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hybrid sterility

Sonika Ahlawat, Sachinandan De, Priyanka Sharma, Rekha Sharma, Reena Arora, R S Kataria, T K Datta, R K Singh
Hybrid sterility or reproductive isolation in mammals has been attributed to allelic incompatibilities in a DNA-binding protein PRDM9. Not only is PRDM9 exceptional in being the only known 'speciation gene' in vertebrates, but it is also considered to be the fastest evolving gene in the genome. The terminal zinc finger (ZF) domain of PRDM9 specifies genome-wide meiotic recombination hotspot locations in mammals. Intriguingly, PRDM9 ZF domain is highly variable between as well as within species, possibly activating different recombination hotspots...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
Xiaojie Yang, Yuanming Zhao, Deyi Xie, Yao Sun, Xunlu Zhu, Nardana Esmaeili, Zuoren Yang, Ye Wang, Guo Yin, Shuping Lv, Lihong Nie, Zhongjie Tang, Fu'an Zhao, Wu Li, Neelam Mishra, Li Sun, Wei Zhu, Weiping Fang
Hybrid vigor contributes in a large way to the yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) fiber. Although microRNAs play essential regulatory roles in flower induction and development, it is still unclear if microRNAs are involved in male sterility, as the regulatory molecular mechanisms of male sterility in cotton need to be better defined. In this study, two independent small RNA libraries were constructed and sequenced from the young buds collected from the sporogenous cell formation to the meiosis stage of the male sterile line Yu98-8A and the near-isogenic line...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stevan M Cokic, Peter Hoet, Lode Godderis, Martin Wiemann, Christof Asbach, Franz X Reichl, Jan De Munck, Bart Van Meerbeek, Kirsten L Van Landuyt
INTRODUCTION: Previous research revealed that during routine abrasive procedures like polishing, shaping or removing of composites, high amounts of respirable dust particles (<5μm) including nano-sized particles (<100nm) may be released. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cytotoxic potential of composite dust particles on bronchial epithelium cells. METHODS: Composite dust of five commercial composites (one nano-composite, two nano-hybrid and two hybrid composites) was generated following a clinically relevant protocol...
October 7, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Huiwu Tang, Xingmei Zheng, Chuliang Li, Xianrong Xie, Yuanling Chen, Letian Chen, Xiucai Zhao, Huiqi Zheng, Jiajian Zhou, Shan Ye, Jingxin Guo, Yao-Guang Liu
New gene origination is a major source of genomic innovations that confer phenotypic changes and biological diversity. Generation of new mitochondrial genes in plants may cause cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), which can promote outcrossing and increase fitness. However, how mitochondrial genes originate and evolve in structure and function remains unclear. The rice Wild Abortive type of CMS is conferred by the mitochondrial gene WA352c (previously named WA352) and has been widely exploited in hybrid rice breeding...
October 11, 2016: Cell Research
Tahsin Raquib Abonti, Masato Kaku, Shunichi Kojima, Hiromi Sumi, Shotoku Kojima, Taeko Yamamoto, Yuka Yashima, Hidekazu Miyahara, Akitoshi Okino, Toshitsugu Kawata, Kazuo Tanne, Kotaro Tanimoto
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the sterilization effects of a newly developed low temperature multi gas plasma jet on oral pathogenic microorganisms (Streptococcus mutans [S. mutans], Lactobacillus fermentum [L. fermentum], Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans [A. actinomycetemcomitans]). Plasma gas which generated from O2, N2, Ar and 50% (O2+N2) was irradiated to the microbes. Effect of O2 plasma irradiation on S. mutans under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also observed. O2 plasma was directly applied to dental plaque on human extracted tooth...
2016: Dental Materials Journal
Kyoichi Sawamura, Hajime Sato, Chow-Yang Lee, Yoshitaka Kamimura, Muneo Matsuda
We surveyed natural population of the Drosophila ananassae species complex on Penang Island, Malaysia. Analyses of phenotypic traits, chromosome arrangements, molecular markers, and reproductive isolation suggest the existence of two species: D. ananassae and D. cf. parapallidosa. Molecular marker analysis indicates that D. cf. parapallidosa carries chromosome Y and 4 introgressions from D. ananassae. Thus, D. cf. parapallidosa seems to be a hybrid descendant that recently originated from a natural D. parapallidosa♀× D...
