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Nadia Maria Berterame, Stefano Bertagnoli, Vera Codazzi, Danilo Porro, Paola Branduardi
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a well-established workhorse, either for recombinant or natural products, thanks to its natural traits and easily editable metabolism. However, during a bio-based industrial process it meets multiple stresses generated by operative conditions such as non-optimal temperature, pH, oxygenation and product accumulation. The development of tolerant strains is therefore indispensable for the improvement of production, yield and productivity of fermentative processes. In this regard, plants as resilient organisms are a generous source for fishing genes and/or metabolites that can help the cell factory to counteract environmental constraints...
September 1, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Arissa Felipe Borges, Camila Imai Morato, Rodrigo Saar Gomes, Miriam Leandro Dorta, Milton Adriano Pelli de Oliveira, Fátima Ribeiro-Dias
Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is produced by macrophages during inflammation and infections. We evaluated whether PAF is able to modulate the infection of human macrophages by Leishmania braziliensis, the main Leishmania sp. in Brazil. Monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with promastigote forms in absence or presence of exogenous PAF. We observed that the treatment of macrophages with low concentrations of PAF prior to infection increased the phagocytosis of L. braziliensis. More importantly, exogenous PAF reduced the parasitism when it was added before, during or after infection...
September 29, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
Anna Szady-Chełmieniecka, Beata Kołodziej, Maja Morawiak, Bohdan Kamieński, Wojciech Schilf
The structural study of five Schiff bases derived from diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) and 2-hydroxy carbonyl compounds was performed using (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR methods in solution and in the solid state as well. ATR-FTIR and X-Ray spectroscopies were used for confirmation of the results obtained by NMR method. The imine obtained from DAMN and benzaldehyde was synthesized as a model compound which lacks intramolecular hydrogen bond. Deprotonation of all synthesized compounds was done by treating with tetramethylguanidine (TMG)...
August 12, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Xiaorui Zhang, Yizhou Mei, Tongxing Wang, Feng Liu, Ning Jiang, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang
Oxidative stress, DNA damage repair, and inflammation are three important reactions of sulfur mustard (SM) exposure. But molecular related chronological events in the earlier stage of SM exposure model are still unclear. In the research, reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by using flow cytometry. Cytokines were tested in Luminex method. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and glutathione (GSH) activity or levels in serum were determined by commercially available kits...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Mohamed N A Meshref, Pamela Chelme-Ayala, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
The toxicological effects from all components in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are not known. Alternatively, monitoring the variations and abundance of different classes and compounds after treatments might be a useful approach in OSPW remediation. In this study, the variations in the compositions of classical and heteroatomic naphthenic acids (NAs) after treatment using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), mainly ozone and peroxone, and two different mass spectrometry methods; ultra-performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight (UPLC-TOFMS) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR-MS), were examined...
August 4, 2017: Water Research
Bassey E Edem, Amali Adekwu, Michael E Efu, Joseph Kuni, Gerald Onuchukwu, Johnbosco Ugwuadu
INTRODUCTION: Impacted penetrating foreign body (FB) in the airway especially the postnasal space presents with management challenges. The challenges are worsened by lack of modern equipment in resource-poor settings. Two suchlike cases were managed in this report. PRESENTATION OF CASES: Case 1: A 4-year-old girl who fell on a metal rod in her mouth while playing alone. Examination revealed an agitated child in open mouth posture, with a silvery straight metallic object impacted on the hard palate and projecting from the mouth...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Zhongwei Wang, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Pascal E Saikaly
Salinity can affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment in terms of nutrient removal. The effect of salt on aerobic granular sludge (AGS) process in terms of granulation and nutrient removal was examined in this study. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of salt (15 g/L NaCl) on granule formation and nutrient removal in AGS system started with flocculent sludge and operated at DO of 2.5 mg/L (phase I). In addition, experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of gradually increasing the salt concentration (2...
