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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326434/genetic-architecture-of-male-fertility-restoration-of-triticum-timopheevii-cytoplasm-and-fine-mapping-of-the-major-restorer-locus-rf3-on-chromosome-1b
#1
Tobias Würschum, Willmar L Leiser, Sigrid Weissmann, Hans Peter Maurer
Restoration of fertility in the cytoplasmic male sterility-inducing Triticum timopheevii cytoplasm can be achieved with the major restorer locus Rf3 located on chromosome 1B, but is also dependent on modifier loci. Hybrid breeding relies on a hybrid mechanism enabling a cost-efficient hybrid seed production. In wheat and triticale, cytoplasmic male sterility based on the T. timopheevii cytoplasm is commonly used, and the aim of this study was to dissect the genetic architecture underlying fertility restoration...
March 21, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315925/fine-mapping-of-the-restorer-gene-rfp3-from-an-iranian-primitive-rye-secale-cereale-l
#2
Bernd Hackauf, Eva Bauer, Viktor Korzun, Thomas Miedaner
A comparative genetics approach allowed to precisely determine the map position of the restorer gene Rfp3 in rye and revealed that Rfp3 and the restorer gene Rfm1 in barley reside at different positions in a syntenic 4RL/6HS segment. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a reliable and striking genetic mechanism for hybrid seed production. Breeding of CMS-based hybrids in cereals requires the use of effective restorer genes as an indispensable pre-requisite. We report on the fine mapping of a restorer gene for the Pampa cytoplasm in winter rye that has been tapped from the Iranian primitive rye population Altevogt 14160...
March 18, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315830/paternal-induction-of-hybrid-dysgenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster-is-weakly-correlated-with-both-p-element-and-hobo-element-dosage
#3
Satyam P Srivastav, Erin S Kelleher
Transposable elements (TEs) are virtually ubiquitous components of genomes, yet they often impose significant fitness consequences on their hosts. In addition to producing specific deleterious mutations by insertional inactivation, TEs also impose general fitness costs by inducing DNA damage and participating in ectopic recombination. These latter fitness costs are often assumed to be dosage-dependent, with stronger effects occurring in the presence of higher TE copy numbers. We test this assumption in Drosophila melanogaster by considering the relationship between the copy number of two active DNA transposons, P-element and hobo element, and the incidence of hybrid dysgenesis, a sterility syndrome associated with transposon activity in the germline...
March 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283407/cellular-aspects-of-gonadal-atrophy-in-drosophila-p-m-hybrid-dysgenesis
#4
Natalia V Dorogova, Elena Us Bolobolova, Lyudmila P Zakharenko
Gonadal atrophy is the most typical and dramatic manifestation of intraspecific hybrid dysgenesis syndrome leading to sterility in Drosophila melanogaster dysgenic progeny. The P-M system of hybrid dysgenesis is primarily associated with germ cell degeneration during the early stages of Drosophila embryonic development at elevated temperatures. In the present study, we have defined the phase of germ cell death as beginning at the end of embryogenesis immediately following gonad formation. However, the temperature-dependent screening of germ cell developmental patterns in the dysgenic background showed that early germ cells are susceptible to the hybrid dysgenesis at any Drosophila life-cycle stage, including in the imago...
March 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275945/enrichment-culture-and-identification-of-endophytic-methanotrophs-isolated-from-peatland-plants
#5
Zofia Stępniewska, Weronika Goraj, Agnieszka Kuźniar, Natalia Łopacka, Magdalena Małysza
Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are an environmentally significant group of microorganisms due to their role in the global carbon cycle. Research conducted over the past few decades has increased the interest in discovering novel genera of methane-degrading bacteria, which efficiently utilize methane and decrease the global warming effect. Moreover, methanotrophs have more promising applications in environmental bioengineering, biotechnology, and pharmacy. The investigations were undertaken to recognize the variety of endophytic methanotrophic bacteria associated with Carex nigra, Vaccinium oxycoccus, and Eriophorum vaginatum originating from Moszne peatland (East Poland)...
