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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087569/exercise-as-treatment-for-alcohol-use-disorders-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Mats Hallgren, Davy Vancampfort, Esther S Giesen, Andreas Lundin, Brendon Stubbs
OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating effects of exercise for people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) across multiple health outcomes. We also investigated the prevalence and predictors of dropout from exercise studies in AUDs. DESIGN: Systematic review and random effects meta-analysis with meta-regression analyses. DATA SOURCES: 3 major electronic databases were searched from inception until April 2016 for exercise intervention studies in adults with AUDs...
January 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078103/the-potential-of-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-imaging-based-retinal-biomarkers
#2
REVIEW
Prateep Phadikar, Sandeep Saxena, Surabhi Ruia, Timothy Y Y Lai, Carsten H Meyer, Dean Eliott
BACKGROUND: Biomarker", a merged word of "biological marker", refers to a broad subcategory of medical signs that objectively indicate the state of health, and well-being of an individual. Biomarkers hold great promise for personalized medicine as information gained from diagnostic or progression markers can be used to tailor treatment to the individual for highly effective intervention in the disease process. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has proved useful in identifying various biomarkers in ocular and systemic diseases...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064446/depression-screening-tools-in-persons-with-epilepsy-a-systematic-review-of-validated-tools
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie J Gill, Sara Lukmanji, Kirsten M Fiest, Scott B Patten, Samuel Wiebe, Nathalie Jetté
OBJECTIVE: Depression affects approximately 25% of epilepsy patients. However, the optimal tool to screen for depression in epilepsy has not been definitively established. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature on the validity of depression-screening tools in epilepsy. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched until April 4, 2016 with no restriction on dates. Abstract, full-text review and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate...
January 8, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060201/epidemiology-of-comorbid-conditions-among-adults-50-years-and-older-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Raj G Kumar, Shannon B Juengst, Zhensheng Wang, Kristen Dams-OʼConnor, Sureyya S Dikmen, Therese M OʼNeil-Pirozzi, Marie N Dahdah, Flora M Hammond, Elizabeth R Felix, Patricia M Arenth, Amy K Wagner
OBJECTIVES: Aging individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) experience multiple comorbidities that can affect recovery from injury. The objective of this study was to describe the most commonly co-occurring comorbid conditions among adults 50 years and older with TBI. SETTING: Level I Trauma centers. PARTICIPANTS: Adults 50 years and older with moderate/severe TBI enrolled in the TBI-Model Systems (TBI-MS) from 2007 to 2014 (n = 2134)...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056999/aboriginal-and-non-aboriginal-australian-former-prisoners-patterns-of-morbidity-and-risk-of-hospitalisation
#5
Jane E Lloyd, Elizabeth McEntyre, Eileen Baldry, Julian Trofimovos, Devon Indig, Penelope Abbott, Jennifer Reath, Kathy Malera-Bandjalan, Mark F Harris
BACKGROUND: People who have been in custody are more likely to experience multiple, long standing health issues. They are at high risk of illness and injury post release and experience poor access to health services both of which contribute to high rates of recidivism. The study was conducted to examine Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal former prisoners' risk of hospitalisation and rehospitalisation in the five years post release from custody and identified the common reasons for hospitalisations...
January 5, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050470/neurofibromatosis-type-1-presenting-with-ophthalmic-features-a-case-series
#6
Gunjan Jain, Vaibhav Kumar Jain, Indra Kumar Sharma, Reena Sharma, Neeraj Saraswat
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) is an autosomal dominant disorder involving multiple systems and affects approximately 1 out of 3000 persons. Ocular manifestations are lisch nodules, plexiform neurofibroma, optic pathway gliomas. The proper diagnosis of NF-1 is a crucial task for a clinician due to the various clinical manifestations including vision and life threatening malignancies in few patients, which may arise in the different phases of life. The authors report three cases of NF-1, presenting with ophthalmic symptoms in teenager boys...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044203/advances-with-neonatal-aerodigestive-science-in-the-pursuit-of-safe-swallowing-in-infants-invited-review
#7
Sudarshan R Jadcherla
Feeding, swallowing, and airway protection are three distinct entities. Feeding involves a process of sequential, neurosensory, and neuromotor interactions of reflexes and behaviors facilitating ingestion. Swallowing involves anterograde bolus movement during oral-, pharyngeal-, and esophageal phases of peristalsis into stomach. During these events, coordination with airway protection is vital for homeostasis in clearing any material away from airway vicinity. Neurological-airway-digestive inter-relationships are critical to the continuum of successful feeding patterns during infancy, either in health or disease...