October 2016: Zoological Science
Mario Gils
A transgene-expression system for wheat that relies on the complementation of inactive precursor protein fragments through a split-intein system is described. The N- and C-terminal fragments of a barnase gene from Bacillus amyloliquifaciens were fused to intein sequences from Synechocystis sp. and transformed into wheat plants. Upon translation, both barnase fragments are assembled by an autocatalytic intein-mediated trans-splicing reaction, thus forming a cytotoxic enzyme. This chapter focuses on the use of introns and flexible polypeptide linkers to foster the expression of a split-barnase expression system in plants...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
F S Song, J L Ni, Y L Qian, L Li, D H Ni, J B Yang
Molecular markers can increase both the efficiency and speed of breeding programs. Functional markers that detect the functional mutations causing phenotypic changes offer a precise method for genetic identification. In this study, we used newly derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to detect the functional mutations of tms5, which is a male sterile gene that is widely used in rice production in China. In addition, restriction cutting sites were designed to specifically digest amplicons of tms5 but not wild type (TMS5), in order to avoid the risk of false positive results...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Jianli Liang, Yuan Ma, Jian Wu, Feng Cheng, Bo Liu, Xiaowu Wang
Using map-based cloning, we delimited the Ms - cd1 gene responsible for the male sterile phenotype in B. oleracea to an approximately 39-kb fragment. Expression analysis suggests that a new predicted gene, a homolog of the Arabidopsis SIED1 gene, is a potential candidate gene. A dominant genic male sterile (DGMS) mutant 79-399-3 in Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea) is controlled by a single gene named Ms-cd1, which was genetically mapped on chromosome C09. The derived DGMS lines of 79-399-3 have been successfully applied in hybrid cabbage breeding and commercial hybrid seed production of several B...
October 4, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Sacha Heerschop, Hans Zischler, Stefan Merker, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Christine Driller
PRDM9 is currently the sole speciation gene found in vertebrates causing hybrid sterility probably due to incompatible alleles. Its role in defining the double strand break loci during the meiotic prophase I is crucial for proper chromosome segregation. Therefore, the rapid turnover of the loci determining zinc finger array seems to be causative for incompatibilities. We here investigated the zinc finger domain-containing exon of PRDM9 in 23 tarsiers. Tarsiers, the most basal extant haplorhine primates, exhibit two frameshifting indels at the 5'-end of the array...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xiaohong Yan, Xinhua Zeng, Shasha Wang, Keqi Li, Rong Yuan, Hongfei Gao, Junling Luo, Fang Liu, Yuhua Wu, Yunjing Li, Li Zhu, Gang Wu
Genic male sterility (GMS) has already been extensively utilized for hybrid rapeseed production. TE5A is a novel thermo-sensitive dominant GMS line in Brassica napus, however, its mechanisms of GMS remain largely unclear. Histological and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses of anthers showed that the male gamete development of TE5A was arrested at meiosis prophase I. EdU uptake of S-phase meiocytes revealed that the TE5A mutant could accomplish DNA replication, however, chromosomal and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of TE5A showed that homologous chromosomes could not pair, synapse, condense and form bivalents...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Aiguo Su, Wei Song, Jinfeng Xing, Yanxin Zhao, Ruyang Zhang, Chunhui Li, Minxiao Duan, Meijie Luo, Zi Shi, Jiuran Zhao
S-type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS-S) is the largest group among the three major types of CMS in maize. CMS-S exhibits fertility instability as a partial fertility restoration in a specific nuclear genetic background, which impedes its commercial application in hybrid breeding programs. The fertility instability phenomenon of CMS-S is controlled by several minor quantitative trait locus (QTLs), but not the major nuclear fertility restorer (Rf3). However, the gene mapping of these minor QTLs and the molecular mechanism of the genetic modifications are still unclear...
2016: PloS One
Peter Zeller, Jan Padeken, Robin van Schendel, Veronique Kalck, Marcel Tijsterman, Susan M Gasser
Histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation is a conserved modification that generally represses transcription. In Caenorhabditis elegans it is enriched on silent tissue-specific genes and repetitive elements. In met-2 set-25 double mutants, which lack all H3K9 methylation (H3K9me), embryos differentiate normally, although mutant adults are sterile owing to extensive DNA-damage-driven apoptosis in the germ line. Transposons and simple repeats are derepressed in both germline and somatic tissues. This unprogrammed transcription correlates with increased rates of repeat-specific insertions and deletions, copy number variation, R loops and enhanced sensitivity to replication stress...
