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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048573/the-rate-of-evolution-of-postmating-prezygotic-reproductive-isolation-in-drosophila
#1
David A Turissini, Joseph A McGirr, Sonali S Patel, Jean R David, Daniel R Matute
Reproductive isolation is an intrinsic aspect of species formation. For that reason, the identification of the precise isolating traits, and the rates at which they evolve, is crucial to understanding how species originate and persist. Previous work has measured the rates of evolution of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to gene flow, yet no systematic analysis has studied the rates of evolution of postmating-prezygotic (PMPZ) barriers. We measured the magnitude of two barriers to gene flow that act after mating occurs but before fertilization...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036451/genetic-mapping-and-phylogenetic-analysis-reveal-intraspecific-variation-in-sex-chromosomes-of-the-virginian-strawberry
#2
Na Wei, Rajanikanth Govindarajulu, Jacob A Tennessen, Aaron Liston, Tia-Lynn Ashman
With their extraordinary diversity in sexual systems, flowering plants offer unparalleled opportunities to understand sex determination and to reveal generalities in the evolution of sex chromosomes. Comparative genetic mapping of related taxa with good phylogenetic resolution can delineate the extent of sex chromosome diversity within plant groups, and lead the way to understanding the evolutionary drivers of such diversity. The North American octoploid wild strawberries provide such an opportunity. We performed linkage mapping using targeted sequence capture for the subdioecious western Fragaria virginiana ssp...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032401/fine-mapping-of-the-genic-male-sterile-ms-1-gene-in-capsicum-annuum-l
#3
Kyumi Jeong, Doil Choi, Jundae Lee
The genomic region cosegregating with the genic male-sterile ms 1 gene of Capsicum annuum L. was delimited to a region of 869.9 kb on chromosome 5 through fine mapping analysis. A strong candidate gene, CA05g06780, a homolog of the Arabidopsis MALE STERILITY 1 gene that controls pollen development, was identified in this region. Genic male sterility caused by the ms 1 gene has been used for the economically efficient production of massive hybrid seeds in paprika (Capsicum annuum L.), a colored bell-type sweet pepper...
October 14, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031775/analysis-of-the-meiotic-transcriptome-reveals-the-genes-related-to-the-regulation-of-pollen-abortion-in-cytoplasmic-male-sterile-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l
#4
Yilan Qiu, Lijuan Liao, Xiaorui Jin, Dandan Mao, Rushi Liu
CMS, which refers to the inability to generate functional pollen grains while still producing a normal gynoecium, has been widely used for pepper hybrid seed production. Pepper line 8214A is an excellent CMS line exhibiting 100% male sterility and superior economic characteristics. A TUNEL assay revealed the nuclear DNA is damaged in 8214A PMCs during meiosis. TEM images indicated that the 8214A PMCs exhibited asynchronous meiosis after prophase I, and some PMCs degraded prematurely with morphological features typical of PCD...
October 11, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027575/transmission-modes-of-a-pesticide-degrading-symbiont-of-the-oriental-fruit-fly-bactrocera-dorsalis-hendel
#5
Zijun Guo, Yongyue Lu, Fan Yang, Ling Zeng, Guangwen Liang, Yijuan Xu
Symbionts are associated with many insects and play several multifunctional roles in insect-microorganism mutualistic relationships. The trichlorphon-degrading symbiont Citrobacter freundii (CF-BD) of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis was recently discovered; however, its intraspecies transmission pathway among flies remains unknown. Here, we use fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), PCR detection, and a series of ingenious experiments to reveal that CF-BD was aggregated in rectal pads associated with the female ovipositor, and the CF-BD symbiont was vertically transmitted via egg surface contamination...
October 13, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021797/the-rice-aaa-atpase-osfignl1-is-essential-for-male-meiosis
#6
Peipei Zhang, Yingxin Zhang, Lianping Sun, Sittipun Sinumporn, Zhengfu Yang, Bin Sun, Dandan Xuan, Zihe Li, Ping Yu, Weixun Wu, Kejian Wang, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng
Meiosis is crucial in reproduction of plants and ensuring genetic diversity. Although several genes involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair have been reported, their functions in rice (Oryza sativa) male meiosis remain poorly understood. Here, we isolated and characterized the rice OsFIGNL1 (OsFidgetin-like 1) gene, encoding a conserved AAA-ATPase, and explored its function and importance in male meiosis and pollen formation. The rice Osfignl1 mutant exhibited normal vegetative growth, but failed to produce seeds and displayed pollen abortion phenotype...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021581/molecular-identification-of-the-wheat-male-fertility-gene-ms1-and-its-prospects-for-hybrid-breeding
#7
Elise J Tucker, Ute Baumann, Allan Kouidri, Radoslaw Suchecki, Mathieu Baes, Melissa Garcia, Takashi Okada, Chongmei Dong, Yongzhong Wu, Ajay Sandhu, Manjit Singh, Peter Langridge, Petra Wolters, Marc C Albertsen, A Mark Cigan, Ryan Whitford
The current rate of yield gain in crops is insufficient to meet the predicted demands. Capturing the yield boost from heterosis is one of the few technologies that offers rapid gain. Hybrids are widely used for cereals, maize and rice, but it has been a challenge to develop a viable hybrid system for bread wheat due to the wheat genome complexity, which is both large and hexaploid. Wheat is our most widely grown crop providing 20% of the calories for humans. Here, we describe the identification of Ms1, a gene proposed for use in large-scale, low-cost production of male-sterile (ms) female lines necessary for hybrid wheat seed production...
