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Alpha defensin

Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
D Ellen K Tarr
BACKGROUND: "Invertebrate defensins" belong to the cysteine-stabilized alpha-beta (CS-αβ), also known as the scorpion toxin-like, superfamily. Some other peptides belonging to this superfamily of defensive peptides are indistinguishable from "defensins," but have been assigned other names, making it unclear what, if any, criteria must be met to qualify as an "invertebrate defensin." In addition, there are other groups of defensins in invertebrates and vertebrates that are considered to be evolutionarily unrelated to those in the CS-αβ superfamily...
November 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Jakrapun Pupaibool, Eric J Fulnecky, Robert L Swords, William W Sistrunk, Alastair D Haddow
PURPOSE: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) continues to be a significant complication after total joint arthroplasty. Diagnosis of PJI can be challenging and elusive in the absence of a gold standard. This purpose of this article is to review the current evidence on the utility of serum and synovial fluid biomarkers to help aid in the diagnosis of PJI with focusing on synovial fluid alpha-defensin. METHODS: Articles and data for this review were identified by searches of PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE up to June 1, 2016...
October 7, 2016: International Orthopaedics
K-D Heller
BACKGROUND: Periprothetic infection after primary or revision arthroplasty is of increasing importance. The incidence of infection in primary arthroplasty is approximately 1 %. Revision arthroplasty has higher infection rates, which increase with the number of revision surgeries. Aim of this Paper: An overview of the current diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. METHODS: This selective analysis is based on a lecture by the author at the DKOU 2015. RESULTS: Periprosthetic infection is taken as having been demonstrated when either two periprosthetic cultures contain the same microorganism, or if there is a fistula communicating with a joint...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Donald R B Miles, Jun Shen, Alice Y Chuang, Fenshi Dong, Feng Wu, John Kwon
BACKGROUND: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an inappropriate immune response leads to chronic mucosal inflammation. This response may be partly due to dysregulation of defensins, which are endogenously produced antimicrobial peptides. This study determined whether microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate α-defensin 5 (DEFA5), which could further implicate both in IBD pathogenesis. METHODS: Induction of DEFA5 mRNA and protein expression was determined in Caco-2 cells. An in silico analysis identified putative miRNA binding sites of DEFA5...
April 2016: Journal of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases & Disorders
Thomas W Bauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Yaowapa Maneerat, Kriengchai Prasongsukarn, Surachet Benjathummarak, Wilanee Dechkhajorn, Urai Chaisri
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disorder of the heart vessels that develops over decades, coupling inflammatory mechanisms and elevated total cholesterol levels under the influence of genetic and environmental factors. Without effective intervention, atherosclerosis consequently causes coronary heart disease (CHD), which leads to increased risk of sudden death. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils play a pivotal role in inflammation and atherogenesis. Human neutrophil peptides (HNPs) or alpha (α)-defensins are cysteine-rich cation polypeptides that are produced and released from activated polymorphonuclear neutrophil granules during septic inflammation and acute coronary vascular disorders...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Charussri Leeyaphan, Carren Hau, Shintaro Takeoka, Yayoi Tada, Sumanas Bunyaratavej, Penvadee Pattanaprichakul, Panitta Sitthinamsuwan, Angkana Chaiprasert, Yuko Sasajima, Koichi Makimura, Shinichi Watanabe
Knowledge regarding host immune response to chromoblastomycosis and eumycetoma is limited, particularly concerning cytokines and antimicrobial peptides production. This was a retrospective study of 12 paraffin-embedded tissue samples from patients diagnosed with chromoblastomycosis or eumycetoma from histological findings and tissue culture. DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from tissues were done to evaluate human interleukin-17A (IL-17A), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and human beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) expressions...
July 12, 2016: Mycoses
Tommaso Bonanzinga, Akos Zahar, Michael Dütsch, Christian Lausmann, Daniel Kendoff, Thorsten Gehrke
BACKGROUND: A key issue in the treatment of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the correct diagnosis. The main problem is lack of diagnostic tools able to diagnose a PJI with high accuracy. Alpha-defensin has been proposed as a possible solution, but in the current literature, there is a lack of independent validation. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We performed a prospective study to determine (1) what is the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and the negative predictive values of the alpha-defensin immunoassay test in diagnosing PJI; and (2) which clinical features may be responsible for false-positive and false-negative results? METHODS: Preoperative aspiration was performed in all patients presenting with a painful hip/knee arthroplasty, including both primary and revision implants...
June 24, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Maximilian F Kasparek, Michael Kasparek, Friedrich Boettner, Martin Faschingbauer, Julia Hahne, Martin Dominkus
BACKGROUND: The present study investigates the novel Synovasure periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) lateral flow test device for detection of alpha-defensin and attempts to determine its diagnostic accuracy for the intraoperative diagnosis of PJI and compares it to frozen section. METHODS: Forty consecutive patients, who underwent revision surgery, between September 2014 and September 2015 were included. The patients underwent 29 revision total knee arthroplasties and 11 revision total hip arthroplasties...
