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Fan Chen, Dan Zhou, Jiahui Wang, Tianzhen Li, Xiaohu Zhou, Tiansheng Gan, Stephan Handschuh-Wang, Xuechang Zhou
Tough hydrogels, polymeric network structures with excellent mechanical properties (e.g. high stretchability and toughness), are emerging soft materials, owing to their great potentials in applications spanning from soft robotics to tissue engineering. Despite their remarkably mechanical features, tough hydrogels exhibit two flaws, i.e., freezing around the icing temperatures of water and drying at arid conditions. Inspired by the applications of cryoprotectants (CPAs) in the inhibition of the icing of water in various biological samples (e...
April 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Nirveek Bhattacharjee, Cesar Parra-Cabrera, Yong Tae Kim, Alexandra P Kuo, Albert Folch
The advantageous physiochemical properties of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) have made it an extremely useful material for prototyping in various technological, scientific, and clinical areas. However, PDMS molding is a manual procedure and requires tedious assembly steps, especially for 3D designs, thereby limiting its access and usability. On the other hand, automated digital manufacturing processes such as stereolithography (SL) enable true 3D design and fabrication. Here the formulation, characterization, and SL application of a 3D-printable PDMS resin (3DP-PDMS) based on commercially available PDMS-methacrylate macromers, a high-efficiency photoinitiator and a high-absorbance photosensitizer, is reported...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Materials
Daisy B Hassani, Jeffrey M Mangel, Sangeeta T Mahajan, Adonis K Hijaz, Sherif El-Nashar, David Sheyn
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Opportunistic salpingectomy (OS) at the time of benign hysterectomy has recently emerged as a potential primary preventive modality for ovarian cancer. Our objective was to determine whether the reported rate of OS at the time of prolapse surgery is similar to the rate of OS at the time of gynecologic surgery for non-prolapse indications. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was sent to the Society of Gynecologic Surgery members. Responses were divided into surgeons who did and did not perform OS at the time of prolapse repair...
April 14, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Qu Liu, Yuanxing Gao, Zhiming Zhao, Guodong Zhao, Rong Liu, Wan Yee Lau
BACKGROUND: The deep location, narrow operative space and proximity to major vessels make minimally invasive resection of nonadrenal retroperitoneal tumors (NTRs) challenging and rarely reported. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of robotic resection of benign nonadrenal retroperitoneal tumors. METHODS: The demographics and perioperative outcomes of a consecutive series of patients who underwent robotic NTR resection between January 1, 2015, and August 30, 2017, were analyzed...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Patricio C Gargollo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Yazhou Hu, Bailu Si
We propose a neural network model for reinforcement learning to control a robotic manipulator with unknown parameters and dead zones. The model is composed of three networks. The state of the robotic manipulator is predicted by the state network of the model, the action policy is learned by the action network, and the performance index of the action policy is estimated by a critic network. The three networks work together to optimize the performance index based on the reinforcement learning control scheme. The convergence of the learning methods is analyzed...
April 13, 2018: Neural Computation
E S Koneva, K V Lyadov, T V Shapovalenko, E V Zhukova, V G Polushkin
BACKGROUND: total hip replacement has long ago become the «golden standard» for the treatment of dysplastic coxarthrosis in thousands of the patients receiving it every year. In the meantime, the analysis of the specialized literature gives evidence of the lack of a systematic and personified approach to the rehabilitation treatment. AIM: The objective of the present study was to improve medical rehabilitation of the patients following the total hip replacement and to develop the personalized programs for walking modality reconstruction taking into consideration the age and the body weight of the patients...
April 9, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Wenqiang Chi, Jindong Liu, Hedyeh Rafii-Tari, Celia Riga, Colin Bicknell, Guang-Zhong Yang
PURPOSE: Endovascular intervention is limited by two-dimensional intraoperative imaging and prolonged procedure times in the presence of complex anatomies. Robotic catheter technology could offer benefits such as reduced radiation exposure to the clinician and improved intravascular navigation. Incorporating three-dimensional preoperative imaging into a semiautonomous robotic catheterization platform has the potential for safer and more precise navigation. This paper discusses a semiautonomous robotic catheter platform based on previous work (Rafii-Tari et al...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Rajat Vashistha, Deepak Chhabra, Pratyoosh Shukla
Mechanocomputational techniques in conjunction with artificial intelligence (AI) are revolutionizing the interpretations of the crucial information from the medical data and converting it into optimized and organized information for diagnostics. It is possible due to valuable perfection in artificial intelligence, computer aided diagnostics, virtual assistant, robotic surgery, augmented reality and genome editing (based on AI) technologies. Such techniques are serving as the products for diagnosing emerging microbial or non microbial diseases...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Microbiology
Satoru Masubuchi, Masataka Morimoto, Sei Morikawa, Momoko Onodera, Yuta Asakawa, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Tomoki Machida
Van der Waals heterostructures are comprised of stacked atomically thin two-dimensional crystals and serve as novel materials providing unprecedented properties. However, the random natures in positions and shapes of exfoliated two-dimensional crystals have required the repetitive manual tasks of optical microscopy-based searching and mechanical transferring, thereby severely limiting the complexity of heterostructures. To solve the problem, here we develop a robotic system that searches exfoliated two-dimensional crystals and assembles them into superlattices inside the glovebox...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Elena Beretta, Erika Molteni, Emilia Biffi, Roberta Morganti, Paolo Avantaggiato, Sandra Strazzer
Robotically-driven orthoses (RDO) are promising for treating gait impairment in children with hemiplegia after acquired brain injury (ABI). Despite this, existing literature on the employment of RDO in ABI is scanty, and cohorts' age spans throughout the adult age, with no specific focus on the developmental age. We aim to compare a treatment solely based on conventional physiotherapy (CP) with a program combining RDO training with CP, and to examine the effect of time following ABI on recovery. A prospective two-cohorts study was conducted in a rehabilitation hospital...
