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Parkinson psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877000/psychiatric-aspects-of-toxoplasmosis-an-indian-perspective
#1
Ajish G Mangot
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the well-studied parasites because of its medical and veterinary importance, and its suitability as a model for cell biology and molecular studies. Latent toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent host was considered benign until recently. The importance of this parasite has been steadily rising in the field of psychiatry and neurology as it has been implicated in numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. Researchers in India have unfortunately restricted themselves to finding the prevalence of toxoplasma antibodies in special populations and animals...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803666/inhibitors-of-mao-a-and-mao-b-in-psychiatry-and-neurology
#2
REVIEW
John P M Finberg, Jose M Rabey
Inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B are in clinical use for the treatment of psychiatric and neurological disorders respectively. Elucidation of the molecular structure of the active sites of the enzymes has enabled a precise determination of the way in which substrates and inhibitor molecules are metabolized, or inhibit metabolism of substrates, respectively. Despite the knowledge of the strong antidepressant efficacy of irreversible MAO inhibitors, their clinical use has been limited by their side effect of potentiation of the cardiovascular effects of dietary amines ("cheese effect")...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777423/characterization-and-transplantation-of-enteric-neural-crest-cells-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
W Li, L Huang, J Zeng, W Lin, K Li, J Sun, W Huang, J Chen, G Wang, Q Ke, J Duan, X Lai, R Chen, M Liu, Y Liu, T Wang, X Yang, Y Chen, H Xia, A P Xiang
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is recognized as a second brain because of its complexity and its largely autonomic control of bowel function. Recent progress in studying the interactions between the ENS and the central nervous system (CNS) has implicated alterations of the gut/brain axis as a possible mechanism in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), Parkinson's disease (PD) and other human CNS disorders, whereas the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown because of the lack of good model systems...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753149/functional-dystonia-and-the-borderland-between-neurology-and-psychiatry-new-concepts
#4
Rachel Newby, Jane Alty, Peter Kempster
Mind-brain dualism has dominated historical commentary on dystonia, a dichotomous approach that has left our conceptual grasp of it stubbornly incomplete. This is particularly true of functional dystonia, most diagnostically challenging of all functional movement disorders, in which the question of inherent psychogenicity remains a focus of debate. Phenomenological signs considered in isolation lack the specificity to distinguish organic and nonorganic forms, and dystonia's variability has frustrated attempts to develop objective laboratory-supported standards...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711942/reversible-valproic-acid-induced-parkinsonism-and-cognitive-impairment-in-an-elderly-patient-with-bipolar-disorder-i
#5
Sameer Hassamal, Susan Waller, Kimberly Reese, Claudia Testa
Valproic acid (VPA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder. VPA is also used off-label to treat other conditions in psychiatry such as impulse control disorders, major depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although VPA is mostly well-tolerated, common adverse effects include gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea), neurological symptoms (sedation, ataxia, tremor), weight gain, and alopecia...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431292/inducible-ablation-of-dopamine-d2-receptors-in-adult-mice-impairs-locomotion-motor-skill-learning-and-leads-to-severe-parkinsonism
#6
E P Bello, R Casas-Cordero, G L Galiñanes, E Casey, M A Belluscio, V Rodríguez, D Noaín, M G Murer, M Rubinstein
Motor execution and planning are tightly regulated by dopamine D1 and D2 receptors present in basal ganglia circuits. Although stimulation of D1 receptors is known to enhance motor function, the global effect of D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation or blockade remains highly controversial, with studies showing increasing, decreasing or no changes in motor activity. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic attempts to block or eliminate D2R have led to controversial results that questioned the importance of D2R in motor function...
July 19, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27400857/lithium-suppression-of-tau-induces-brain-iron-accumulation-and-neurodegeneration
#7
P Lei, S Ayton, A T Appukuttan, S Moon, J A Duce, I Volitakis, R Cherny, S J Wood, M Greenough, G Berger, C Pantelis, P McGorry, A Yung, D I Finkelstein, A I Bush
Lithium is a first-line therapy for bipolar affective disorder. However, various adverse effects, including a Parkinson-like hand tremor, often limit its use. The understanding of the neurobiological basis of these side effects is still very limited. Nigral iron elevation is also a feature of Parkinsonian degeneration that may be related to soluble tau reduction. We found that magnetic resonance imaging T2 relaxation time changes in subjects commenced on lithium therapy were consistent with iron elevation. In mice, lithium treatment lowers brain tau levels and increases nigral and cortical iron elevation that is closely associated with neurodegeneration, cognitive loss and parkinsonian features...
