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Alpha defensin

Sufian S Ahmad, Michael T Hirschmann, Roland Becker, Ahmed Shaker, Atesch Ateschrang, Marius J B Keel, Christoph E Albers, Lukas Buetikofer, Sithombo Maqungo, Ulrich Stöckle, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: (1) To determine the overall accuracy of synovial alpha-defensin, synovial C-reactive protein (sCRP), interleukin-6 (sIL-6), and leukocyte esterase (sLE) as diagnostic markers for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and (2) to independantly evaluate the accuracy of both the laboratory-based ELISA alpha-defensin test and the Synovasure™ alpha-defensin test kit. METHODS: An EMBASE and MEDLINE (PubMed) database search was performed using a set of professionally set search terms...
March 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Javad Parvizi, Timothy L Tan, Karan Goswami, Carlos Higuera, Craig Della Valle, Antonia F Chen, Noam Shohat
BACKGROUND: The introduction of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in 2011 resulted in improvements in diagnostic confidence and research collaboration. The emergence of new diagnostic tests and the lessons we have learned from the past 7 years using the MSIS definition, prompted us to develop an evidence-based and validated updated version of the criteria. METHODS: This multi-institutional study of patients undergoing revision total joint arthroplasty was conducted at 3 academic centers...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Deivendran Rengaraj, Anh Duc Truong, Hyun S Lillehoj, Jae Yong Han, Yeong Ho Hong
Objective: Defensins are a large family of antimicrobial peptides and components of the innate immune system that invoke an immediate immune response against harmful pathogens. Defensins are classified into alpha-, beta-, and theta-defensins. Avian species only possess beta-defensins (AvBDs), and approximately 14 AvBDs (AvBD1-AvBD14) have been identified in chickens to date. Although substantial information is available on the conservation and phylogenetics, limited information is available on the expression and regulation of AvBD8 in chicken immune tissues and cells...
March 13, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Lyudmila Viktorovna Gankovskaya, Valentina Pavlovna Bykova, Leila Seimurovna Namasova-Baranova, Alexander Viktorovich Karaulov, Irina Viktorovna Rahmanova, Viktor Anatolievich Gankovskii, Catherine Dmitrievna Merkushova, Oksana Anatolievna Svitich
BACKGROUND: A major role of the innate immunity in the defence of mucosal tissue is well established. However, a balance between the main components of the immunity such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and defensins in the pathology of upper respiratory tract in children has not been addressed yet. Our aim was to investigate the gene expression of some TLRs as well as alpha and beta-defensins in children suffered from adenoid hyperthrophy in comparison with healthy children. METHODS: Samples (nasal epithelium and adenoids) from patients with hypertrophic adenoids (n = 77) and control group (n = 33) were investigated...
February 27, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Mayumi K Holly, Jason G Smith
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) are significant human pathogens. Although only a subset of HAdV serotypes commonly cause gastroenteritis in humans, most HAdV species replicate in the gastrointestinal tract. Knowledge of the complex interaction between HAdVs and the human intestinal epithelium has been limited by the lack of a suitable cell culture system containing relevant cell types. Recently, this need has been met by the stable and prolonged cultivation of primary intestinal epithelial cells as enteroids. Human enteroids have been used to reveal novel and interesting aspects of rotavirus, norovirus, and enterovirus replication, prompting us to explore their suitability for HAdV culture...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Virology
Kamil T Okroj, Tyler E Calkins, Erdan Kayupov, Michael M Kheir, Joshua S Bingham, Christopher P Beauchamp, Javad Parvizi, Craig J Della Valle
BACKGROUND: In patients with adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) secondary to a failed metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing or corrosion at the head-neck junction in a metal-on-polyethylene bearing, ruling in or out periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can be challenging. Alpha-defensin has emerged as an accurate test for PJI. The purpose of this multicenter, retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of the alpha-defensin synovial fluid test in detecting PJI in patients with ALTR. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 26 patients from 3 centers with ALTR that had an alpha-defensin test performed...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Mylène Da Silva, Clara Dombre, Aurélien Brionne, Philippe Monget, Magali Chessé, Marion De Pauw, Maryse Mills, Lucie Combes-Soia, Valérie Labas, Nicolas Guyot, Yves Nys, Sophie Rehault-Godbert
In many amniotes, the amniotic fluid is depicted as a dynamic milieu that participates in the protection of the embryo (cushioning, hydration, and immunity). However, in birds, the protein profile of the amniotic fluid remains unexplored, even though its proteomic signature is predicted to differ compared to human's. In fact, unlike humans, chicken amniotic fluid does not collect excretory products and its protein composition strikingly changes at mid-development due to the massive inflow of egg white proteins, which are thereafter swallowed by the embryo to support its growth...
February 14, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
M Tarabichi, N Shohat, K Goswami, J Parvizi
AIMS: The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection can be difficult due to the high rate of culture-negative infections. The aim of this study was to assess the use of next-generation sequencing for detecting organisms in synovial fluid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, single-blinded study, 86 anonymized samples of synovial fluid were obtained from patients undergoing aspiration of the hip or knee as part of the investigation of a periprosthetic infection...
February 2018: Bone & Joint Journal
Kathy Parisi, Thomas M A Shafee, Pedro Quimbar, Nicole L van der Weerden, Mark R Bleackley, Marilyn A Anderson
Plant defensins are an extensive family of small cysteine rich proteins characterised by a conserved cysteine stabilised alpha beta protein fold which resembles the structure of insect and vertebrate defensins. However, secondary structure and disulphide topology indicates two independent superfamilies of defensins with similar structures that have arisen via an extreme case of convergent evolution. Defensins from plants and insects belong to the cis-defensin superfamily whereas mammalian defensins belong to the trans-defensin superfamily...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Ching-Ying Wu, Li-Hua Lo, Hung Su, Jentaie Shiea
BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a chronic blistering disease that manifests as multiple tense bullae on the limbs and body. Detecting biomarkers present in skin fluids may assist in the early diagnosis and treatment of BP. In this study, a modern mass spectrometric method was developed for screening biomarkers in blister fluids collected from patients. METHODS: Blister fluids collected from BP patients and physically injured patients were analyzed and compared using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)...
