Neyt, O Cornu, J Bellemans
AIMS: The purpose of this current multicentre study is to analyse the presence of alpha-defensin proteins in synovial fluid using the Synovasure lateral flow device and to determine its diagnostic reliability and accuracy compared with the prosthetic joint infection (PJI) criteria produced by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort of 121 patients comprising 85 total knee arthroplasties and 36 total hip arthroplasties was prospectively evaluated between May 2015 and June 2016 in three different orthopaedic centres...
September 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
Amanda D Williams, Olga Y Korolkova, Amos M Sakwe, Timothy M Geiger, Samuel D James, Roberta L Muldoon, Alan J Herline, J Shawn Goodwin, Michael G Izban, Mary K Washington, Duane T Smoot, Billy R Ballard, Maria Gazouli, Amosy E M'Koma
Inability to distinguish Crohn's colitis from ulcerative colitis leads to the diagnosis of indeterminate colitis. This greatly effects medical and surgical care of the patient because treatments for the two diseases vary. Approximately 30 percent of inflammatory bowel disease patients cannot be accurately diagnosed, increasing their risk of inappropriate treatment. We sought to determine whether transcriptomic patterns could be used to develop diagnostic biomarker(s) to delineate inflammatory bowel disease more accurately...
2017: PloS One
Johannes Koehbach
Insects make up the largest and most diverse group of organisms on earth with several million species to exist in total. Considering the sheer number of insect species and the vast variety of ways they interact with their environment through chemistry, it is clear that they have significant potential as a source of new lead molecules. They have adapted to a range of ecological habitats and exhibit a symbiotic lifestyle with various microbes such as bacteria and fungi. Accordingly, numerous antimicrobial compounds have been identified including for example defensin peptides...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
Regina Fillerova, Jiri Gallo, Martin Radvansky, Veronika Kraiczova, Milos Kudelka, Eva Kriegova
The timely and exact diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is crucial for surgical decision-making. Intraoperatively, delivery of the result within an hour is required. Alpha-defensin lateral immunoassay of joint fluid (JF) is precise for the intraoperative exclusion of PJI; however, for patients with a limited amount of JF and/or in cases where the JF is bloody, this test is unhelpful. Important information is hidden in periprosthetic tissues that may much better reflect the current status of implant pathology...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
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