March 23, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Sammy Othman, Brian J McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current cost impact and financial outcomes of transoral robotic surgery in Otolaryngology. DATA SOURCES: A narrative review of the literature with a defined search strategy using Pubmed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. REVIEW METHODS: Using keywords ENT or otolaryngology, cost or economic, transoral robotic surgery or TORs, searches were performed in Pubmed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science and reviewed by the authors for inclusion and analysis...
April 3, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
T Dalager, P T Jensen, T S Winther, T R Savarimuthu, A Markauskas, O Mogensen, K Søgaard
Surgeons work in awkward work postures and have high precision demands - well-known risk factors for musculoskeletal pain. Robotic-assisted laparoscopy is expected to be less demanding compared to conventional laparoscopy; however, studies indicate that robotic-assisted laparoscopy is also associated with poor ergonomics and musculoskeletal pain. The ergonomic condition in the robotic console is partially dependent upon the chair provided, which often is a regular office chair. Our study quantified and compared the muscular load during robotic-assisted laparoscopy using one of two custom built ergonomic chairs and a regular office chair...
April 9, 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Benjamin L Taylor, Douglas S Scherr
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma is a rare malignancy that has an abundance of surgical treatment options, including open, laparoscopic, robotic, and endoscopic approaches. As advances in technology allow for shorter, less morbid operations, the variation in care of this uncommon disease has raised concerns about compromising oncologic principles. Many institutions have described their experience with promising results; however, there is a paucity of high-quality data that supports the use of robotic surgery as a new gold standard...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
Danica May, Jessie Gills, Scott E Delacroix
Retrospective observational studies support the utility of robotic-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that RARC with extracorporeal urinary diversion may lead to decreased estimated blood loss, decreased rate of transfusion, similar oncologic outcomes, cost-effectiveness, and variable increased operative times. Although RCTs comparing RARC with open radical cystectomy are currently ongoing, it may be several years before the utility of RARC is known. The discussion on the role of cystectomy, indications, outcomes, care pathways, access to high-volume care centers, and efforts to decrease complications may prove as important as the technique itself...
May 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
Yue Wang, Cherry Gregory, Mark A Minor
Molded silicone rubbers are common in manufacturing of soft robotic parts, but they are often prone to tears, punctures, and tensile failures when strained. In this article, we present a fabric compositing method for improving the mechanical properties of soft robotic parts by creating a fabric/rubber composite that increases the strength and durability of the molded rubber. Comprehensive ASTM material tests evaluating the strength, tear resistance, and puncture resistance are conducted on multiple composites embedded with different fabrics, including polyester, nylon, silk, cotton, rayon, and several blended fabrics...
March 19, 2018: Soft Robotics
Seong Kyung Hong, Seongjin Yang, Seong J Cho, Hyungkook Jeon, Geunbae Lim
This paper details the design of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-shielded waterproof crack-based stretchable strain sensor, in which the electrical characteristics and sensing performance are not influenced by changes in humidity. This results in a higher number of potential applications for the sensor. A previously developed omni-purpose stretchable strain (OPSS) sensor was used as the basis for this work, which utilizes a metal cracking structure and provides a wide sensing range and high sensitivity. Changes in the conductivity of the OPSS sensor, based on humidity conditions, were investigated along with the potential possibility of using the design as a humidity sensor...
April 12, 2018: Sensors
Dayley S Keil, Lauren D Schiff, Erin T Carey, Janelle K Moulder, Amy M Goetzinger, Seema M Patidar, Lyla M Hance, Lavinia M Kolarczyk, Robert S Isaak, Paula D Strassle, Jay W Schoenherr
BACKGROUND: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways in gynecologic surgery have been shown to decrease length of stay with no impact on readmission, but no study has assessed predictors of admission in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of admission after laparoscopic hysterectomy (LH) and robotic-assisted hysterectomy (RAH) performed under an ERAS pathway. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study of women undergoing LH/RAH for benign indications within an ERAS pathway...
April 11, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Preston Ohta, Luis Valle, Jonathan King, Kevin Low, Jaehyun Yi, Christopher G Atkeson, Yong-Lae Park
As robots begin to interact with humans and operate in human environments, safety becomes a major concern. Conventional robots, although reliable and consistent, can cause injury to anyone within its range of motion. Soft robotics, wherein systems are made to be soft and mechanically compliant, are thus a promising alternative due to their lightweight nature and ability to cushion impacts, but current designs often sacrifice accuracy and usefulness for safety. We, therefore, have developed a bioinspired robotic arm combining elements of rigid and soft robotics such that it exhibits the positive qualities of both, namely compliance and accuracy, while maintaining a low weight...
April 2018: Soft Robotics
Dónal P Holland, Sara Berndt, Maxwell Herman, Conor J Walsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Soft Robotics
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