July 12, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189581/activational-and-effort-related-aspects-of-motivation-neural-mechanisms-and-implications-for-psychopathology
#8
REVIEW
John D Salamone, Samantha E Yohn, Laura López-Cruz, Noemí San Miguel, Mercè Correa
Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli...
May 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148092/multimodal-neuroimaging-informed-clinical-applications-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#9
Rafael O'Halloran, Brian H Kopell, Emma Sprooten, Wayne K Goodman, Sophia Frangou
Recent advances in neuroimaging data acquisition and analysis hold the promise to enhance the ability to make diagnostic and prognostic predictions and perform treatment planning in neuropsychiatric disorders. Prior research using a variety of types of neuroimaging techniques has confirmed that neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysfunction in anatomical and functional brain circuits. We first discuss current challenges associated with the identification of reliable neuroimaging markers for diagnosis and prognosis in mood disorders and for neurosurgical treatment planning for deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27046648/circadian-rhythm-dysfunction-a-novel-environmental-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease
#10
E Lauretti, A Di Meco, S Merali, D Praticò
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Although rare genetically linked cases of PD have been reported, most incidences are sporadic in nature. Late-onset, sporadic PD is thought to result from the combined effects of genetic and environmental risk factors exposure. Sleep and circadian rhythm disorders are recurrent among PD patients and appear early in the disease. Although some evidence supports a relationship between circadian disruption (CD) and PD, whether this is secondary to the motor symptoms or, indeed, is a factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease remains to be investigated...
April 5, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26869988/toward-precision-psychiatry-statistical-platform-for-the-personalized-characterization-of-natural-behaviors
#11
Elizabeth B Torres, Robert W Isenhower, Jillian Nguyen, Caroline Whyatt, John I Nurnberger, Jorge V Jose, Steven M Silverstein, Thomas V Papathomas, Jacob Sage, Jonathan Cole
There is a critical need for new analytics to personalize behavioral data analysis across different fields, including kinesiology, sports science, and behavioral neuroscience. Specifically, to better translate and integrate basic research into patient care, we need to radically transform the methods by which we describe and interpret movement data. Here, we show that hidden in the "noise," smoothed out by averaging movement kinematics data, lies a wealth of information that selectively differentiates neurological and mental disorders such as Parkinson's disease, deafferentation, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia from typically developing and typically aging controls...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26559218/-sleep-medicine-1965%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-2015
#12
Jacques Montplaisir
The Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal houses one of the first sleep centers founded 40 years ago. This center contributed to virtually every aspect of sleep medicine. It grew considerably over time to become one of the largest sleep centers worldwide. It is now called the Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine (CARSM). Fourteen researchers and more than 30 research PhDs and postdoctoral fellows are working together in a 1,500 square-meter facility that includes separate units for fundamental and clinical studies and for the sleep disorders clinic...
2015: Santé Mentale Au Québec
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26423182/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-augmentation-pharmacotherapy-with-aripiprazole-for-treatment-resistant-depression-in-late-life-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Eric J Lenze, Benoit H Mulsant, Daniel M Blumberger, Jordan F Karp, John W Newcomer, Stewart J Anderson, Mary Amanda Dew, Meryl A Butters, Jacqueline A Stack, Amy E Begley, Charles F Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Treatment-resistant major depression is common and potentially life-threatening in elderly people, in whom little is known about the benefits and risks of augmentation pharmacotherapy. We aimed to assess whether aripiprazole is associated with a higher probability of remission than is placebo. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial at three centres in the USA and Canada to test the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole augmentation for adults aged older than 60 years with treatment-resistant depression (Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] score of ≥15)...
