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hybrid sterility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431563/inheritance-of-brewing-relevant-phenotypes-in-constructed-saccharomyces-cerevisiae%C3%A2-%C3%A3-%C3%A2-saccharomyces-eubayanus-hybrids
#1
Kristoffer Krogerus, Tuulikki Seppänen-Laakso, Sandra Castillo, Brian Gibson
BACKGROUND: Interspecific hybridization has proven to be a potentially valuable technique for generating de novo lager yeast strains that possess diverse and improved traits compared to their parent strains. To further enhance the value of hybridization for strain development, it would be desirable to combine phenotypic traits from more than two parent strains, as well as remove unwanted traits from hybrids. One such trait, that has limited the industrial use of de novo lager yeast hybrids, is their inherent tendency to produce phenolic off-flavours; an undesirable trait inherited from the Saccharomyces eubayanus parent...
April 21, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428799/a-novel-cytoplasmic-male-sterility-in-brassica-napus-inap-cms-with-carpelloid-stamens-via-protoplast-fusion-with-chinese-woad
#2
Lei Kang, Pengfei Li, Aifan Wang, Xianhong Ge, Zaiyun Li
A novel cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in Brassica napus (inap CMS) was selected from the somatic hybrid with Isatis indigotica (Chinese woad) by recurrent backcrossing. The male sterility was caused by the conversion of tetradynamous stamens into carpelloid structures with stigmatoid tissues at their tips and ovule-like tissues in the margins, and the two shorter stamens into filaments without anthers. The feminized development of the stamens resulted in the complete lack of pollen grains, which was stable in different years and environments...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428792/identification-of-candidate-genes-and-biosynthesis-pathways-related-to-fertility-conversion-by-wheat-ktm3315a-transcriptome-profiling
#3
Jiali Ye, Yang Duan, Gan Hu, Xingxia Geng, Gaoming Zhang, Pengjiao Yan, Zihan Liu, Lingli Zhang, Xiyue Song
The Aegilops kotschyi thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility (K-TCMS) system may facilitate hybrid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed multiplication and production. The K-TCMS line is completely male sterile during the normal wheat-growing season, whereas its fertility can be restored in a high-temperature environment. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for male sterility/fertility conversion and candidate genes involved with pollen development in K-TCMS, we employed RNA-seq to sequence the transcriptomes of anthers from K-TCMS line KTM3315A during development under sterile and fertile conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427341/reactive-oxygen-species-mediate-tapetal-programmed-cell-death-in-tobacco-and-tomato
#4
Shi-Xia Yu, Qiang-Nan Feng, Hong-Tao Xie, Sha Li, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hybrid vigor is highly valued in the agricultural industry. Male sterility is an important trait for crop breeding. Pollen development is under strict control of both gametophytic and sporophytic factors, and defects in this process can result in male sterility. Both in the dicot Arabidopsis and in the moncot rice, proper timing of programmed cell death (PCD) in the tapetum ensures pollen development. Dynamic ROS levels have been reported to control tapetal PCD, and thus pollen development, in Arabidopsis and rice...
April 20, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424873/the-changes-in-the-reproductive-barrier-between-hexaploid-wheat-triticum-aestivum-l-and-rye-secale-cereale-l-different-states-lead-to-different-fates
#5
Natalia Tikhenko, Twan Rutten, Angelika Senula, Myroslava Rubtsova, E R Joachim Keller, Andreas Börner
The changes in the reproductive barrier between hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) and rye ( Secale cereale L.) can be induced using in situ embryo rescue of abnormal embryos, yielding stable fertile amphidiploid plants. In intergeneric crosses between hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.), postzygotic barriers may occur at different stages of hybrid development. One such mechanism is embryo lethality, which is genetically determined by the interaction and expression of two incompatible genes in wheat (Eml-A1) and rye (Eml-R1)...