March 9, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261226/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-new-insights-into-high-temperature-dependent-glume-unclosing-in-an-elite-rice-male-sterile-line
#6
Chongyun Fu, Feng Wang, Wuge Liu, Dilin Liu, Jinhua Li, Manshan Zhu, Yilong Liao, Zhenrong Liu, Huijun Huang, Xueqin Zeng, Xiaozhi Ma
Glume-unclosing after anthesis is a widespread phenomenon in hybrid rice and also a maternal hereditary trait. The character of Glume-unclosing in rice male sterile lines also seriously influences germination rate and the commercial quality of hybrid rice seeds. We validated that the type of glume-unclosing after anthesis in the elite rice thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line RGD-7S was caused by high temperature. Transcriptomic sequencing of rice panicles was performed to explore the change of transcript profiles under four conditions: pre- and post-anthesis under high temperature (HRGD0 and HRGD1), and pre- and post-anthesis under low temperature (LRGD0 and LRGD1)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252171/characterizing-and-marker-assisting-a-novel-chili-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l-yellow-bud-mutant-with-cytoplasmic-male-sterility
#7
G S Sun, Z L Dai, P W Bosland, Q Wang, C Q Sun, Z C Zhang, Z H Ma
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in pepper is a better way to produce hybrid seeds compared to manual production. We used the two sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers (CRF-SCAR and CMS-SCAR130) in CMS pepper, to identify the genotype. We assembled two CMS yellow bud mutants (YBM; YBM12-A and YBM12-B). This mutation in leaf color is controlled by a single dominant nuclear gene. The aim was to create a new hybrid seed production method that reduces the costs and increases F1 hybrid seed purity...
February 23, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231407/co-occurrence-and-hybridization-of-anther-smut-pathogens-specialized-on-dianthus-hosts
#8
Elsa Petit, Casey Silver, Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux, Lisa Rosenthal, Emily Bruns, Sarah Yee, Janis Antonovics, Tatiana Giraud, Michael E Hood
Host specialization has important consequences for the diversification and ecological interactions of obligate pathogens. The anther-smut disease of natural plant populations, caused by Microbotryum fungi, has been characterized by specialized host-pathogen interactions, which contribute in part to the isolation among these numerous fungal species. This study investigated the molecular variation of Microbotryum pathogens within the geographic and host-specific distributions on wild Dianthus species in southern European Alps...
February 23, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230521/micromonospora-terminaliae-sp-nov-an-endophytic-actinobacterium-isolated-from-the-surface-sterilized-stem-of-the-medicinal-plant-terminalia-mucronata
#9
Onuma Kaewkla, Arinthip Thamchaipinet, Christopher Milton Mathew Franco
An endophytic actinobacterium, strain TMS7T, was isolated from the stem of a Thai medicinal plant collected from the grounds of the Phujong-Nayoa National park, Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. As a result of a polyphasic taxonomy study, this strain was identified as a member of the genus Micromonospora. This strain was a Gram-stain-positive, aerobic actinobacterium with well-developed substrate mycelium with hyphae forming a single microspore was non-motile. Stran TMS7T was identified according to its 16S rRNA gene sequence as a new member of the genus Micromonospora...
February 24, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209763/revisiting-suppression-of-interspecies-hybrid-male-lethality-in-caenorhabditis-nematodes
#10
Lauren E Ryan, Eric S Haag
Within the nematode genus Caenorhabditis, C. briggsae and C. nigoni are among the most closely related species known. They differ in sexual mode, with C. nigoni retaining the ancestral XO male-XX female outcrossing system, while C. briggsae recently evolved self-fertility and an XX-biased sex ratio. Wild-type C. briggsae and C. nigoni can produce fertile hybrid XX female progeny, but XO progeny are either 100% inviable (when C. briggsae is the mother) or viable but sterile (when C. nigoni is the mother). A recent study provided evidence suggesting that loss of the Cbr-him-8 meiotic regulator in C...