December 12, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412285/changes-in-nutritional-status-after-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-nucleus-basalis-of-meynert-in-alzheimer-s-disease-results-of-a-phase-i-study
#14
M Noreik, J Kuhn, K Hardenacke, D Lenartz, A Bauer, C P Bührle, P Häussermann, M Hellmich, J Klosterkötter, J Wiltfang, M Maarouf, H-J Freund, V Visser-Vandewalle, V Sturm, R-J Schulz
OBJECTIVE: The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with impaired nutritional status. New methods, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), are currently being tested to decrease the progression of AD. DBS is an approved method in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and its suitability for the treatment of AD patients is currently under experimental investigation. To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of this new treatment, it is important to assess potential side effects of DBS regarding the nucleus basalis of Meynert; this new treatment is thought to positively affect cognition and might counteract the deterioration of nutritional status and progressive weight loss observed in AD...
October 2015: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26377851/psychiatric-conditions-in-parkinson-disease-a-comparison-with-classical-psychiatric-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Massimiliano Buoli, Alice Caldiroli, Alfredo Carlo Altamura
Psychiatric conditions often complicate the outcome of patients affected by Parkinson disease (PD), but they differ from classical psychiatric disorders in terms of underlying biological mechanisms, clinical presentation, and treatment response. The purpose of the present review is to illustrate the biological and clinical aspects of psychiatric conditions associated with PD, with particular reference to the differences with respect to classical psychiatric disorders. A careful search of articles on main databases was performed in order to obtain a comprehensive review about the main psychiatric conditions associated with PD...
March 2016: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26372511/the-impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-brain-and-behaviour-implications-for-psychiatry
#16
REVIEW
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The gut microbiota has become a focus of research for those interested in the brain and behaviour. Here, we profile the gut microbiota in a variety of neuropsychiatric syndromes. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple routes of communication between the gut and brain have been established and these include the vagus nerve, immune system, short chain fatty acids and tryptophan. Developmentally, those born by caesarean section have a distinctly different microbiota in early life to those born per vaginum...
November 2015: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26352911/understanding-the-impact-of-brain-disorders-towards-a-horizontal-epidemiology-of-psychosocial-difficulties-and-their-determinants
#17
REVIEW
Alarcos Cieza, Marta Anczewska, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Mary Baker, Jerome Bickenbach, Somnath Chatterji, Sally Hartley, Matilde Leonardi, Tuuli Pitkänen
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis of 'horizontal epidemiology', i.e. that psychosocial difficulties (PSDs), such as sleep disturbances, emotional instability and difficulties in personal interactions, and their environmental determinants are experienced in common across neurological and psychiatric disorders, together called brain disorders. STUDY DESIGN: A multi-method study involving systematic literature reviews, content analysis of patient-reported outcomes and outcome instruments, clinical input and a qualitative study was carried out to generate a pool of PSD and environmental determinants relevant for nine different brain disorders, namely epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, dementia, depression, schizophrenia and substance dependency...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26246920/idiopathic-basal-ganglia-calcification-presented-with-impulse-control-disorder
#18
Cem Sahin, Mustafa Levent, Gulhan Akbaba, Bilge Kara, Emine Nese Yeniceri, Betul Battaloglu Inanc
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or "Fahr's disease," is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation...
2015: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26197101/-neuropsychiatric-manifestations-in-parkinson-s-disease
#19
E Oikonomou, Th Paparrigopoulos
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease affecting 1-2% of the population over 60. Although diagnosed by its characteristic motor manifestations, PD may be preceded, and is frequently accompanied, by a wide range of psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. These symptoms are often more debilitating than its motor complications and it is nowadays appreciated that they can be an important cause of excess disability in PD, frequently necessitating hospitalization and institutionalization...
April 2015: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26157034/computational-psychiatry-towards-a-mathematically-informed-understanding-of-mental-illness
#20
REVIEW
Rick A Adams, Quentin J M Huys, Jonathan P Roiser
Computational Psychiatry aims to describe the relationship between the brain's neurobiology, its environment and mental symptoms in computational terms. In so doing, it may improve psychiatric classification and the diagnosis and treatment of mental illness. It can unite many levels of description in a mechanistic and rigorous fashion, while avoiding biological reductionism and artificial categorisation. We describe how computational models of cognition can infer the current state of the environment and weigh up future actions, and how these models provide new perspectives on two example disorders, depression and schizophrenia...
January 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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