April 19, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423007/recombinants-from-the-crosses-between-amphidiploid-and-cultivated-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-for-pest-resistance-breeding-programs
#6
Ailton Ferreira de Paula, Naiana Barbosa Dinato, Bianca Baccili Zanotto Vigna, Alessandra Pereira Fávero
Peanut is a major oilseed crop worldwide. In the Brazilian peanut production, silvering thrips and red necked peanut worm are the most threatening pests. Resistant varieties are considered an alternative to pest control. Many wild diploid Arachis species have shown resistance to these pests, and these can be used in peanut breeding by obtaining hybrid of A and B genomes and subsequent polyploidization with colchicine, resulting in an AABB amphidiploid. This amphidiploid can be crossed with cultivated peanut (AABB) to provide genes of interest to the cultivar...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402054/no-evidence-of%C3%A2-contemporary-interploidy-gene-flow-between-the-closely-related-european-woodland-violets-viola-reichenbachiana-and-v-riviniana-sect-viola-violaceae
#7
Grzegorz Migdałek, Justyna Nowak, Marta Saługa, Elżbieta Cieślak, Magdalena Szczepaniak, Michał Ronikier, Thomas Marcussen, Aneta Słomka, Elżbieta Kuta
Viola reichenbachiana (2n = 4x = 20) and V. riviniana (2n = 8x = 40) are closely related species widely distributed in Europe, often sharing the same habitat throughout their overlapping ranges. It has been suggested in numerous studies that their high intraspecific morphological variability and plasticity might have been further increased by interspecific hybridization in contact zones, given the sympatry of the species and the incomplete sterility of their hybrid. The aims of this study were to (i) confirm that V...
April 12, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399816/ploidy-elicits-a-whole-genome-dosage-effect-growth-of-triploid-atlantic-salmon-is-linked-to-the-genetic-origin-of-the-second-maternal-chromosome-set
#8
A C Harvey, P G Fjelldal, M F Solberg, T Hansen, K A Glover
BACKGROUND: The Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry is investigating the feasibility of using sterile triploids to mitigate genetic interactions with wild conspecifics, however, studies investigating diploid and triploid performance often show contrasting results. Studies have identified dosage and dosage-compensation effects for gene expression between triploid and diploid salmonids, but no study has investigated how ploidy and parent-origin effects interact on a polygenic trait in divergent lines of Atlantic salmon (i...
April 11, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396924/non-introgressive-genome-chimerisation-by-malsegregation-in-autodiploidised-allotetraploids-during-meiosis-of-saccharomyces-kudriavzevii-x-saccharomyces-uvarum-hybrids
#9
Edina Karanyicz, Zsuzsa Antunovics, Z Kallai, M Sipiczki
Saccharomyces strains with chimerical genomes consisting of mosaics of the genomes of different species ("natural hybrids") occur quite frequently among industrial and wine strains. The most widely endorsed hypothesis is that the mosaics are introgressions acquired via hybridisation and repeated backcrosses of the hybrids with one of the parental species. However, the interspecies hybrids are sterile, unable to mate with their parents. Here, we show by analysing synthetic Saccharomyces kudriavzevii x Saccharomyces uvarum hybrids that mosaic (chimeric) genomes can arise without introgressive backcrosses...
April 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379193/a-force-visualized-silicone-retractor-attachable-to-surgical-suction-pipes
#10
Tetsuyou Watanabe, Toshio Koyama, Takeshi Yoneyama, Mitsutoshi Nakada
This paper presents a force-visually-observable silicone retractor, which is an extension of a previously developed system that had the same functions of retracting, suction, and force sensing. These features provide not only high usability by reducing the number of tool changes, but also a safe choice of retracting by visualized force information. Suction is achieved by attaching the retractor to a suction pipe. The retractor has a deformable sensing component including a hole filled with a liquid. The hole is connected to an outer tube, and the liquid level displaced in proportion to the extent of deformation resulting from the retracting load...