January 2, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042929/impact-of-childhood-trauma-and-cognitive-emotion-regulation-strategies-on-risk-aversive-and-loss-aversive-patterns-of-decision-making-in-patients-with-depression
#8
Hyu Jung Huh, Kwangyeol Baek, Jae-Hyung Kwon, Jaeseung Jeong, Jeong-Ho Chae
INTRODUCTION: Although poor decision-making ultimately impairs quality of life in depression, few studies describe the clinical characteristics of patients suffering from dysfunctional decision-making. This study aims to delineate the effect of childhood trauma and other personality factors on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. METHODS: A total of 50 depressive patients completed surveys for the measurement of sociodemographic factors, trauma loads and other clinical characteristics, including depression, anxiety, and strategies for emotion regulation...
November 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030565/using-functional-or-structural-magnetic-resonance-images-and-personal-characteristic-data-to-identify-adhd-and-autism
#9
Sina Ghiassian, Russell Greiner, Ping Jin, Matthew R G Brown
A clinical tool that can diagnose psychiatric illness using functional or structural magnetic resonance (MR) brain images has the potential to greatly assist physicians and improve treatment efficacy. Working toward the goal of automated diagnosis, we propose an approach for automated classification of ADHD and autism based on histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) features extracted from MR brain images, as well as personal characteristic data features. We describe a learning algorithm that can produce effective classifiers for ADHD and autism when run on two large public datasets...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017555/a-preliminary-examination-of-self-concept-in-older-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-gilles-de-la-tourette-syndrome
#10
Paola R Silvestri, Flavia Chiarotti, Valentina Baglioni, Valeria Neri, Francesco Cardona, Andrea E Cavanna
INTRODUCTION: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by multiple tics and often associated with behavioural problems. Although there is evidence of significantly reduced self-esteem in children and adolescents with GTS, little is known about perceived self-concept and its clinical determinants at the transition age between adolescence and adulthood. We therefore set out to investigate self-concept in a clinical sample of young patients with GTS at this crucial age for personal development...
December 18, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017232/stiff-person-syndrome-masquerading-as-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Joseph J Sabatino, Scott D Newsome
BACKGROUND: Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare neuroimmunological disorder presenting with a wide variety of signs and symptoms that mimic neuro-inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), thus delaying diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of over 100 patients with SPS who were treated at Johns Hopkins Hospital and identified five patients previously diagnosed with MS. RESULTS: Patients were female with a mean age of 53years old (range 43-64)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013098/toward-precision-smoking-cessation-treatment-i-moderator-results-from-a-factorial-experiment
#12
Megan E Piper, Tanya R Schlam, Jessica W Cook, Stevens S Smith, Daniel M Bolt, Wei-Yin Loh, Robin Mermelstein, Linda M Collins, Michael C Fiore, Timothy B Baker
BACKGROUND: The development of tobacco use treatments that are effective for all smokers is critical to improving clinical and public health. The Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) uses highly efficient factorial experiments to evaluate multiple intervention components for possible inclusion in an optimized tobacco use treatment. Factorial experiments permit analyses of the influence of patient characteristics on main and interaction effects of multiple, relatively discrete, intervention components...
November 25, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012303/relationship-between-body-composition-and-vertical-ground-reaction-forces-in-obese-children-when-walking
#13
Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, Pilar Serra-Añó, Alberto Pardo-Ibáñez, Luis-Millán Gonzalez, Xavier García-Massó
BACKGROUND: Obesity is now a serious worldwide challenge, especially in children. This condition can cause a number of different health problems, including musculoskeletal disorders, some of which are due to mechanical stress caused by excess body weight. The aim of this study was to determine the association between body composition and the vertical ground reaction force produced during walking in obese children. METHODS: Sixteen children participated in the study, six females and ten males [11...