February 16, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178307/transcriptional-regulation-of-male-sterility-in-7b-1-male-sterile-tomato-mutant
#11
Vahid Omidvar, Irina Mohorianu, Tamas Dalmay, Yi Zheng, Zhangjun Fei, Anna Pucci, Andrea Mazzucato, Vendula Večeřová, Michaela Sedlářova, Martin Fellner
The 7B-1 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Rutgers) is a male-sterile mutant with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress, which makes it a potential candidate for hybrid seed breeding and stress engineering. To underline the molecular mechanism regulating the male-sterility in 7B-1, transcriptomic profiles of the 7B-1 male-sterile and wild type (WT) anthers were studied using mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total, 768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 132 up-regulated and 636 down-regulated transcripts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168103/in-situ-morphometric-survey-elucidates-the-evolutionary-systematics-of-the-eurasian-himantoglossum-clade-orchidaceae-orchidinae
#12
Richard M Bateman, Attila Molnár V, Gábor Sramkó
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here we use detailed morphometric data obtained from the same populations to compare genotypes with associated phenotypes, in order to better explore taxonomic circumscription and character evolution within the clade...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163593/development-of-a-platform-for-breeding-by-design-of-cms-restorer-lines-based-on-an-sssl-library-in-rice-oryza-sativa-l
#13
Ziju Dai, Qing Lu, Xin Luan, Lian Ouyang, Jie Guo, Jiayan Liang, Haitao Zhu, Wenjuan Wang, Shaokui Wang, Ruizhen Zeng, Ziqiang Liu, Zemin Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zhu, Guiquan Zhang
Exploitation of the heterosis of hybrid rice has shown great success in the improvement of rice yields. However, few genotypes exhibit strong restoration ability as effective restorers of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in the development of hybrid rice. In this study, we developed a platform for the breeding by design of CMS restorer lines based on a library of chromosomal single segment substitution lines (SSSLs) in the Huajingxian74 (HJX74) genetic background. The target genes for breeding by design, Rf3(4) and Rf4(4), which are associated with a strong restoration ability, and gs3, gw8, Wx(g1) and Alk, which are associated with good grain quality, were selected from the HJX74 SSSL library...
December 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159865/comparative-transcriptomics-of-malaria-mosquito-testes-function-evolution-and-linkage
#14
Bryan J Cassone, Raissa G G Kay, Matthew P Daugherty, Bradley J White
Testes-biased genes evolve rapidly and are important in the establishment, solidification, and maintenance of reproductive isolation between incipient species. The Anopheles gambiae complex, a group of at least eight isomorphic mosquito species endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa, is an excellent system to explore the evolution of testes-biased genes. Within this group, the testes are an important tissue in the diversification process since hybridization between species results in sterile hybrid males, but fully fertile females...
February 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155540/optimizing-novel-penetration-enhancing-hybridized-vesicles-for-augmenting-the-in-vivo-effect-of-an-anti-glaucoma-drug
#15
Sarah S Naguib, Rania M Hathout, Samar Mansour
Usually the topical delivery of ocular drugs poses a great challenge. Accordingly, the work in this study comprised the use of different hybrids of generally regarded as safe (GRAS) oils and surfactants in order to develop and optimize novel acetazolamide (AZD) entrapped-vesicular systems aiming at improving its ocular delivery and reaching better therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of glaucoma. The phospholipid/cholesterol bilayer of the vesicles was enriched with hybrids of Tween 80, Labrasol, Transcutol and Labrafac lipophile WL in different masses and proportions according to a mixture design viz...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154946/rhizobium-rhizosphaerae-sp-nov-a-novel-species-isolated-from-rice-rhizosphere
#16
Juan-Juan Zhao, Jun Zhang, Rui-Jie Zhang, Cai-Wen Zhang, Hua-Qun Yin, Xiao-Xia Zhang
Two novel, Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterial strains, MH17(T) and RD15, were isolated from the sterilized root and rhizosphere soil of rice, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the similarity between strains MH17(T) and RD15 was 100%. The isolates exhibit high sequence similarities to Rhizobium oryzae CGMCC 1.7048(T) (98.7%) and Rhizobium petrolearium SL-1(T) (97.0% and 97.1%), which supports that they belong to a novel species in the genus Rhizobium...
