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Jyotika Bahuguna, Philipp Weidel, Abigail Morrison
The basal ganglia have been hypothesized to be involved in action selection, i.e. resolving competition between simultaneously activated motor programs. It has been shown that the direct pathway facilitates action execution whereas the indirect pathway inhibits it. However, as the pathways are both active during an action, it remains unclear whether their role is co-operative or competitive. In order to investigate this issue, we designed a striatal model consisting of D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and interfaced it to a simulated robot moving in an environment...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Brett R Aiello, Adam R Hardy, Mark W Westneat, Melina E Hale
Mechanosensation is a universal feature of animals that is essential for behavior, allowing detection of animals' own body movement and position as well as physical features of the environment. Fish fins provide a key vertebrate system for studying mechanosensation. The extraordinary morphological and behavioral diversity that exists across fish species provide rich opportunities for comparative mechanosensory studies in fins. The fins of fishes have been found to function as proprioceptors, by providing feedback on fin ray position and movement, and as tactile sensors, by encoding pressures applied to the fin surface...
June 18, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Ahmer M Hameed, Jinna Yao, Richard D M Allen, Wayne J Hawthorne, Henry C Pleass, Howard Lau
Robotic-assisted kidney transplantation (RAKT) represents the most recent innovation in the evolution of kidney transplantation surgery. Vascular techniques enabling kidney transplantation have existed since the early 20 century and contributed to the first successful open kidney transplant procedure in 1954. Technical advances have since facilitated minimally invasive laparoscopic and robotic techniques in live-donor surgery, and subsequently for the recipient procedure. This review follows the development of surgical techniques for kidney transplantation, with a special focus on the advent of robotic-assisted transplantation because of its potential to facilitate transplantation of those deemed previously too obese to transplant by standard means...
June 18, 2018: Transplantation
Lawrence Lee, Borja de Lacy, Marcos Gomez Ruiz, Alexander Sender Liberman, Matthew R Albert, John R T Monson, Antonio Lacy, Seon Hahn Kim, Sam B Atallah
OBJECTIVE: To compare the quality of surgical resection of transanal total mesorectal excision (TA-TME) and robotic total mesorectal excision (R-TME). BACKGROUND: Both TA-TME and R-TME have been advocated to improve the quality of surgery for rectal cancer below 10 cm from the anal verge, but there are little data comparing TA-TME and R-TME. METHODS: Data of patients undergoing TA-TME or R-TME for rectal cancer below 10 cm from the anal verge and a sphincter-saving procedure from 5 high-volume rectal cancer referral centers between 2011 and 2017 were obtained...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Surgery
Ruoxin Li, Qing Xiao, Yuanchuan Liu, Jianxin Hu, Lijun Li, Gen Li, Hao Liu, Kainan Hu, Li Wen
In this paper, a versatile Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) algorithm is developed to integrate an incompressible fluid flow with a bio-inspired multibody dynamic system. Of particular interest to the biomimetic application, the algorithm is developed via four properly selected benchmark verifications. The present tool has shown its powerful capability for solving a variety of biomechanics fish swimming problems, including self-propelled multiple degrees of freedom with a rigid undulatory body, multiple deformable fins and an integrated system with both undulatory fish body and flexible fins...
June 19, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Felix Berlth, Han-Kwang Yang
Minimal-invasive gastrectomy has been established as commonly used method for the early gastric cancer in Korea and Japan. From the first laparoscopic cancer gastrectomy in 1992 in Japan, numerous prospective randomized trials from these two countries have gained the evidence for non-inferiority or even specific benefits compared to open surgery. In Korea, the "Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgical Study Group" (KLASS group) founded, in 2004, successfully gained evidence not only in regards of oncological safety of laparoscopic gastrectomy, but also for the impact of different reconstruction methods and alternative extents of luminal resection on postoperative outcome and quality of life...