September 26, 2016: Nature Genetics
B Li, H Luo, Q Weng, S Wang, Z Pan, Z Xie, W Wu, H Liu, Q Li
FK506-binding protein 6 (FKBP6) is essential for meiosis during mammalian spermatogenesis. However, the molecular regulation of FKBP6 during spermatogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we performed molecular characterization of the meiosis-specific gene FKBP6 in yak testes. Yak FKBP6 encodes a polypeptide of 295 amino acid residues with an FK506-binding domain (FKBP_C) and three tetratricopeptide repeat domains. The methylation level of the FKBP6 promoter in testes was significantly higher in cattle-yak with male sterility than in yak, and the FKBP6 promoter was methylated in liver tissues in which FKBP6 is not expressed...
September 22, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
X Wang, L Li, Z Yang, X Zheng, S Yu, C Xu, Z Hu
Genomic selection (GS) is more efficient than traditional phenotype-based methods in hybrid breeding. The present study investigated the predictive ability of genomic best linear unbiased prediction models for rice hybrids based on the North Carolina mating design II, in which a total of 115 inbred rice lines were crossed with 5 male sterile lines. Using 8 traits of the 575 (115 × 5) hybrids from two environments, both univariate (UV) and multivariate (MV) prediction analyses, including additive and dominance effects, were performed...
September 21, 2016: Heredity
Barbara Keller, Jurriaan M de Vos, Alexander N Schmidt-Lebuhn, James D Thomson, Elena Conti
The interaction between floral traits and reproductive isolation is crucial to explaining the extraordinary diversity of angiosperms. Heterostyly, a complex floral polymorphism that optimizes outcrossing, evolved repeatedly and has been shown to accelerate diversification in primroses, yet its potential influence on isolating mechanisms remains unexplored. Furthermore, the relative contribution of pre- versus postmating barriers to reproductive isolation is still debated. No experimental study has yet evaluated the possible effects of heterostyly on pre- and postmating reproductive mechanisms...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Andrea L Case, Findley R Finseth, Camille M Barr, Lila Fishman
Intraspecific coevolution between selfish elements and suppressors may promote interspecific hybrid incompatibility, but evidence of this process is rare. Here, we use genomic data to test alternative models for the evolution of cytonuclear hybrid male sterility in Mimulus In hybrids between Iron Mountain (IM) Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus nasutus, two tightly linked M. guttatus alleles (Rf1/Rf2) each restore male fertility by suppressing a local mitochondrial male-sterility gene (IM-CMS). Unlike neutral models for the evolution of hybrid incompatibility loci, selfish evolution predicts that the Rf alleles experienced strong selection in the presence of IM-CMS...
September 14, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Satoshi Ishishita, Yoichi Matsuda
Hybrid incompatibility is important in speciation as it prevents gene flow between closely related populations. Reduced fitness from hybrid incompatibility may also reinforce prezygotic reproductive isolation between sympatric populations. However, the genetic and developmental basis of hybrid incompatibility in higher vertebrates remains poorly understood. Mammals and birds, both amniotes, have similar developmental processes, but marked differences in development such as the XY/ZW sex determination systems and the presence or absence of genomic imprinting...
October 13, 2016: Genes & Genetic Systems
A Mark Cigan, Manjit Singh, Geoffrey Benn, Lanie Feigenbutz, Manish Kumar, Myeong-Je Cho, Sergei Svitashev, Joshua Young
Targeted mutagenesis using programmable DNA endonucleases has broad applications for studying gene function in planta and developing approaches to improve crop yields. Recently, a genetic method that eliminates the need to emasculate the female inbred during hybrid seed production, referred to as Seed Production Technology, has been described. The foundation of this genetic system relied on classical methods to identify genes critical to anther and pollen development. One of these genes is a P450 gene which is expressed in the tapetum of anthers...
September 10, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Jianhui Ji, Ding Tang, Yi Shen, Zhihui Xue, Hongjun Wang, Wenqing Shi, Chao Zhang, Guijie Du, Yafei Li, Zhukuan Cheng
The human mitotic arrest-deficient 2 (Mad2) binding protein p31(comet) participates in the spindle checkpoint and coordinates cell cycle events in mitosis although its function in meiosis remains unknown in all organisms. Here, we reveal P31(comet) as a synaptonemal complex (SC) protein in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In p31(comet), homologous pairing and synapsis are eliminated, leading to the homologous nondisjunction and complete sterility. The failure in loading of histone H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX) in p31(comet), together with the suppressed chromosome fragmentation in rice completion of meiotic recombination 1 (com1) p31(comet) and radiation sensitive 51c (rad51c) p31(comet) double mutants, indicates that P31(comet) plays an essential role in double-strand break (DSB) formation...
September 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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