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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339414/update-on-the-application-of-optic-nerve-sheath-fenestration
#1
Hui Chen, Qian Zhang, Song Tan, Huazhu Fu, Bradley K Farris, Zhenglin Yang
BACKGROUND: With the ongoing development of surgical procedures and instruments, the safety of optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) has been improved. OBJECTIVE: Through the past three decades, progress has been made in preventing visual loss from chronic optic nerve swelling in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), secondary intracranial hypertension and local optic nerve diseases. We now review the updated application of ONSF in those diseases. METHODS: The application of ONSF in papilledema due to IIH, secondary intracranial hypertension to cerebral venous sinus occlusion, Cryptococcal meningitis, and intracranial mass or tumors is reviewed...
March 23, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330536/-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-misinterpreted-as-migraine
#2
Omar A Karim, Adis Dizdarevic, Mohammad Motawea
A 23-year-old woman with known tension-type headache and in treatment with oral contraceptives was hospitalized with headache, nausea and vomiting during two weeks. Prior to hospitalization the symptoms had been interpreted as migraine. Blood samples including D-dimer were normal. A computed tomography showed cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), so the patient was treated with anticoagulation drugs and her symptoms remitted slowly. CVT is a dangerous condition, and the symptoms can have a fluctuating course which can mask the diagnosis...
March 13, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329897/maternal-labor-delivery-and-perinatal-outcomes-associated-with-placental-abruption-a-systematic-review
#3
Katheryne L Downes, Katherine L Grantz, Edmond D Shenassa
Objective Risk factors for placental abruption have changed, but there has not been an updated systematic review investigating outcomes. Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and CINAHL for publications from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2016. We reviewed English-language publications reporting estimated incidence and/or risk factors for maternal, labor, delivery, and perinatal outcomes associated with abruption. We excluded case studies, conference abstracts, and studies that lacked a referent/comparison group or did not clearly characterize placental abruption...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328592/status-asthmaticus-and-central-herniation-a-case-for-multidisciplinary-critical-care
#4
Joelle B Karlik, Tristan Stani, Stephanie Nonas, Aclan Dogan, Ansgar Brambrink
A 24-year-old woman with history of asthma was intubated emergently for acute status asthmaticus triggered by acute respiratory syncytial virus infection and treated with permissive hypercapnia. Her ventilation was complicated by auto-positive end-expiratory pressure and elevated peak airway, plateau, and central venous pressures. On hospital day 2, she was noted to have anisocoria. Imaging showed diffuse cerebral edema with central herniation. Difficult ventilation and hypercapnia directly contributed to her severe cerebral edema...
March 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328590/air-embolism-during-posterior-spinal-fusion-in-a-10-year-old-girl-a-case-report
#5
Paul F Lee-Archer, Brett Chaseling
Venous air embolism is a rare but recognized complication of posterior spinal fusion surgery and epidural placement using a loss of resistance to air technique. We report a case of a probable venous air embolism causing cardiac arrest in a 10-year-old girl undergoing posterior spinal fusion in the prone position. The most likely source of the embolism was injection of air into the epidural space from a loss of resistance to air technique. This case also demonstrates the potential for paradoxical cerebral embolism in the absence of an intracardiac defect...
March 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324875/unilateral-postoperative-deep-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-with-complete-recovery-a-report-of-2-cases
#6
Mony Benifla, Suzzanne Laughlin, Zulma S Tovar-Spinoza, James T Rutka, Peter B Dirks
Postsurgical deep brain venous thrombosis has not been well described in children before. When approaching thalamic or intraventricular lesions, extra care should be taken to prevent injury to the internal cerebral veins (ICVs) and the vein of Galen. However, even when they are well preserved during surgery, postoperative hemodynamic changes, mainly in the first 24 h, or surgical manipulation can cause thrombosis of these veins. We report 2 children with unilateral postoperative ICV thrombosis; in 1 of the patients the vein of Galen was also thrombosed...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324183/multimodality-management-and-outcomes-of-brain-arterio-venous-malformations-avms-in-children-personal-experience-and-review-of-the-literature-with-specific-emphasis-on-age-at-first-avm-bleed
#7
REVIEW
Anan Shtaya, John Millar, Owen Sparrow
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to study the presentation and analyse the results of multimodality treatment of brain arterio-venous malformations (AVMs) in children at our centre and review age at first AVM rupture in the literature. METHODS: Of 52 patients aged <18 years, 47 with brain AVMs (27 males and 20 females) aged 4-17 years (mean 12.2) were retrospectively reviewed. PubMed search revealed five additional studies including 267 patients where the prevalence of age-related AVMs rupture was analysed...