December 15, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991825/is-dietary-restraint-a-unitary-or-multi-faceted-construct
#14
Kelsey E Hagan, Kelsie T Forbush, Po-Yi Chen
Given that approximately two-thirds of adults are overweight or obese, there is substantial interest in dieting (dietary restraint) to promote weight loss. However, research on the associations between dietary restraint and binge eating is inconsistent. One possible explanation for contradictory findings is that measures of dietary restraint assess heterogeneous constructs. Nonclinical samples of university student (n = 433; 62.6% female) and community-recruited (n = 407; 47.4% female) adults completed self-report measures of dietary restraint...
December 19, 2016: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990584/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptoms-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-rural-china
#15
Sitong Luo, Chunqing Lin, Guoping Ji, Li Li
Among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms associated with HIV diagnosis is a common problem. This study examined HIV diagnosis-related PTSD symptoms and its associated factors among PLHA in rural China. We used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial conducted in Anhui Province, China. Surveys of 522 PLHA were conducted via computer-assisted personal interview method. PTSD symptoms were measured based on re-experiencing, avoidance and arousal of the day of HIV diagnosis...
December 19, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965314/how-voter-turnout-varies-between-different-chronic-conditions-a-population-based-register-study
#16
Reijo Sund, Hannu Lahtinen, Hanna Wass, Mikko Mattila, Pekka Martikainen
BACKGROUND: While poor self-rated health is known to decrease an individual's propensity to vote, disaggregation of the components of health on turnout has thus far received only little attention. This study deepens on the understanding of such relationships by examining the association between chronic diseases and voting. METHODS: The study uses an individual-level register-based data set that contains an 11% random sample of the entire electorate in the 1999 Finnish parliamentary elections...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959328/insights-into-psychosis-risk-from-leukocyte-microrna-expression
#17
C D Jeffries, D O Perkins, S D Chandler, T Stark, E Yeo, J Addington, C E Bearden, K S Cadenhead, T D Cannon, B A Cornblatt, D H Mathalon, T H McGlashan, L J Seidman, E F Walker, S W Woods, S J Glatt, M Tsuang
Dysregulation of immune system functions has been implicated in schizophrenia, suggesting that immune cells may be involved in the development of the disorder. With the goal of a biomarker assay for psychosis risk, we performed small RNA sequencing on RNA isolated from circulating immune cells. We compared baseline microRNA (miRNA) expression for persons who were unaffected (n=27) or who, over a subsequent 2-year period, were at clinical high risk but did not progress to psychosis (n=37), or were at high risk and did progress to psychosis (n=30)...
December 13, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930092/inflammatory-bowel-disease-meets-systems-biology-a-multi-omics-challenge-and-frontier
#18
Orazio Palmieri, Tommaso Mazza, Stefano Castellana, Anna Panza, Tiziana Latiano, Giuseppe Corritore, Angelo Andriulli, Anna Latiano
The inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a systemic disease that is characterized by the inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. It includes ulcerative colitis and the Crohn's disease. Presently, IBD is one of the most investigated common complex human disorders, although its causes remain unclear. Multi-omics mechanisms involving genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and epigenomic variations, not to forget the miRNome, together with environmental contributions, result in an impairment of the immune system in persons with IBD...
December 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929311/different-types-of-combat-experiences-and-associated-symptoms-in-oef-and-oif-national-guard-and-reserve-veterans
#19
M Tracie Shea, Candice Presseau, Shauna L Finley, Madhavi K Reddy, Christopher Spofford
OBJECTIVE: It is well established that exposure to combat is a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The experiences of military personnel serving in combat zones vary widely however, leading to increased attention to the impact of different types of combat trauma. The present study examined the relationships among 3 conceptually based categories of combat exposure with 4 PTSD symptom clusters (reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) and symptoms of guilt, depression, and anxiety...
December 8, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928696/affective-disorders-and-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-multiple-sclerosis-ms-the-moderating-role-of-resilience
#20
Nunzia Rainone, Alessandro Chiodi, Roberta Lanzillo, Valeria Magri, Anna Napolitano, Vincenzo Brescia Morra, Paolo Valerio, Maria Francesca Freda
PURPOSE: To investigate the moderating role of resilience in the relationship between affective disorders and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) for adolescents and young adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: A quantitative methodology was adopted. Fifty-three adolescents and young adults were interviewed to assess resilience as a personality trait (Ego-Resiliency Scale) and resilience as an interactive competence (CYRM-28), Health-Related Quality of Life (PedsQL 4...
December 7, 2016: Quality of Life Research
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