June 18, 2018: Updates in Surgery
James G Bittner Iv, Lawrence W Cesnik, Thomas Kirwan, Laurie Wolf, Dongjing Guo
Unfortunately, the online published article has errors in Table 2. The number "118.0" found under the column "L-IHR" and row "Time from IHR to resume activities" should be corrected to 18.0.
June 18, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Marco Marino, Gaspare Gulotta, Andrzej L Komorowski
Robotic surgery can help to overcome some technical limitations of laparoscopic pancreaticoduodenectomy thanks to EndoWrist instrumentations and the 3D view. Despite the potential benefits, its employment is still low and controversial. We focused on some important technical details crucial for a safe robotic pancreatectomy. After performing 52 robotic pancreatic resections that included 10 pancreatoduodenectomies, the authors describe their technique. The review of literature on robotic and laparoscopic duodenopancreatectomy is also performed in order to evaluate possible benefits of the robotic platform...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Surgery
Arjun Chandrasekhar, Deborah M Gordon, Saket Navlakha
We study how the arboreal turtle ant (Cephalotes goniodontus) solves a fundamental computing problem: maintaining a trail network and finding alternative paths to route around broken links in the network. Turtle ants form a routing backbone of foraging trails linking several nests and temporary food sources. This species travels only in the trees, so their foraging trails are constrained to lie on a natural graph formed by overlapping branches and vines in the tangled canopy. Links between branches, however, can be ephemeral, easily destroyed by wind, rain, or animal movements...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Robert B Hawkins, J Hunter Mehaffey, Matthew M Mullen, Wiley L Nifong, W Randolph Chitwood, Marc R Katz, Mohammed A Quader, Andy C Kiser, Alan M Speir, Gorav Ailawadi
OBJECTIVES: Institutional studies suggest robotic mitral surgery may be associated with superior outcomes. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of robotic, minimally invasive (mini), and conventional mitral surgery. METHODS: A total of 2300 patients undergoing non-emergent isolated mitral valve operations from 2011 to 2016 were extracted from a regional Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. Patients were stratified by approach: robotic (n=372), mini (n=576) and conventional sternotomy (n=1352)...
June 18, 2018: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
Benjamin Treml, Andrew Gillman, Philip Buskohl, Richard Vaia
Robots autonomously interact with their environment through a continual sense-decide-respond control loop. Most commonly, the decide step occurs in a central processing unit; however, the stiffness mismatch between rigid electronics and the compliant bodies of soft robots can impede integration of these systems. We develop a framework for programmable mechanical computation embedded into the structure of soft robots that can augment conventional digital electronic control schemes. Using an origami waterbomb as an experimental platform, we demonstrate a 1-bit mechanical storage device that writes, erases, and rewrites itself in response to a time-varying environmental signal...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Angelo Cangelosi, Francesca Stramandinoli
This paper reviews computational modelling approaches to the learning of abstract concepts and words in embodied agents such as humanoid robots. This will include a discussion of the learning of abstract words such as 'use' and 'make' in humanoid robot experiments, and the acquisition of numerical concepts via gesture and finger counting strategies. The current approaches share a strong emphasis on embodied cognition aspects for the grounding of abstract concepts, and a continuum, rather than dichotomy, view of concrete/abstract concepts differences...
August 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Riccardo Bertolo, Juan Garisto, Matthew Gettman, Jihad Kaouk
Robotic urology has evolved in parallel with the development of new robotic systems. A recently conceived robotic platform, specifically designed for single-port (SP) surgery, has reignited the interest for the approach. In this review, the evolution of robotic SP surgery was analyzed. Since the first published experience with a robot-assisted SP urological procedure in 2010, despite technical adjustments, robotic SP has remained with limited diffusion. However, the limitations of the available instrumentation are going to be softened with an upcoming next-generation robotic platform...