January 29, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Justin B Schaal, Thorsten Maretzky, Dat Q Tran, Patti A Tran, Prasad Tongaonkar, Carl P Blobel, André J Ouellette, Michael E Selsted
Theta-defensins (θ-defensins) are macrocyclic peptides expressed exclusively in granulocytes and selected epithelia of Old World monkeys.  They contribute to anti-pathogen host defense responses by directly killing a diverse range of microbes.  Of note, θ-defensins also modulate microbe-induced inflammation by affecting the production of soluble tumor necrosis factor (sTNF) and other proinflammatory cytokines.  Here, we report that natural rhesus macaque θ-defensin (RTD) isoforms regulate sTNF cellular release by inhibiting TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE; also known as a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17; ADAM17), the primary pro-TNF sheddase...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Thorsten Gehrke, Christian Lausmann, Mustafa Citak, Tommaso Bonanzinga, Lars Frommelt, Akos Zahar
BACKGROUND: Alpha defensin is a new biomarker that has been shown to have a very high accuracy to rule out periprosthetic joint infection. Recently, a new rapid lateral flow version of the alpha defensin test was developed and introduced to detect high levels of alpha defensin in synovial fluid quickly and with ease. We conducted a single-center prospective clinical study to compare the results of the Synovasure Alpha Defensin Test with those of the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) criteria, which are considered to be the gold standard for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Yuting Wang, Zhiyong Zeng, Xinhui Zhang, Qiong Shi, Chaogang Wang, Zhangli Hu, Hui Li
Defensin is one of the most diversified groups of antimicrobial peptides in invertebrate. In the present study, a novel defensin member referred as Pv-Def was identified and characterized from Asian green mussel Perna viridis. Using in silico survey of several EST databases released from diverse tissues of P. viridis, a single peptide referred as Pv-Def was predicted as defensin homologue with Mytilus counterparts. Further analysis on gene structure revealed that Pv-Def was 1001 nt in length and consisted of 3 exons and 2 introns...
December 23, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Xi Li, Chao Yuan, Licong Xing, Philippe Humbert
This study evaluated cutaneous microbial distribution, and microbial co-occurrence at different body sites and skin environments in Chinese women (39.6 ± 11.9 years, N = 100) during the winter season. Microbial distribution (Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Lactobacillus, Pseudomonadaceae, and Malassezia furfur), association with biomarkers (antimicrobial peptides: LL-37, β-defensins [HBD-2, HBD-3]), and claudin-1) and skin biophysical parameters (transepidermal water loss, pH, skin scaliness and roughness, sebum and hydration levels) were also determined...
December 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
Atsuhito Kubota, Masaki Kobayashi, Sota Sarashina, Reiko Takeno, Keisuke Okamoto, Katsuya Narumi, Ayako Furugen, Yuji Suzuki, Natsuko Takahashi, Ken Iseki
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion and alpha-defensins play a role in the innate immune system to protect against infection. Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst. (Reishi) is a well-known mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine. This study aimed to determine the effects of Reishi on IgA secretion from Peyer's patch (PP) cells and alpha-defensin-5 (RD-5) and RD-6 expression in the rat small intestine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats received an oral injection of 0...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Morgana K B Prado, Gisele A Locachevic, Karina F Zoccal, Francisco W G Paula-Silva, Caroline Fontanari, Joseane C Ferreira, Priscilla A T Pereira, Luiz G Gardinassi, Simone G Ramos, Carlos A Sorgi, Ana Lúcia C Darini, Lúcia H Faccioli
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is essential for host immune defence. It increases neutrophil recruitment, phagocytosis and pathogen clearance, and decreases oedema and inflammasome activation. The host response and the role of LTB4 during Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection remain unexplored. Wild-type (129sv) and LTB4 deficient (Alox5 -/-) mice were intratracheally infected with A. xylosoxidans. Wild-type 129sv infected mice survived beyond the 8th day post-infection, exhibited increased levels of LTB4 in the lung on the 1st day, while levels of PGE2 increased on the 7th day post-infection...
December 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
He Jiang, Yazhen Hu, Xiaolei Wei, Xun Xiao, Ivan Jakovlić, Xiaoling Liu, Jianguo Su, Gailing Yuan
Besides their function as a physical barrier against pathogens, β-defensins possess the ability to induce direct or indirect chemotaxis in leukocytes of mammals. However little is known about the ability of defensins to guide the migration of macrophages in fish. The objective of our study was to investigate whether β-defensin 1 (maBD1) can recruit leukocytes (specifically macrophages) in vivo and in vitro in a farmed cyprinid fish Megalobrama amblycephala. The M. amblycephala β-defensin 1 (maBD1) gene was amplified from the head-kidney transcriptome...
December 12, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hadeesha Piyadasa, Mahadevappa Hemshekhar, Christopher Carlsten, Neeloffer Mookherjee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Amanda D Williams, Olga Y Korolkova, Amos M Sakwe, Timothy M Geiger, Samuel D James, Roberta L Muldoon, Alan J Herline, J Shawn Goodwin, Michael G Izban, Mary K Washington, Duane T Smoot, Billy R Ballard, Maria Gazouli, Amosy E M'Koma
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179710.].
2017: PloS One
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