October 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988325/advances-in-understanding-the-molecular-mechanisms-of-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-and-restoration-in-rice
#8
Huiwu Tang, Yongyao Xie, Yao-Guang Liu, Letian Chen
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in plants is a male reproductive defect determined by mitochondrial genes and inherited maternally. CMS can be suppressed by nuclear restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. Therefore, CMS/Rf systems provide a classic model for the study of mitochondrial-nuclear interactions in plants. Moreover, CMS/Rf systems are economical, effective tools for the production of hybrid seeds. For example, CMS/Rf systems have been applied in over forty countries to breed hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L...
October 7, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987005/hybrid-asexuality-as-a-primary-postzygotic-barrier-between-nascent-species-on-the-interconnection-between-asexuality-hybridization-and-speciation
#9
Karel Janko, Jan Pačes, Hilde Wilkinson-Herbots, Rui J Costa, Jan Roslein, Pavel Drozd, Nataliia Iakovenko, Jakub Rídl, Miluše Hroudová, Jan Kočí, Radka Reifová, Věra Šlechtová, Lukáš Choleva
Although sexual reproduction is ubiquitous throughout nature, the molecular machinery behind it has been repeatedly disrupted during evolution, leading to the emergence of asexual lineages in all eukaryotic phyla. Despite intensive research, little is known about what causes the switch from sexual reproduction to asexuality. Interspecific hybridization is one of the candidate explanations but the reasons for the apparent association between hybridization and asexuality remain unclear. In this study we combined cross-breeding experiments with population genetic and phylogenomic approaches to reveal the history of speciation and asexuality evolution in European spined loaches (Cobitis)...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984216/streptomyces-roietensis-sp-nov-an-endophytic-actinobacterium-isolated-from-the-surface-sterilized-stem-of-jasmine-rice-oryza-sativa-kdml-105
#10
Onuma Kaewkla, Christopher Milton Mathew Franco
An endophytic actinobacterium, strain WES2(T), was isolated from the stem of a jasmine rice plant collected from a paddy field in Thung Gura Rong Hai, Roi Et province, Thailand. As a result of a polyphasic study, this strain was identified as representing a novel member of the genus Streptomyces. This strain was a Gram-stain-positive, aerobic actinobacterium with well-developed substrate mycelia and forming chains of looped spores. The closest phylogenetic relations, which shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, were Streptomyces nogalater JCM 4799(T) and Streptomyces lavenduligriseus NRRL-ISP 5487(T) at 99...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981770/jasmonic-acid-deficiency-leads-to-scattered-floret-opening-time-in-cytoplasmic-male-sterile-rice-zhenshan-97a
#11
Li Liu, Zhengshan Zou, Ke Qian, Chan Xia, Ying He, Hanlai Zeng, Xie Zhou, Michael Riemann, Changxi Yin, Dabing Zhang
Cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) rice has been widely used for hybrid rice seed production in China. However, CMS rice suffers from undesirable flowering habits including scattered floret opening time (FOT), which causes different FOTs among parental rice plants and greatly reduces hybrid rice seed production. Little is known about the mechanism of scattered FOT in CMS rice. Our results demonstrate that scattered FOT in CMS rice Zhenshan 97A (ZS97A) resulted from the lack of a driving force to open florets, which was directly caused by retarded lodicule expansion...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973745/fertility-restoration-locus-and-cytoplasm-types-in-onion
#12
R R Ferreira, C A F Santos, V R Oliveira
The objective of this study was the identification of the cytoplasmic types and the genotyping for the fertility restoration nuclear locus (Ms) in 59 onion accessions, aiming at the selection of 'A' and 'B' lines essential for the obtainment of hybrids. Three markers were used to identify the cytoplasm 5' cob, orfA501, and orf725, and two were used for the Ms locus (AcSKP1 and AcPMS1). The two types of male-sterile cytoplasm ('S' and 'T'), as well as fertile cytoplasm ('N'), and the Ms and ms alleles in both homozygosity and heterozygosity were detected in the 59 genotypes evaluated in the experiment...
