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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648858/the-effect-of-alliance-focused-training-on-a-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-personality-disorders
#1
J Christopher Muran, Jeremy D Safran, Catherine F Eubanks, Bernard S Gorman
OBJECTIVE: To improve success rates in psychotherapy, we developed and evaluated an alliance-focused training (AFT) protocol with regard to patient-therapist interpersonal behavior in a 30-session protocol of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for outpatients comorbid with Axis I and II conditions. METHOD: Participants included 40 patients treated by 40 therapists in a multiple baseline design in which novice therapists trained to fidelity standards in CBT were introduced to AFT at different time intervals (after either 8 or 16 sessions) during a 30-session CBT protocol...
April 2018: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644474/risk-factors-for-parental-psychopathology-a-study-in-families-with-children-or-adolescents-with-psychopathology
#2
L W Wesseldijk, G C Dieleman, F J A van Steensel, M Bartels, J J Hudziak, R J L Lindauer, S M Bögels, C M Middeldorp
The parents of children with psychopathology are at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. To investigate which parents are mostly at risk, we assessed in a clinical sample of families with children with psychopathology, whether parental symptom scores can be predicted by offspring psychiatric diagnoses and other child, parent and family characteristics. Parental depressive, anxiety, avoidant personality, attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD), and antisocial personality symptoms were measured with the Adult Self Report in 1805 mothers and 1361 fathers of 1866 children with a psychiatric diagnosis as assessed in a child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinic...
April 11, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628881/posture-motor-and-posture-ideomotor-dual-tasking-a-putative-marker-of-psychomotor-retardation-and-depressive-rumination-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#3
Lyubomir I Aftanas, Olga M Bazanova, Nataliya V Novozhilova
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that the assessment of postural performance may be a potentially reliable and objective marker of the psychomotor retardation (PMR) in the major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the important facets of MDD-related PMR is reflected in disrupted central mechanisms of psychomotor control, heavily influenced by compelling maladaptive depressive rumination. In view of this we designed a research paradigm that included sequential execution of simple single-posture task followed by more challenging divided attention posture tasks, involving concurring motor and ideomotor workloads...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623444/polygenic-risk-score-use-in-migraine-research
#4
Mona Ameri Chalmer, Ann-Louise Esserlind, Jes Olesen, Thomas Folkmann Hansen
BACKGROUND: The latest Genome-Wide Association Study identified 38 genetic variants associated with migraine. In this type of studies the significance level is very difficult to achieve (5 × 10- 8 ) due to multiple testing. Thus, the identified variants only explain a small fraction of the genetic risk. It is expected that hundreds of thousands of variants also confer an increased risk but do not reach significance levels. One way to capture this information is by constructing a Polygenic Risk Score...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621902/all-for-one-and-one-for-all-mental-disorders-in-one-dimension
#5
Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E Moffitt
In both child and adult psychiatry, empirical evidence has now accrued to suggest that a single dimension is able to measure a person's liability to mental disorder, comorbidity among disorders, persistence of disorders over time, and severity of symptoms. This single dimension of general psychopathology has been termed "p," because it conceptually parallels a dimension already familiar to behavioral scientists and clinicians: the "g" factor of general intelligence. As the g dimension reflects low to high mental ability, the p dimension represents low to high psychopathology severity, with thought disorder at the extreme...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590492/an-end-to-end-framework-for-real-time-automatic-sleep-stage-classification
#6
Amiya Patanaik, Ju Lynn Ong, Joshua J Gooley, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Michael W L Chee
Sleep staging is a fundamental but time consuming process in any sleep laboratory. To greatly speed up sleep staging without compromising accuracy, we developed a novel framework for performing real-time automatic sleep stage classification. The client-server architecture adopted here provides an end-to-end solution for anonymizing and efficiently transporting polysomnography data from the client to the server and for receiving sleep stages in an interoperable fashion. The framework intelligently partitions the sleep staging task between the client and server in a way that multiple low-end clients can work with one server, and can be deployed both locally as well as over the cloud...