April 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374672/a-mutation-of-the-prdm9-mouse-hybrid-sterility-gene-carried-by-a-transgene
#11
O Mihola, Z Trachtulec
PRDM9 is a protein with histone-3-methyltransferase activity, which specifies the sites of meiotic recombination in mammals. Deficiency of the Prdm9 gene in the laboratory mouse results in complete arrest of the meiotic prophase of both sexes. Moreover, the combination of certain PRDM9 alleles from different mouse subspecies causes hybrid sterility, e.g., the male-specific meiotic arrest found in the (PWD/Ph × C57BL/6J)F1 animals. The fertility of all these mice can be rescued using a Prdm9-containing transgene...
2017: Folia Biologica (Praha)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370681/disorder-of-sex-development-in-a-cat-with-chromosome-mosaicism-37-x-38-x-r-y
#12
I Szczerbal, M Stachowiak, J Nowacka-Woszuk, S Dzimira, K Szczepanska, M Switonski
An 18-month-old European shorthair cat was subjected to genetic studies due to ambiguous external genitalia (underdeveloped both penis and scrotum). Further anatomic and histopathological studies revealed the presence of abdominal, atrophic testes and uterus. Cytogenetic analysis showed two cell lines, one with X monosomy-37,X [90% of the analysed metaphase spreads], and other line had 38 chromosomes with normal X chromosome and abnormally small Y-derived chromosome-38,X,der(Y) [10%]. Further fluorescence in situ hybridization study with telomeric probe revealed a ring structure of the der(Y)...
March 30, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369099/comparative-gene-expression-analysis-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-atcc-33277-in-planktonic-and-biofilms-states
#13
P Romero-Lastra, M C Sánchez, H Ribeiro-Vidal, A Llama-Palacios, E Figuero, D Herrera, M Sanz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the onset and progression of periodontitis. Its pathogenicity has been related to its presence and survival within the subgingival biofilm. The aim of the present study was to compare the genome-wide transcription activities of P. gingivalis in biofilm and in planktonic growth, using microarray technology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 was incubated in multi-well culture plates at 37°C for 96 hours under anaerobic conditions using an in vitro static model to develop both the planktonic and biofilm states (the latter over sterile ceramic calcium hydroxyapatite discs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367153/pentaploid-wheat-hybrids-applications-characterisation-and-challenges
#14
REVIEW
Sriram Padmanaban, Peng Zhang, Ray A Hare, Mark W Sutherland, Anke Martin
Interspecific hybridisation between hexaploid and tetraploid wheat species leads to the development of F1 pentaploid hybrids with unique chromosomal constitutions. Pentaploid hybrids derived from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum spp. durum Desf.) crosses can improve the genetic background of either parent by transferring traits of interest. The genetic variability derived from bread and durum wheat and transferred into pentaploid hybrids has the potential to improve disease resistance, abiotic tolerance, and grain quality, and to enhance agronomic characters...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361280/temporary-skin-grafts-based-on-hybrid-graphene-oxide-natural-biopolymer-nanofibers-as-effective-wound-healing-substitutes-pre-clinical-and-pathological-studies-in-animal-models
#15
N Mahmoudi, N Eslahi, A Mehdipour, M Mohammadi, M Akbari, A Samadikuchaksaraei, A Simchi
In recent years, temporary skin grafts (TSG) based on natural biopolymers modified with carbon nanostructures have received considerable attention for wound healing. Developments are required to improve physico-mechanical properties of these materials to match to natural skins. Additionally, in-deep pre-clinical examinations are necessary to ensure biological performance and toxicity effect in vivo. In the present work, we show superior acute-wound healing effect of graphene oxide nanosheets embedded in ultrafine biopolymer fibers (60 nm) on adult male rats...
