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Parkinson psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874252/-neurosyphilis-as-differential-diagnosis-in-psychiatry
#1
Rikke Maria Nielsen, Elena Sadovina
A 46-year-old previously healthy man was referred to a psychiatric department after debuting with persecutory delusions. He had symptoms of Parkinson's disease as well as a significant impairment of memory and cognitive function. Neurological tests detected discrete balance and rigidity problems. Paraclinical tests were normal, and neurologists explained the symptoms as side effects to the antipsychotic medication. A lumbar puncture showed high concentrations of leukocytes and protein, and syphilis screening was positive...
September 4, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696436/reduced-trpc6-mrna-levels-in-the-blood-cells-of-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
R Lu, J Wang, R Tao, J Wang, T Zhu, W Guo, Y Sun, H Li, Y Gao, W Zhang, C J Fowler, Q Li, S Chen, Z Wu, C L Masters, C Zhong, N Jing, Y Wang, Y Wang
Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) inhibits β-amyloid (Aβ) production. Hyperforin, the TRPC6 agonist, reduces Aβ levels and improves cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD) models. However, it's unknown whether TRPC6 expression is changed in AD patients. In this case-control study, we measured TRPC6 expression levels in the peripheral blood cells of four independent AD sets from five hospitals and one mild cognitive impairment (MCI) set from a local community (229 AD, 70 MCI, 40 Parkinson disease and 359 controls from China, total n=698) using quantitative real-time PCR assay...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671140/a-consensus-set-of-outcomes-for-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-international-consortium-for-health-outcomes-measurement
#3
Paul de Roos, Bastiaan R Bloem, Thomas A Kelley, Angelo Antonini, Richard Dodel, Peter Hagell, Connie Marras, Pablo Martinez-Martin, Shyamal H Mehta, Per Odin, Kallol Ray Chaudhuri, Daniel Weintraub, Bil Wilson, Ryan J Uitti
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that is expected to double in prevalence due to demographic shifts. Value-based healthcare is a proposed strategy to improve outcomes and decrease costs. To move towards an actual value-based health care system, condition-specific outcomes that are meaningful to patients are essential. OBJECTIVE: Propose a global consensus standard set of outcome measures for PD. METHODS: Established methods for outcome measure development were applied, as outlined and used previously by the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM)...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652218/quantitative-positron-emission-tomography-in-brain-research
#4
REVIEW
Kerstin Heurling, Antoine Leuzy, My Jonasson, Andreas Frick, Eduardo R Zimmer, Agneta Nordberg, Mark Lubberink
The application of positron emission tomography (PET) in brain research has increased substantially during the past 20 years, and is still growing. PET provides a unique insight into physiological and pathological processes in vivo. In this article we introduce the fundamentals of PET, and the methods available for acquiring quantitative estimates of the parameters of interest. A short introduction to different areas of application is also given, including basic research of brain function and in neurology, psychiatry, drug receptor occupancy studies, and its application in diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
June 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636480/the-emerging-role-of-pimavanserin-in-the-management-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#5
Neal Hermanowicz, Gustavo Alva, Fernando Pagan, Alberto J Espay, Amita Patel, Katya Cruz Madrid, Daniel Kremens, Jim Kenney, Sheila Arquette, Gary Tereso, Maria Lopes, Carolyn Farnum
A panel of experts drawn from neurology, psychiatry, geropsychiatry, geriatrics, and pharmacy representatives of 3 health plans convened in New York City on July 30, 2016, with the objective of sharing opinions, ideas, and information regarding the optimal management of Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP). Three key points emerged from the discussion: (1) Because of the nature of Parkinson's disease and PDP, finding appropriate treatment can prove challenging; (2) emerging therapies may present an opportunity for effective disease management; and (3) moving forward, provider and patient education regarding PDP and available treatment options is essential for well-managed symptoms and better quality of life...
June 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564666/a-comprehensive-approach-to-deep-brain-stimulation-for-movement-disorders
#6
Umer Akbar, Wael F Asaad
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a well-established form of neuromodulation, used primarily for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Essential Tremor (ET). The selection of patients who will benefit most from DBS depends on a team of clinicians from various disciplines, including neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, neuropsychology and rehabilitation specialists. The actual surgical procedure can take many forms. We apply a combination of multidisciplinary, team-based evaluations and intra-operative neurophysiology, test stimulation and imaging to optimize DBS therapy for individual patients...