May 27, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
M C Wyatt, A D Beswick, S K Kunutsor, M J Wilson, M R Whitehouse, A W Blom
BACKGROUND: Synovial biomarkers have recently been adopted as diagnostic tools for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), but their utility is uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize the evidence on the accuracy of the alpha-defensin immunoassay and leukocyte esterase colorimetric strip test for the diagnosis of PJI compared with the Musculoskeletal Infection Society diagnostic criteria. METHODS: We performed a systematic review to identify diagnostic technique studies evaluating the accuracy of alpha-defensin or leukocyte esterase in the diagnosis of PJI...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Hem Desai, Ryan Wong, Ahmed Khurshid Pasha
CONTEXT: Daptomycin is the only antibiotic available with in vitro bactericidal activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Its increased use has resulted in cases of decreased daptomycin efficacy. Recent in vitro studies have shown effective use of beta (β)-lactam and daptomycin antibiotics, as a combination therapy, in the treatment of VRE. We describe a case of effective treatment in a patient with VRE infection using dual ampicillin and daptomycin therapy that shows bench-to-bedside application of the abovementioned finding...
May 2016: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
Javad Parvizi, Safa Cyrus Fassihi, Mohammad A Enayatollahi
The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty has been one of the major challenges in orthopedic surgery. As there is no single absolute test for diagnosis of PJI, diagnostic criteria for PJI have been proposed that include using several diagnostic modalities. Focused history, physical examination, plain radiographs, and initial serologic tests should be followed by joint aspiration and synovial analysis. Newer diagnostic techniques, such as alpha-defensin and interleukin-6, hold great promise in the future diagnosis of equivocal infections...
July 2016: Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Elga Sidhom, Mara Pilmane, Janis Kisis
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis vulgaris is an inflammatory skin condition characterized by dramatic biochemical and immunological changes. AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate antimicrobial response, tissue degeneration reactions and distribution of inflammatory cytokines in untreated psoriatic skin as well as the correlations between these factors and influence on the course of the disease. METHODS: We evaluated skin samples obtained from routine punch biopsies in 40 patients with psoriasis vulgaris...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
Øystein Brenna, Marianne W Furnes, Bjørn Munkvold, Mark Kidd, Arne K Sandvik, Björn I Gustafsson
Guanylin (GUCA2A/Guca2a/GN) and uroguanylin (GUCA2B/Guca2b/UGN) are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and have been implicated in ion and fluid homeostasis, satiety, abdominal pain, growth and intestinal barrier integrity. Their cellular sources are debated and include goblet cells, entero-/colonocytes, enteroendocrine (EE) cells and tuft cells. We therefore investigated the cellular sources of GN and UGN mRNAs in human and rat duodenal and colonic epithelium with in situ hybridization (ISH) to determine co-expression with Chromogranin A (CHGA/Chga/CgA; enterochromaffin [EC] cells), defensin alpha 6 (DEFA6/Defa6; Paneth cells), mucin 2 (MUC2/Muc2; goblet cells) and selected tuft cell markers...
August 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Matthew Brook, Gareth H Tomlinson, Katherine Miles, Richard W P Smith, Adriano G Rossi, Pieter S Hiemstra, Emily F A van 't Wout, Jonathan L E Dean, Nicola K Gray, Wuyuan Lu, Mohini Gray
Neutrophils are the first and most numerous cells to arrive at the site of an inflammatory insult and are among the first to die. We previously reported that alpha defensins, released from apoptotic human neutrophils, augmented the antimicrobial capacity of macrophages while also inhibiting the biosynthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. In vivo, alpha defensin administration protected mice from inflammation, induced by thioglychollate-induced peritonitis or following infection withSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium...
April 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mark J Spangehl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Alisina Shahi, Javad Parvizi, Gregory S Kazarian, Carlos Higuera, Salvatore Frangiamore, Joshua Bingham, Christopher Beauchamp, Craig Della Valle, Carl Deirmengian
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that the administration of antibiotics to patients before performing diagnostic testing for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) can interfere with the accuracy of test results. Although a single-institution study has suggested that alpha-defensin maintains its concentration and sensitivity even after antibiotic treatment, this has not yet been demonstrated in a larger multiinstitutional study. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) For the evaluation of PJI, is prior antibiotic administration associated with decreased alpha-defensin levels? (2) When prior antibiotics are given, is alpha-defensin a better screening test for PJI than the traditional tests (erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], C-reactive protein [CRP], fluid white blood cells, fluid polymorphonuclear cells [PMNs], and fluid culture)? METHODS: This retrospective study included data from 106 hip and knee arthroplasties with Musculoskeletal Infection Society-defined PJI from four centers...
July 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Gemma Aragonès, Teresa Auguet, Esther Guiu-Jurado, Alba Berlanga, Marta Curriu, Salomé Martinez, Ajla Alibalic, Carmen Aguilar, Esteban Hernández, María-Luisa Camara, Núria Canela, Pol Herrero, Xavier Ruyra, Vicente Martín-Paredero, Cristóbal Richart
Because of the clinical significance of carotid atherosclerosis, the search for novel biomarkers has become a priority. The aim of the present study was to compare the protein secretion profile of the carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CAP, n = 12) and nonatherosclerotic mammary artery (MA, n = 10) secretomes. We used a nontargeted proteomic approach that incorporated tandem immunoaffinity depletion, iTRAQ labeling, and nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. In total, 162 proteins were quantified, of which 25 showed statistically significant differences in secretome levels between carotid atherosclerotic plaque and nondiseased mammary artery...
March 4, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
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