May 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326434/genetic-architecture-of-male-fertility-restoration-of-triticum-timopheevii-cytoplasm-and-fine-mapping-of-the-major-restorer-locus-rf3-on-chromosome-1b
#16
Tobias Würschum, Willmar L Leiser, Sigrid Weissmann, Hans Peter Maurer
Restoration of fertility in the cytoplasmic male sterility-inducing Triticum timopheevii cytoplasm can be achieved with the major restorer locus Rf3 located on chromosome 1B, but is also dependent on modifier loci. Hybrid breeding relies on a hybrid mechanism enabling a cost-efficient hybrid seed production. In wheat and triticale, cytoplasmic male sterility based on the T. timopheevii cytoplasm is commonly used, and the aim of this study was to dissect the genetic architecture underlying fertility restoration...
March 21, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315925/fine-mapping-of-the-restorer-gene-rfp3-from-an-iranian-primitive-rye-secale-cereale-l
#17
Bernd Hackauf, Eva Bauer, Viktor Korzun, Thomas Miedaner
A comparative genetics approach allowed to precisely determine the map position of the restorer gene Rfp3 in rye and revealed that Rfp3 and the restorer gene Rfm1 in barley reside at different positions in a syntenic 4RL/6HS segment. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a reliable and striking genetic mechanism for hybrid seed production. Breeding of CMS-based hybrids in cereals requires the use of effective restorer genes as an indispensable pre-requisite. We report on the fine mapping of a restorer gene for the Pampa cytoplasm in winter rye that has been tapped from the Iranian primitive rye population Altevogt 14160...
March 18, 2017: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315830/paternal-induction-of-hybrid-dysgenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster-is-weakly-correlated-with-both-p-element-and-hobo-element-dosage
#18
Satyam P Srivastav, Erin S Kelleher
Transposable elements (TEs) are virtually ubiquitous components of genomes, yet they often impose significant fitness consequences on their hosts. In addition to producing specific deleterious mutations by insertional inactivation, TEs also impose general fitness costs by inducing DNA damage and participating in ectopic recombination. These latter fitness costs are often assumed to be dosage-dependent, with stronger effects occurring in the presence of higher TE copy numbers. We test this assumption in Drosophila melanogaster by considering the relationship between the copy number of two active DNA transposons, P-element and hobo element, and the incidence of hybrid dysgenesis, a sterility syndrome associated with transposon activity in the germline...
March 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283407/cellular-aspects-of-gonadal-atrophy-in-drosophila-p-m-hybrid-dysgenesis
#19
Natalia V Dorogova, Elena Us Bolobolova, Lyudmila P Zakharenko
Gonadal atrophy is the most typical and dramatic manifestation of intraspecific hybrid dysgenesis syndrome leading to sterility in Drosophila melanogaster dysgenic progeny. The P-M system of hybrid dysgenesis is primarily associated with germ cell degeneration during the early stages of Drosophila embryonic development at elevated temperatures. In the present study, we have defined the phase of germ cell death as beginning at the end of embryogenesis immediately following gonad formation. However, the temperature-dependent screening of germ cell developmental patterns in the dysgenic background showed that early germ cells are susceptible to the hybrid dysgenesis at any Drosophila life-cycle stage, including in the imago...
March 7, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275945/enrichment-culture-and-identification-of-endophytic-methanotrophs-isolated-from-peatland-plants
#20
Zofia Stępniewska, Weronika Goraj, Agnieszka Kuźniar, Natalia Łopacka, Magdalena Małysza
Aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are an environmentally significant group of microorganisms due to their role in the global carbon cycle. Research conducted over the past few decades has increased the interest in discovering novel genera of methane-degrading bacteria, which efficiently utilize methane and decrease the global warming effect. Moreover, methanotrophs have more promising applications in environmental bioengineering, biotechnology, and pharmacy. The investigations were undertaken to recognize the variety of endophytic methanotrophic bacteria associated with Carex nigra, Vaccinium oxycoccus, and Eriophorum vaginatum originating from Moszne peatland (East Poland)...
March 9, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
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