June 1, 2017: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482941/disrupted-identities-movement-mind-and-memory-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Iracema Leroi
For the many clinicians au fait with the history of the clinical description of Parkinson's disease, they will be aware that the very earliest description of James Parkinson's "Shaking Palsy" in 1817 explicitly excluded the involvement of cognitive and emotional processes as manifestations of the disease. Within a short time following his treatise, it became all too clear to those in the field that Parkinson's disease is more than just a motor disorder, and as was aptly conceptualized by Paul McHugh, Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 1975 until 2001, Parkinson's disease is closer to being a "triadic disorder," encompassing motor, cognitive, and psychiatric elements (McHugh, 1989)...
June 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265121/brain-structural-and-functional-signatures-of-impulsive-compulsive-behaviours-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
F Imperiale, F Agosta, E Canu, V Markovic, A Inuggi, M Jecmenica-Lukic, A Tomic, M Copetti, S Basaia, V S Kostic, M Filippi
This study assessed brain structural and functional alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease and impulsive-compulsive behaviours (PD-ICB) compared with controls and PD no-ICB cases. Eighty-five PD patients (35 PD-ICB) and 50 controls were recruited. All subjects underwent three-dimensional T1-weighted, diffusion tensor (DT), and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS fMRI). We assessed cortical thickness with surface-based morphometry, subcortical volumes using FIRST, DT MRI metrics using region of interest and tractography approaches, and RS fMRI using a model free approach...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218249/complexity-variability-assessment-of-nonlinear-time-varying-cardiovascular-control
#9
Gaetano Valenza, Luca Citi, Ronald G Garcia, Jessica Noggle Taylor, Nicola Toschi, Riccardo Barbieri
The application of complex systems theory to physiology and medicine has provided meaningful information about the nonlinear aspects underlying the dynamics of a wide range of biological processes and their disease-related aberrations. However, no studies have investigated whether meaningful information can be extracted by quantifying second-order moments of time-varying cardiovascular complexity. To this extent, we introduce a novel mathematical framework termed complexity variability, in which the variance of instantaneous Lyapunov spectra estimated over time serves as a reference quantifier...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127512/side-of-onset-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-relation-to-neuropsychological-measures
#10
Edward J Modestino, Chioma Amenechi, AnnaMarie Reinhofer, Patrick O'Toole
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) usually emerges with a unilateral side-of-onset (left-onset: LOPD; right-onset: ROPD; Marinus & van Hilten, 2015) due to an asymmetrical degeneration of striatal dopaminergic neurons (Donnemiller et al., Brain, 135, 2012, 3348). This has led to a body of research exploring the cognitive, neuropsychological, and clinical differences between LOPD and ROPD (e.g., Verreyt et al., Neuropsychology Review, 21, 2011, 405). METHODS: Thirty ROPD and 14 LOPD cases were drawn from a Boston clinic specializing in PD...
January 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044062/opening-up-the-dna-methylome-of-dementia
#11
R Delgado-Morales, M Esteller
Dementia is a complex clinical condition characterized by several cognitive impairments that interfere with patient independence in executing everyday tasks. Various neurodegenerative disorders have dementia in common among their clinical manifestations. In addition, these diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, share molecular alterations at the neuropathological level. In recent years, the field of neuroepigenetics has expanded massively and it is now clear that epigenetic processes, such as DNA methylation, are mechanisms involved in both normal and pathological brain function...
April 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955830/inverse-agonists-what-do-they-mean-for-psychiatry
#12
David Nutt, Stephen Stahl, Pierre Blier, Filippo Drago, Joseph Zohar, Sue Wilson
The nomenclature of drugs is a critical aspect of science, since it can direct research and optimize treatment choices. Traditionally drugs acting on CNS receptors have been classified as either agonists or antagonists. Recently a new class of ligand, the inverse agonist, has been identified in some receptor systems. Inverse agonists have opposite actions to those of agonists but the effects of both of these can be blocked by antagonists. Pimavanserin is a new 5-HT2A receptor acting drug that has been given market authorization for psychosis in Parkinson׳s disease...