March 26, 2018: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575926/device-and-method-for-noninvasive-glucose-assessment
#7
Yosef Joseph Segman
BACKGROUND: Intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels is crucial in diabetes management. This article presents a new device, the TensorTip Combo Glucometer (CoG), developed by Cnoga Medical Ltd, which enables to predict capillary tissue glucose concentration noninvasively. METHODS: Noninvasive glucose readings usually provide irregular or disordered mathematical manifold over the measurement space. To establish a transfer function, which correctly correlates the noninvasive raw data and the actual invasive glucose level, we suggest a mathematical concept that employs a personal calibration procedure to associate glucose pattern and multiple optical signals derived from tissue response to light emission in the range of visible to IR...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574507/new-steps-for-treating-alcohol-use-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Erin J Campbell, Andrew J Lawrence, Christina J Perry
Alcohol use disorder is a complex syndrome with multiple treatment points including drug-induced pathology, withdrawal management, behavioral/cognitive strategies, and relapse prevention. These different components may be complicated by genotype and phenotype. A huge milestone for the treatment of alcohol use disorder across several countries in the last 10 years was the introduction of practice guidelines integrating clinical expertise and research evidence. These provide a summary of interventions that have been shown to be effective following rigorous and replicated clinical trials...
March 25, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573219/predicting-loneliness-with-polygenic-scores-of-social-psychological-and-psychiatric-traits
#9
Abdel Abdellaoui, Michel G Nivard, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Iryna Fedko, Karin J H Verweij, Bart M L Baselmans, Erik A Ehli, Gareth E Davies, Meike Bartels, Dorret I Boomsma, John T Cacioppo
Loneliness is a heritable trait that accompanies multiple disorders. The association between loneliness and mental health indices may partly be due to inherited biological factors. We constructed polygenic scores for 27 traits related to behavior, cognition, and mental health and tested their prediction for self-reported loneliness in a population-based sample of 8,798 Dutch individuals. Polygenic scores for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder were significantly associated with loneliness...
March 23, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566046/loneliness-in-schizophrenia-construct-clarification-measurement-and-clinical-relevance
#10
Graham M L Eglit, Barton W Palmer, A'verria S Martin, Xin Tu, Dilip V Jeste
Loneliness is a highly prevalent experience in schizophrenia. Theoretical models developed in the general population propose that loneliness is tantamount to a feeling of being unsafe, is accompanied by enhanced environmental threat perception, and leads to poor physical, emotional, and cognitive functioning. Previous research has reported that loneliness is associated with poorer physical and emotional health in schizophrenia; however, few studies have directly compared loneliness and its correlates in persons with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric comparison subjects...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559087/noncoding-rnas-stress-glucocorticoids-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#11
REVIEW
Nikolaos P Daskalakis, Allison C Provost, Richard G Hunter, Guia Guffanti
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a pathologic response to trauma that impacts ∼8% of the population and is highly comorbid with other disorders, such as traumatic brain injury. PTSD affects multiple biological systems throughout the body, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, cortical function, and the immune system, and while the study of the biological underpinnings of PTSD and related disorders are numerous, the roles of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are just emerging. Moreover, deep sequencing has revealed that ncRNAs represent most of the transcribed mammalian genome...
January 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558861/relationships-among-apathy-health-related-quality-of-life-and-function-in-huntington-s-disease
#12
Nora E Fritz, Nicholas R Boileau, Julie C Stout, Rebecca Ready, Joel S Perlmutter, Jane S Paulsen, Kimberly Quaid, Stacey Barton, Michael K McCormack, Susan L Perlman, Noelle E Carlozzi
Up to 90% of individuals with Huntington's disease (HD)-a progressive, inherited neurodegenerative disorder-experience apathy. Apathy is particularly debilitating because it is marked by a reduction in goal-directed behaviors, including self-care, social interactions, and mobility. The objective of this study was to examine relationships between variables of apathy, functional status, physical function, cognitive function, behavioral status/emotional function, and health-related quality of life. Clinician-rated measures of physical, cognitive, and behavioral function, including one clinician-rated item on apathy, and self-reported measures of physical function, health-related quality of life, and emotional, cognitive, and social function were collected in a single session from 487 persons with the HD mutation (prodromal, N=193; early-stage manifest, N=186; late-stage manifest, N=108)...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554592/substance-use-disorders-and-medical-comorbidities-among-high-need-high-risk-patients-with-diabetes
#13
Li-Tzy Wu, Udi E Ghitza, He Zhu, Susan Spratt, Marvin Swartz, Paolo Mannelli
BACKGROUND: The majority of the U.S. healthcare resources are utilized by a small population characterized as high-risk, high-need persons with complex care needs (e.g., adults with multiple chronic conditions). Substance use disorders (SUDs) and mental health disorders (MHDs) are a driver of poor health and additional healthcare costs, but they are understudied among high-need patients. OBJECTIVE: We examine the prevalence and correlates of SUDs and MHDs among adults with high-risk diabetes, who are patients at the top 10% risk score for developing poor outcomes (hospital admission or death)...
