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infection, psychotherapy, brain, gastrointestinal

Paul Enck, Qasim Aziz, Giovanni Barbara, Adam D Farmer, Shin Fukudo, Emeran A Mayer, Beate Niesler, Eamonn M M Quigley, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović, Michael Schemann, Juliane Schwille-Kiuntke, Magnus Simren, Stephan Zipfel, Robin C Spiller
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with a high population prevalence. The disorder can be debilitating in some patients, whereas others may have mild or moderate symptoms. The most important single risk factors are female sex, younger age and preceding gastrointestinal infections. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, stool irregularities and bloating, as well as other somatic, visceral and psychiatric comorbidities. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based on symptoms and the exclusion of other organic diseases, and therapy includes drug treatment of the predominant symptoms, nutrition and psychotherapy...
2016: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Tomasz Mach
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, affecting about 20% of the world's population. Chronic abdominal pain or discomfort relieved by defecation and associated with altered bowel habits are the mainstay in diagnosis. The pathophysiology of IBS remains unknown. This biopsychosocial disorder involves dysregulation of the nervous system, altered intestinal motility, and increased visceral sensitivity. All of these result from dysregulation of the bidirectional communication between the gut with its enteric nervous system and the brain (the brain-gut axis), modulated by various psychosocial and environmental factors (e...
June 2004: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Nicholas J Talley, Robin Spiller
Irritable bowel syndrome affects 10% of adults with an unexplained female predominance. Although only a few people see their family doctor, the disease causes reduced quality of life and represents a multi-billion pound health-care problem. The disorder clusters in families, which is possibly because of intra-familial learning and a genetic predisposition. Visceral hypersensitivity is a key feature in most patients. Results of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow during rectal distension suggest underlying disturbances of central processing of afferent signals, though this is not unique to the disorder, since it is seen in other chronic pain syndromes...
August 17, 2002: Lancet
K Franco-Bronson
There are a few well-designed studies to systematically assess treatment-resistant depression in the medically ill patient. Psychiatrists, however, do have extensive clinical experience in treating depression in the medical patient. This experience can be useful in helping to determine treatment resistance and in selecting consequent treatment choices. A decision tree is offered in Table 1 to clarify the questions the clinician must answer. The first step is to evaluate the role of the medical illness and to decide whether or not treating that effectively will also clear the depression...
June 1996: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
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