September 21, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973718/contributions-of-classical-and-molecular-cytogenetic-in-meiotic-analysis-and-pollen-viability-for-plant-breeding
#13
M P Lavinscky, M M Souza, G S Silva, C A F Melo
The analysis of meiotic behavior has been widely used in the study of plants as they provide relevant information about the viability of a species. Meiosis boasts a host of highly conserved events and changes in genes that control these events will give rise to irregularities that can alter the normal course of meiosis and may lead to complete sterility of the plant. The recombination of genes that occur in meiosis is an important event to generate variability and has been important in studies for genetic improvement and to create viable hybrids...
September 27, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967670/modeling-the-contributions-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-and-aneuploidy-to-saccharomyces-hybrid-sterility
#14
Primrose J Boynton, Thijs Janzen, Duncan Greig
Errors in meiosis can be important postzygotic barriers between different species. In Saccharomyces hybrids, chromosomal missegregation during meiosis I produces gametes with missing or extra chromosomes. Gametes with missing chromosomes are inviable, but we do not understand how extra chromosomes (disomies) influence hybrid gamete inviability. We designed a model predicting rates of missegregation in interspecific hybrid meioses assuming several different mechanisms of disomy tolerance, and compared predictions from the model to observations of sterility in hybrids between Saccharomyces yeast species...
October 2, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958320/clinical-issues-october-2017
#15
Mary C Fearon
• Bowel isolation technique in minimally invasive surgery Key words: minimally invasive surgery, bowel isolation technique, bowel resection. • Covering hair that has escaped a surgical cap Key words: OR attire, head covering, sterile technique. • Surgical head coverings Key words: skull caps, bouffant caps, quality control, quality initiative. • Use of ear loop masks in the OR Key words: surgical mask, OR attire. • Staffing in the hybrid OR Key words: RN circulator, hybrid OR, staffing.
October 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935753/mechanisms-of-transmission-ratio-distortion-at-hybrid-sterility-loci-within-and-between-mimulus-species
#16
Rachel E Kerwin, Andrea L Sweigart
Hybrid incompatibilities are a common correlate of genomic divergence and a potentially important contributor to reproductive isolation. However, we do not yet have a detailed understanding of how hybrid incompatibility loci function and evolve within their native species, or why they are dysfunctional in hybrids. Here, we explore these issues for a well-studied, two-locus hybrid incompatibility between hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) in the closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M...
September 21, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934880/three-dimensional-bioprinting-and-its-potential-in-the-field-of-articular-cartilage-regeneration
#17
Vivian H M Mouser, Riccardo Levato, Lawrence J Bonassar, Darryl D D'Lima, Daniel A Grande, Travis J Klein, Daniel B F Saris, Marcy Zenobi-Wong, Debby Gawlitta, Jos Malda
Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting techniques can be used for the fabrication of personalized, regenerative constructs for tissue repair. The current article provides insight into the potential and opportunities of 3D bioprinting for the fabrication of cartilage regenerative constructs. Although 3D printing is already used in the orthopedic clinic, the shift toward 3D bioprinting has not yet occurred. We believe that this shift will provide an important step forward in the field of cartilage regeneration. Three-dimensional bioprinting techniques allow incorporation of cells and biological cues during the manufacturing process, to generate biologically active implants...
October 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928291/inhibiting-sterilization-induced-oxidation-of-large-molecule-therapeutics-packaged-in-plastic-parenteral-vials
#18
Jeffrey R Vieregg, Steven J Martin, Adam P Breeland, Christopher M Weikart, Matthew V Tirrell
For many years, glass has been the default material for parenteral packaging, but the development of advanced plastics such as cyclic olefin polymers (COP) and the rapidly increasing importance of biologic drugs have provided new choices, as well as more stringent performance requirements. In particular, many biologics must be stored at non-neutral pH, where glass is susceptible to hydrolysis, metal extraction, and delamination. Plastic containers are not susceptible to these problems, but suffer from higher gas permeability and a propensity for sterilization-induced radical generation, heightening the risk of oxidative damage to sensitive drugs...
September 19, 2017: PDA Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919205/adaptive-evolution-leads-to-cross-species-incompatibility-in-the-pirna-transposon-silencing-machinery
#19
Swapnil S Parhad, Shikui Tu, Zhiping Weng, William E Theurkauf
Reproductive isolation defines species divergence and is linked to adaptive evolution of hybrid incompatibility genes. Hybrids between Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans are sterile, and phenocopy mutations in the PIWI interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway, which silences transposons and shows pervasive adaptive evolution, and Drosophila rhino and deadlock encode rapidly evolving components of a complex that binds to piRNA clusters. We show that Rhino and Deadlock interact and co-localize in simulans and melanogaster, but simulans Rhino does not bind melanogaster Deadlock, due to substitutions in the rapidly evolving Shadow domain...
October 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902188/reproductive-interference-and-fecundity-affect-competitive-interactions-of-sibling-species-with-low-mating-barriers-experimental-and-theoretical-evidence
#20
M Gebiola, S E Kelly, L Velten, R Zug, P Hammerstein, M Giorgini, M S Hunter
When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete because of sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is still incipient...
September 13, 2017: Heredity
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