March 21, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320030/changes-in-regulatory-t-cell-levels-in-acute-cerebral-ischemia
#8
Xuerui Pang, Weidong Qian
Background Acute stroke causes intense and significant changes in the immune system as well as in the number and the ratio of various immune cells. Material and Methods Several large-scale studies have shown that ischemic stroke leaves the human body in a state of immunodepression. The regulatory T (Treg) cells may be strongly associated with a change of immune status. In this trial, we collected venous blood from a cohort of patients who were diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke within the last 24 hours (n = 139)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319499/developmental-venous-anomalies-mimicking-neoplasm-on-11c-methionine-pet-and-dsc-perfusion-mri
#9
Julie H Harreld, Mikhail Doubrovin, Elizabeth R Butch, Angela Edwards, Barry Shulkin
Elevated relative cerebral blood volume on perfusion MRI and increased uptake on C-methionine PET can be used to diagnose and guide biopsy of brain tumors but are not specific. We report increased uptake on C-methionine PET associated with 4 developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) in 3 children with brain tumors, which could potentially mimic tumor and misdirect biopsy. Because DVAs are not readily visible on CT, prevention of misdirected biopsy in patients with focally elevated C-methionine uptake and relative cerebral blood volume relies on close correlation with contrast-enhanced anatomic MRI to exclude DVA or other nonneoplastic etiology...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316994/multiple-factors-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-white-matter-lesions
#10
REVIEW
Jing Lin, Dilong Wang, Linfang Lan, Yuhua Fan
White matter lesions (WMLs), also known as leukoaraiosis (LA) or white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), are characterized mainly by hyperintensities on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. With the aging of the population and the development of imaging technology, the morbidity and diagnostic rates of WMLs are increasing annually. WMLs are not a benign process. They clinically manifest as cognitive decline and the subsequent development of dementia. Although WMLs are important, their pathogenesis is still unclear...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316870/dural-arteriovenous-fistula-manifested-as-rapid-progressive-dementia-successfully-treated-by-endovascular-embolization-only
#11
Heewon Hwang, Yun Kyung La, Min Seok Baek, Kyoungwon Baik, Sang Hyun Suh, Won-Joo Kim
A 43-year-old male presented with daytime sleepiness at work and indifferent behavior like never before. Two weeks prior to hospital admission, he had episodic memory loss with well preserved remote memory. Brain MRI showed a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) in the right lateral transverse sinus with a bilateral thalamic venous infarction. Cerebral angiography confirmed a right transverse sigmoid dural arteriovenous fistula with a feeding artery of the right occipital artery and left posterior meningeal artery...
March 2017: Neurointervention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314978/can-developmental-venous-anomalies-cause-seizures
#12
Claire Dussaule, Pascal Masnou, Ghaïdaa Nasser, Frédérique Archambaud, Cécile Cauquil-Michon, Jean-Paul Gagnepain, Viviane Bouilleret, Christian Denier
Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are congenital anatomical variants of normal venous drainage of normal brain. Although DVAs are often discovered on the occasion of a seizure, their involvement in epilepsy is poorly studied. Our objective was to determine whether DVA can cause seizures, in the cases where there is no associated lesion, including no cavernoma or dysplasia. Based on clinical history, cerebral MRI, EEG recording, and (18)F-FDG PET, we report 4 patients with DVA revealed by seizures. The first patient had a convulsive seizure caused by a hemorrhagic infarction due to thrombosis of her DVA...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302764/-18-f-gp1-a-novel-fluorine-18-labeled-tracer-designed-for-pet-imaging-of-thrombi-with-high-detection-sensitivity-and-low-background
#13
Jessica Lohrke, Holger Siebeneicher, Markus Berger, Michael Reinhardt, Mathias Berndt, Andre Mueller, Marion Zerna, Norman Koglin, Felix Oden, Marcus Bauser, Matthias Friebe, Ludger M Dinkelborg, Joachim Huetter, Andrew W Stephens
Thromboembolic diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attacks and pulmonary embolism are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. GPIIb/IIIa is the key receptor involved in platelet aggregation and is a validated target for therapeutic approaches and diagnostic imaging. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a specific small molecule tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging that binds with high affinity to GPIIb/IIIa receptors and has suitable pharmacokinetic properties to overcome limitations of previous approaches...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299538/decompressive-surgery-in-malignant-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis-what-predicts-its-outcome
#14
Rohan Mahale, Anish Mehta, Ravi Gopal Varma, Alangar S Hegde, Purushottam T Acharya, Rangasetty Srinivasa
