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multiple personality disorder

V Bergink, J T Larsen, M H J Hillegers, S K Dahl, H Stevens, P B Mortensen, L Petersen, T Munk-Olsen
Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Walter Pirker, Regina Katzenschlager
Human gait depends on a complex interplay of major parts of the nervous, musculoskeletal and cardiorespiratory systems. The individual gait pattern is influenced by age, personality, mood and sociocultural factors. The preferred walking speed in older adults is a sensitive marker of general health and survival. Safe walking requires intact cognition and executive control. Gait disorders lead to a loss of personal freedom, falls and injuries and result in a marked reduction in the quality of life. Acute onset of a gait disorder may indicate a cerebrovascular or other acute lesion in the nervous system but also systemic diseases or adverse effects of medication, in particular polypharmacy including sedatives...
October 21, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Laura Nauha, Niina S Keränen, Maarit Kangas, Timo Jämsä, Jarmo Reponen
The aim of this study was to assess in practice whether assistive technologies support and facilitate the work of a family caregiver or care staff, and whether these technologies support the independence of a person with a memory disorder. A comprehensive set of supportive devices and alarm systems were experimentally tested in the care of five test subjects in an assisted living facility by eight nurses, and in the care of four test subjects in a home environment by three family caregivers and one care team...
October 20, 2016: Dementia
Nagah M Abo El-Fetoh, Naif G Alenezi, Nasser G Alshamari, Omar G Alenezi
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is the most common cutaneous disorder affecting adolescents and young adults. Small, noninflamed acne lesions may not be more than a slight nuisance, but, in individuals with more severe inflammatory disease, pain, social embarrassment, and both physical and psychological scarring can be life altering. Despite its high prevalence, no previous community-based studies have been conducted in Arar, northern border of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, addressing this issue...
September 2016: Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association
H Jackson, A K MacLeod
OBJECTIVE: There is growing recognition in psychology that wellness is more than the absence of disease and distress. Well-being has been defined in numerous ways. Two dominant models include Diener, Eunkook, Suh, Lucas and Smith's (1999) model of subjective well-being (SWB) and Ryff's (1989) model of psychological well-being (PWB). In contrast to the abundance of research investigating negative constructs and psychopathology in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), there has been a paucity of positive psychology studies...
October 13, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
Mark Goodhew, Allison M Salmon, Christina Marel, Katherine L Mills, Marianne Jauncey
The Sydney Medically Supervised Injecting Centre (MSIC) is a supervised injecting facility (SIF) where people who inject drugs (PWID) can do so legally, under health professional supervision. The majority of clients have low levels of education and employment, high rates of incarceration and unstable housing and poor social networks, and 70 % do not access local health services. These factors increase the risk of poor mental health, and it has been documented that PWID have elevated rates of mood, anxiety, personality and psychotic disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); and higher rates of trauma exposure, suicidality and self-harm...
October 12, 2016: Harm Reduction Journal
Gonce Elcin, Duygu Gülseren, Miyase Bayraktar, Serdar Gunalp, Timur Gurgan
Autoimmune estrogen dermatitis is a cyclical cutaneous eruption that occurs premenstrually and rapid resolution of the eruptions within a few days of menstrual cycles. The disorder has variable clinical manifestations consisting of macules, papules, vesicles, urticarial lesions, bullae, eczematous plaques, and erythema multiforme-like lesions. Herein, we present a case of a 30-year-old woman with attacks of edema and erosions involving the oral and genital mucosal sites on every first day of her menstruation period...
October 11, 2016: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Yi Wang, Yi Deng, Zhi Li, Xu Li, Chen-Yuan Zhang, Zhen Jin, Ming-Xia Fan, Michael T Compton, Eric F C Cheung, Kelvin O Lim, Raymond C K Chan
Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are subtle signs of fetal developmental abnormalities that have been considered to be among the most replicated risk markers for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. However, quantitative approaches are needed to measure craniofacial MPAs. The present study adopted an imaging-based quantitative approach to examine craniofacial MPAs across the spectrum of schizophrenia and affective disorders, to address their sensitivity and specificity. We sampled 31 patients with schizophrenia, 30 of their unaffected relatives, and 30 individuals with schizotypal personality traits, as well as 37 non-schizotypal controls...
October 8, 2016: PsyCh Journal
Stephanie D Stepp, Sophie A Lazarus, Amy L Byrd
There is an urgent need to identify signs that harbinger onset of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Advancement in this area is required to refine developmental theories, discover etiological mechanisms, improve early detection, and achieve our ultimate goal of prevention. Though many studies have supported a wide range of factors that increase subsequent risk for BPD, this literature has yet to be critically evaluated, and there are no comprehensive reviews that examine and integrate these findings. To address this limitation, we conducted a systematic review to summarize and synthesize the current literature...
October 2016: Personality Disorders
Ales Grambal, Jan Prasko, Dana Kamaradova, Klara Latalova, Michaela Holubova, Marketa Marackova, Marie Ociskova, Milos Slepecky
INTRODUCTION: Self-stigma arises from one's acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar affective disorder (BAD), and anxiety disorders (AD) and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Vincent T Martin, Brinder Vij
BACKGROUND: The role of diet in the management of the headache patient is a controversial topic in the headache field. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence supporting the hypothesis that specific foods or ingredients within foods and beverages trigger attacks of headache and/or migraine and to discuss the use of elimination diets in the prevention of headache disorders METHODS: This represents part 1 of a narrative review of the role of diet in the prevention of migraine and other headache disorders...