February 2, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141898/a-combination-of-sexual-and-ecological-divergence-contributes-to-rearrangement-spread-during-initial-stages-of-speciation
#17
Genevieve M Kozak, Crista B Wadsworth, Shoshanna C Kahne, Steven M Bogdanowicz, Richard G Harrison, Brad S Coates, Erik B Dopman
Chromosomal rearrangements between sympatric species often contain multiple loci contributing to assortative mating, local adaptation, and hybrid sterility. When and how these associations arise during the process of speciation remains a subject of debate. Here, we address the relative roles of local adaptation and assortative mating on the dynamics of rearrangement evolution by studying how a rearrangement co-varies with sexual and ecological trait divergence within a species. Previously, a chromosomal rearrangement that suppresses recombination on the Z (sex) chromosome was identified in European corn borer moths (Ostrinia nubilalis)...
January 31, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135247/whole-genome-analysis-of-introgressive-hybridization-and-characterization-of-the-bovine-legacy-of-mongolian-yaks
#18
Ivica Medugorac, Alexander Graf, Cécile Grohs, Sophie Rothammer, Yondon Zagdsuren, Elena Gladyr, Natalia Zinovieva, Johanna Barbieri, Doris Seichter, Ingolf Russ, André Eggen, Garrett Hellenthal, Gottfried Brem, Helmut Blum, Stefan Krebs, Aurélien Capitan
The yak is remarkable for its adaptation to high altitude and occupies a central place in the economies of the mountainous regions of Asia. At lower elevations, it is common to hybridize yaks with cattle to combine the yak's hardiness with the productivity of cattle. Hybrid males are sterile, however, preventing the establishment of stable hybrid populations, but not a limited introgression after backcrossing several generations of female hybrids to male yaks. Here we inferred bovine haplotypes in the genomes of 76 Mongolian yaks using high-density SNP genotyping and whole-genome sequencing...
March 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132142/protocol-for-producing-synthetic-polyploid-oats
#19
Toshinobu Morikawa
A protocol to produce synthetic oats by introducing alien genetic variations into cultivated oats is proposed based on suitable genetic relationships between Avena species. Furthermore, artificial hybridization procedures between different ploidy species are explained. Amphiploids can be produced by rescuing aborted embryos and treating the F1 hybrids with colchicine to overcome sterility between interspecific plants. Furthermore, I present the cytological methods for observing somatic and meiotic chromosomes in the treated hybrids...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128318/pantoea-alhagi-a-novel-endophytic-bacterium-with-ability-to-improve-growth-and-drought-tolerance-in-wheat
#20
Chaoqiong Chen, Kaiyun Xin, Hao Liu, Juanli Cheng, Xihui Shen, Yao Wang, Lei Zhang
A novel strain LTYR-11Z(T) that exhibited multiple plant growth promoting (PGP) traits was isolated from the surface-sterilized leaves of Alhagi sparsifolia Shap. (Leguminosae), which reprsents one of the top drought tolerant plants in north-west China. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and multilocus sequence analysis based on partial sequences of atpD, gyrB, infB and rpoB genes revealed that strain LTYR-11Z(T) was a member of the genus Pantoea, with Pantoea theicola NBRC 110557(T) and Pantoea intestinalis DSM 28113(T) as the closest phylogenetic relatives...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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