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is common in Asians, accounting for 15% of all strokes in the young. CVST causing malignant cerebral oedema with brain herniation and death are referred as malignant CVST. This study was aimed at evaluating the outcome of patients and factors predicting the outcome with malignant CVST after decompressive surgery. It was a retrospective, observational, single centre, hospital-based and cross-sectional study. Records of patients with malignant CVST who had decompressive surgery were analysed...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298038/surgical-removal-of-embolic-material-after-its-unexpected-migration-through-extracranial-intracranial-anastomosis-in-the-treatment-of-barrow-type-d-carotid-cavernous-fistula-case-report
#15
Jae-Sang Oh, Dong-Sung Kim, Jai-Joon Shim, Seok-Mann Yoon
Endovascular occlusion via the transvenous route is the favored treatment for indirect carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs). However, transarterial embolization can be used as an alternative method in patients with an inaccessible venous route. The authors present the case of a 49-year-old woman with a 2-month history of chemosis and proptosis in her right eye. Angiography demonstrated a Barrow Type D CCF. Transarterial Onyx embolization through the accessory meningeal artery was performed after an unsuccessful transvenous approach...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297690/-multiple-tentorial-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas-with-acquired-pial-arteriovenous-fistula-presented-with-unilateral-eye-symptoms-successfully-treated-by-transarterial-embolization-and-direct-surgery-a-case-report
#16
Hisato Minamide, Yutaka Hayashi, Naoyuki Uchiyama
A 58-year-old man presented with slowly progressive chemosis, exophthalmos, and blepharedema of the left eye. Digital subtraction angiography revealed multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas(dAVFs)involving the bilateral tentorium, superior sagittal sinus, and right frontal convexity. In addition, occlusion of the left cavernous sinus and left sigmoid sinus were observed, which could lead to venous hypertension and might be associated with the occurrence of multiple dAVFs. Along with the congestion of the left ophthalmic vein, increased intracranial pressure due to the left tentorial dAVF with cortical venous reflux could have caused the left eye symptoms; therefore, the tentorial lesion was treated first...
March 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297066/cerebral-hyperperfusion-and-other-consequences-of-hemodialysis-central-vein-catheters
#17
Haimanot Wasse
While central venous stenosis is a common consequence of protracted central venous catheter use, intracardiac device transvenous leads, and central venous instrumentation, the majority of patients who develop symptomatic central venous stenosis present with characteristic venous hypertension. However, some patients may develop an abnormal intracranial venous circulation and present with neurologic symptoms. This paper will summarize findings from case reports that describe the neurologic sequelae that can develop as a result of central venous stenosis/occlusion in end-stage renal disease patients with a functional arteriovenous access...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Vascular Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289715/cerebrovascular-adaptations-to-cocaine-induced-transient-ischemic-attacks-in-the-rodent-brain
#18
Jiang You, Nora D Volkow, Kicheon Park, Qiujia Zhang, Kevin Clare, Congwu Du, Yingtian Pan
Occurrence of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and cerebral strokes is a recognized risk associated with cocaine abuse. Here, we use a rodent model along with optical imaging to study cocaine-induced TIA and the associated dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) and cerebrovasculature. We show that chronic cocaine exposure in mice resulted in marked cortical hypoperfusion, in significant arterial and venous vasoconstriction, and in a sensitized vascular response to an acute cocaine injection...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289372/improved-quantification-of-cerebral-vein-oxygenation-using-partial-volume-correction
#19
Phillip G D Ward, Audrey P Fan, Parnesh Raniga, David G Barnes, David L Dowe, Amanda C L Ng, Gary F Egan
Purpose: Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) enables cerebral venous characterization and physiological measurements, such as oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). The exquisite sensitivity of QSM to deoxygenated blood makes it possible to image small veins; however partial volume effects must be addressed for accurate quantification. We present a new method, Iterative Cylindrical Fitting (ICF), to estimate voxel-based partial volume effects for susceptibility maps and use it to improve OEF quantification of small veins with diameters between 1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283819/neurological-complications-of-beh%C3%A3-et-s-syndrome
#20
D P Kidd
In this review of the neurological complications of Behçet's syndrome, the clinical features and epidemiology of the systemic disease are summarised before a discussion of the neurological syndromes which may develop is made. Neurological involvement occurs in 9% of cases, and is equally prevalent in each geographical area. Vascular complications occur in 14%, in whom thrombosis of the venous sinuses or cerebral veins occurs, and intracranial hypertension, venous infarction and parenchymal haemorrhage may develop...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology
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