June 15, 2018: European Urology Focus
Ling-Fung Yeung, Corinna Ockenfeld, Man-Kit Pang, Hon-Wah Wai, Oi-Yan Soo, Sheung-Wai Li, Kai-Yu Tong
BACKGROUND: Robot-assisted ankle-foot-orthosis (AFO) can provide immediate powered ankle assistance in post-stroke gait training. Our research team has developed a novel lightweight portable robot-assisted AFO which is capable of detecting walking intentions using sensor feedback of wearer's gait pattern. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of robot-assisted gait training with ankle dorsiflexion assistance. METHODS: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled trial...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Abimbola Ayangbesan, David M Golombos, Ron Golan, Padraic O'Malley, Patrick Lewicki, Xian Wu, Douglas Scherr
PURPOSE: While surgical approach has recently been associated with positive surgical margin (PSM) following partial nephrectomy (PN) for small (<4 cm) renal masses, its impact on margin status for large (>4 cm) masses is unclear. We sought to evaluate the relationship between margin and surgical approach in patients undergoing PN for large renal masses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), we identified patients undergoing PN for pathological T1b and T2a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosed from 2010 to 2013...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Wendong Wang, Chaohong Liang, Peng Zhang, Yikai Shi
OBJECTIVE: A portable back massage robot which can complete the massage operations such as tapping, kneading and rolling was designed to improve the level of intelligence and massage effect. An efficient full covered path planning algorithm was put forward for a portable back massage robot to improve the coverage. BACKGROUND: Currently, massage robots has become one of important research focuses with the increasing requirements for healthcare. The massage robot is difficult to be widely accepted as there are problems of massage robot in control, structure, and coverage path planning...
May 30, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
Charelle M Carter-Brooks, Angela L Du, Kristine M Ruppert, Anna L Romanova, Halina M Zyczynski
OBJECTIVES: ERAS protocols were developed for colorectal surgery to hasten post-op recovery. Variations of the protocol are being adopted for gynecologic procedures despite limited population and procedure-specific outcome data. Our objective was to evaluate if implementation of an ERAS pathway would facilitate reduced length of admission in an urogynecology population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective analysis of patients undergoing pelvic floor reconstructive surgery by 7 female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeons we compared same day discharge, length of admission and post-op complications before and after implementation of an ERAS pathway at a tertiary-care hospital...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Christopher T Richards, Laura B Porro
Spherical Linear Interpolation (SLERP) has long been used in computer animation to interpolate movements between two 3D orientations. We developed a forward kinematics (FK) approach using quaternions and SLERP to predict how frogs modulate jump kinematics between start posture and takeoff. Frog limb kinematics have been studied during various activities, yet the causal link between differences in joint kinematics and locomotor variation remains unknown. We varied 1) takeoff angle from 8 to 60 degrees; 2) turn angle from 0 to 18 degrees; and 3) initial body pitch from 0 to 70 degrees...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Eren Esen, Erman Aytac, Orhan Ağcaoğlu, Serkan Zenger, Emre Balik, Bilgi Baca, İsmail Hamzaoğlu, Tayfun Karahasanoğlu, Dursun Buğra
In this study, perioperative and short-term postoperative results of totally robotic versus totally laparoscopic rectal resections for cancer were investigated in a comparative manner by considering risk factors including obesity, male sex, and neoadjuvant treatment. In addition to overall comparison, the impact of sex, obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m), and neoadjuvant treatment was assessed in patients who had a total mesorectal excision (TME). Operative time was longer in the robotic group (P<0.001)...
June 16, 2018: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
Rong Liu, Zi-Zheng Wang, Yuan-Xing Gao, Yong Xu
Central pancreatectomy is carried out for the treatment of benign or low-malignant potential tumors located in the pancreatic neck or proximal part of pancreatic body. With technological development, the robotic surgical system has shown its advantage in minimally invasive surgery and been increasingly applied in central pancreatectomy. However, reconstruction of the continuity of pancreas with end-to-end anastomosis after robotic central pancreatectomy has not been applied. In this study, we report surgical techniques for robotic central pancreatectomy with end-to-end anastomosis...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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