October 2016: Headache
Clay B Holroyd, Akina Umemoto
The United States National Institute of Mental Health has recently promoted the Research Domain Criteria framework, which emphasizes the study of neurocognitive constructs that cut across different disorders. These constructs are said to express dimensionally across the population, giving rise to psychopathologies only in the extreme cases where that expression is maladaptive. Inspired by the RDoC framework, we propose that recent insights into the function of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain area said to be responsible for selecting and motivating extended behaviors, may elucidate the etiology of a diverse array of mental disorders...
September 28, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Robert Lindblad, Lian Hu, Neal Oden, Paul Wakim, Carmen Rosa, Paul VanVeldhuisen
BACKGROUND: Most substance use disorders (SUD) treatment clinical trials are too short and small to reliably estimate the incidence of rare events like death. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to estimate the overall mortality rates among a SUD treatment-seeking population by pooling participants from multiple clinical trials conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-sponsored National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). PARTICIPANTS: Drug and or alcohol users (N=9866) who sought treatment and participated in one of the twenty-two CTN trials...
November 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Ruth Ann Marrie, Scott B Patten, Jamie Greenfield, Lawrence W Svenson, Nathalie Jette, Helen Tremlett, Christina Wolfson, Sharon Warren, Joanne Profetto-McGrath, John D Fisk, James Blanchard, Patricia Caetano, Lawrence Elliott, Bo Nancy Yu, Virender Bhan, Larry Svenson
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for psychiatric comorbidity in multiple sclerosis (MS) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association between physical comorbidity and incident depression, anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder in a MS population relative to a matched general population cohort. METHODS: Using population-based administrative data from Alberta, Canada we identified 9624 persons with MS, and 41,194 matches. Using validated case definitions, we estimated the incidence of depression, anxiety disorder, and bipolar disorder, and their association with physical comorbidities using Cox regression, adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and index year...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Deanna Saylor, Arun Venkatesan
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the human neurotropic polyomavirus JC (JCV). The disease occurs virtually exclusively in immunocompromised individuals, and, prior to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, was seen most commonly in the setting of HIV/AIDS. More recently, however, the incidence of PML in HIV-uninfected persons has increased with broader use of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory medications utilized in a variety of systemic and neurologic autoimmune disorders...
November 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
S Kukora, N Gollehon, G Weiner, N Laventhal
OBJECTIVE: Neonatologists provide antenatal counseling to support shared decision-making for complicated pregnancies. Poor or ambiguous prognostication can lead to inappropriate treatment and parental distress. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of antenatal prognosticaltion. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort was assembled from a prospectively populated database of all outpatient neonatology consultations. On the basis of the written consultation, fetuses were characterized by diagnosis groups (multiple anomalies or genetic disorders, single major anomaly and obstetric complications), assigned to five prognostic categories (I=survivable, IIA=uncertain but likely survivable, II=uncertain, IIB=uncertain but likely non-survivable, III non-survivable) and two final outcome categories (fetal demise/in-hospital neonatal death or survival to hospital discharge)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Lauren Schwartz, Anthony Holland, Elisabeth Dykens, Theresa Strong, Elizabeth Roof, Jessica Bohonowych
: This paper reports on the 'Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) Mental Health Research Strategy Workshop' that took place in March 2015. PWS is characterized by a complex phenotype affecting multiple systems with a high prevalence of maladaptive behaviours, and neuropsychiatric illness. Prader Willi syndrome results from the absence of paternally derived alleles located at the imprinted chromosomal locus, 15q11-13. The goal of the workshop was to highlight the state of the science of the mental health of people with this rare neurodevelopmental disorder...
September 29, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
María A Ramos-Olazagasti, Héctor R Bird, Glorisa J Canino, Cristiane S Duarte
Early alcohol use is associated with multiple negative outcomes later in life, including substance use disorders. Identification of factors related to this very early risk indicator can help inform early prevention efforts. This study prospectively examined the relationship between childhood adversities and early initiation of alcohol use (by age 14) among Puerto Rican youth, the Latino subgroup at highest risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood. The data come from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of Puerto Rican youth in two sites (South Bronx, New York, and the standard metropolitan area of San Juan, Puerto Rico)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Matthew Menear, Michel Gervais, Emmanuelle Careau, Maud-Christine Chouinard, Guylaine Cloutier, André Delorme, Maman Joyce Dogba, Michèle Dugas, Marie-Pierre Gagnon, Michel Gilbert, Diane Harvey, Janie Houle, Nick Kates, Sara Knowles, Neasa Martin, Donald Nease, Pierre Pluye, Esther Samson, Hervé Tchala Vignon Zomahoun, France Légaré
INTRODUCTION: Collaborative mental healthcare (CMHC) has garnered worldwide interest as an effective, team-based approach to managing common mental disorders in primary care. However, questions remain about how CMHC works and why it works in some circumstances but not others. In this study, we will review the evidence on one understudied but potentially critical component of CMHC, namely the engagement of patients and families in care. Our aims are to describe the strategies used to engage people with depression or anxiety disorders and their families in CMHC and understand how these strategies work, for whom and in what circumstances...
2016: BMJ Open
Pierre Decavel, Thierry Moulin, Yoshimasa Sagawa
OBJECTIVE: Gait disorders is the most common and disabling dysfunction in patient with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). Several studies have been using gait parameters to determine the interventional effects in PwMS. However, few studies interested initially to determine reproducibility of these parameters which could overestimate effects. The aim of the study was to examine the reproducibility in different spatio-temporal parameters of gait measured during short and long distances. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-eight PwMS (EDSS 4-7) and 19 healthy peers were included in this study...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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