March 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553350/the-translational-value-of-psychophysiology-methods-and-mechanisms-multilevel-dynamic-personalized
#14
Jennifer F Buckman, Evgeny G Vaschillo, Maria Fonoberova, Igor Mezić, Marsha E Bates
OBJECTIVE: It has been nearly 15 years since Kazdin and Nock published methodological and research recommendations for understanding mechanisms of change in child and adolescent therapy. Their arguments and enthusiasm for research on mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) resonated across disciplines and disorders, as it shined a light on the crucial importance of understanding how and for whom treatments instigate behavior change and how therapeutic mechanisms might be extended to "situations and settings of everyday life...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547739/good-psychiatric-management-a-review
#15
REVIEW
John Gunderson, Sara Masland, Lois Choi-Kain
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has moved from being an untreatable disorder to a disorder with multiple evidence-based psychotherapies. When a second generation of research showed that less intensive, easier-to-learn therapies could be nearly as effective, they offered an approach that would be responsive to the persisting unmet needs of these patients. This paper describes good psychiatric management (GPM), a once-weekly, generalist model that medicalizes the disorder, emphasizes psychoeducation, and focuses on social adaptation...
January 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543659/do-pain-coping-and-pain-beliefs-associate-with-outcome-measures-before-knee-arthroplasty-in-patients-who-catastrophize-about-pain-a-cross-sectional-analysis-from-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Daniel L Riddle, Mark P Jensen, Dennis Ang, James Slover, Robert Perera, Levent Dumenci
BACKGROUND: Pain-coping strategies and appraisals are responses to the pain experience. They can influence patient-reported and physical performance outcome measures in a variety of disorders, but the associations between a comprehensive profile of pain-coping responses and preoperative pain/function and physical performance measures in patients scheduled for knee arthroplasty have not been examined. Patients with moderate to high pain catastrophizing (a pain appraisal approach associated with an exaggerated focus on the threat value of pain) may represent an excellent study population in which to address this knowledge gap...
April 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534878/roundtable-discussion-familial-chylomicronemia-syndrome-diagnosis-and-management
#17
REVIEW
William Virgil Brown, Ira Goldberg, Barton Duell, Daniel Gaudet
Plasma triglyceride concentrations are normally below 150 mg/dL in the fasting state. However, these lipids can reach values of several thousand mg/dL. Elevations in this range are due to a massive retention of chylomicrons and usually result from multiple genetic variants with superimposed influences such as diabetes and immune disorders. Less commonly, major gene defects in lipoprotein metabolism can be the cause. These may present soon after birth with strong evidence of familial penetrance. The causes of this syndrome have been discussed in a Roundtable published in the most recent issue of this Journal...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532498/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-mortality-in-va-patients-with-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator
#18
Peter Ofman, Peter Hoffmeister, Danny G Kaloupek, David R Gagnon, Adelqui Peralta, Luc Djousse, J Michael Gaziano, Catherine R Rahilly-Tierney
BACKGROUND: The association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mortality in patients undergoing implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement has not been evaluated in US veterans. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective cohort of 25,678 veterans who underwent ICD implant between September 30, 2002 and December 31, 2011. 3,280 of these subjects carried the diagnosis of PTSD prior to ICD implant. Primary outcome was mortality from any cause between the date of ICD implant and the end of follow-up, which was September 30, 2013...
March 13, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532057/association-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-with-longitudinal-%C3%AE-amyloid-accumulation-in-elderly-persons-without-dementia
#19
Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Importance: Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly individuals without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531434/metabolic-syndrome-among-adults-of-surendranagar-district-of-saurashtra-gujarat-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Chaitanya Gopalrao Chinawale, Dipak V Parmar, Parth Kavathia, Twinkle Rangnani, Jainy Thakkar, Girija Kartha
Background: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex disorder and a major health concern in developing countries. Data on MetS in Indian population show multiplicity. There are no published reports about the prevalence of MetS in population of Saurashtra region, Gujarat. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of MetS and its components in adult population of this region. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was carried out among 473 participants who attended free health checkup camps...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Community Medicine
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