January 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925292/cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-impact-on-quality-of-life-of-carers
#13
R A Lawson, A J Yarnall, F Johnston, G W Duncan, T K Khoo, D Collerton, J P Taylor, D J Burn
BACKGROUND: The quality of life (QoL) of informal caregivers of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) (PwP) can be affected by the caring role. Because of cognitive symptoms and diminished activities of daily living, in addition to the management of motor symptoms, carers of PwP and cognitive impairment may experience increased levels of burden and poorer QoL compared with carers of PwP without cognitive impairment. This study aimed to investigate the impact of cognitive impairment in PD upon QoL of carers...
December 7, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877000/psychiatric-aspects-of-toxoplasmosis-an-indian-perspective
#14
Ajish G Mangot
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the well-studied parasites because of its medical and veterinary importance, and its suitability as a model for cell biology and molecular studies. Latent toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host was considered benign until recently. The importance of this parasite has been steadily rising in the field of psychiatry and neurology as it has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Researchers in India have unfortunately restricted themselves to finding the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in special populations and animals...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803666/inhibitors-of-mao-a-and-mao-b-in-psychiatry-and-neurology
#15
REVIEW
John P M Finberg, Jose M Rabey
Inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B are in clinical use for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders respectively. Elucidation of the molecular structure of the active sites of the enzymes has enabled a precise determination of the way in which substrates and inhibitor molecules are metabolized, or inhibit metabolism of substrates, respectively. Despite the knowledge of the strong antidepressant efficacy of irreversible MAO inhibitors, their clinical use has been limited by their side effect of potentiation of the cardiovascular effects of dietary amines ("cheese effect")...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777423/characterization-and-transplantation-of-enteric-neural-crest-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753149/functional-dystonia-and-the-borderland-between-neurology-and-psychiatry-new-concepts
#17
REVIEW
Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
December 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711942/reversible-valproic-acid-induced-parkinsonism-and-cognitive-impairment-in-an-elderly-patient-with-bipolar-disorder-i
#18
Sameer Hassamal, Susan Waller, Kimberly Reese, Claudia Testa
Valproic acid (VPA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder. VPA is also used off-label to treat other conditions in psychiatry such as impulse control disorders, major depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although VPA is mostly well-tolerated, common adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), neurological symptoms (sedation, ataxia, tremor), weight gain, and alopecia...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431292/inducible-ablation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-adult-mice-impairs-locomotion-motor-skill-learning-and-leads-to-severe-parkinsonism
#19
E P Bello, R Casas-Cordero, G L Galiñanes, E Casey, M A Belluscio, V Rodríguez, D Noaín, M G Murer, M Rubinstein
Motor execution and planning are tightly regulated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors present in basal ganglia circuits. Although stimulation of D1 receptors is known to enhance motor function, the global effect of D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation or blockade remains highly controversial, with studies showing increasing, decreasing or no changes in motor activity. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic attempts to block or eliminate D2R have led to controversial results that questioned the importance of D2R in motor function...
April 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400857/lithium-suppression-of-tau-induces-brain-iron-accumulation-and-neurodegeneration
#20
P Lei, S Ayton, A T Appukuttan, S Moon, J A Duce, I Volitakis, R Cherny, S J Wood, M Greenough, G Berger, C Pantelis, P McGorry, A Yung, D I Finkelstein, A I Bush
Lithium is a first-line therapy for bipolar affective disorder. However, various adverse effects, including a Parkinson-like hand tremor, often limit its use. The understanding of the neurobiological basis of these side effects is still very limited. Nigral iron elevation is also a feature of Parkinsonian degeneration that may be related to soluble tau reduction. We found that magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxation time changes in subjects commenced on lithium therapy were consistent with iron elevation. In mice, lithium treatment lowers brain tau levels and increases nigral and cortical iron elevation that is closely associated with neurodegeneration, cognitive loss and parkinsonian features...
March 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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