August 13, 2017: Water Research
Lang Sun, Yi Luo, Ming Li, Guanghui Hu, Yongjie Xu, Tao Tang, Jianfeng Wen, Xinyu Li, Liang Wang
Nitrogen-doped graphene quantum dots (N-GQDs) exhibit exciting properties in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for ample electrocatalytic edging and N-doped active sites. However, low yield and high dispersity of N-GQDs prohibit their direct application as the electrocatalyst. In this paper, two facile hydrothermal progress were developed to synthesize the high-yield N-GQDs with the diameter of ca. 2-6nm and the hybrid of N-GQDs/Reduced Graphene Oxide (N-GQDs/r-GO). The results demonstrated that the N-GQDs/r-GO display remarkable electrocatalytic activity...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Kazushige Goto, Daichi Sumi, Chihiro Kojima, Aya Ishibashi
The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of hypoxic exposure during prolonged endurance exercise sessions (79 min in total) on post-exercise hepcidin levels in trained male endurance athletes. Ten endurance athletes (mean ± standard deviation; height: 169.8 ± 7.1 cm, weight: 57.1 ± 5.0 kg) conducted two endurance exercise sessions under either a normobaric hypoxic condition [inspired O2 fraction (FiO2) = 14.5%] or a normoxic condition (FiO2 = 20.9%). Exercise consisted of 10 × 3 min running on a treadmill at 95% of maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) with 60s of active rest at 60% of [Formula: see text]...
2017: PloS One
Yi-Jin Chen, Wen-Hung Wang, Wan-Yu Wu, Chia-Chi Hsu, Ling-Rung Wei, Sheng-Fan Wang, Ya-Wen Hsu, Chih-Chuang Liaw, Wan-Chi Tsai
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer with a 5-year survival rate of ~5%. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) participate in many cellular processes, including carcinogenesis, and pharmacological inhibition of HDACs has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we explored antitumor activity of the novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42 in pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Human pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1 were used in this study...
2017: PloS One
Layla Al-Awadi
Indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools is a matter of concern because children are most vulnerable and sensitive to pollutant exposure. Conservation of energy at the expense of ventilation in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems adversely affects IAQ. Extensive use of new materials in building, fitting, and refurbishing emit various pollutants such that the indoor environment creates its own discomfort and health risks. Various schools in Kuwait were selected to assess their IAQ. Comprehensive measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of 72 organic compounds consisting of aliphatic (C3-C6), aromatic (C6-C9), halogenated (C1-C6), and oxygenated (C2-C9) functional groups in indoor air were made for the first time in schools in Kuwait...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Richard C Blagrove, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
This study aimed to quantify the intra-individual reliability of a number of physiological variables in a group of national and international young distance runners. Sixteen (8 male, 8 female) participants (16.7 ± 1.4 years) performed a submaximal incremental running assessment followed by a maximal running test, on two occasions separated by no more than seven days. Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), speed at V̇O2max (km h(-1)), running economy and speed and heart rate (HR) at fixed blood lactate concentrations were determined...
August 22, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
Shigeaki Sunada, Hirokazu Hirakawa, Akira Fujimori, Mitsuru Uesaka, Ryuichi Okayasu
High-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions cause higher therapeutic effects than low-LET radiation due to lower dependency on oxygen concentration in tumor cell killing. The lethality after irradiation largely depends on DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), however the detailed LET dependency for DSB induction under oxic and hypoxic conditions has not been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) of heavy ion-induced DSB induction using a highly-optimized flow cytometry-based method of γ-H2AX detection...
August 22, 2017: Radiation Research
Sepideh Vahabi, Siavash Beiranvand
BACKGROUND: Increased intracranial pressure (ICP) with hemodynamic is of major concern to anesthesiologists and surgeons in craniotomy surgery. Thus, the management of hemodynamic stability is essential in neuro-anesthesia. This study was performed to investigate the effect of local infiltration of 0.5% ropivacaine on hemodynamic responses in craniotomy patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 64 ASA class I -II patients, scheduled for elective craniotomies, were enrolled in this prospective randomized double blind placebo controlled study...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
Meng-Chun Cheng, Tzu-Ming Pan
Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate (GD) purified from Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NTU 101-fermented products has been demonstrated to possess neuroprotective properties. We determined the effect of GD on oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R)-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell death. GD ameliorated OGD/R-induced apoptosis by elevating the protein expression of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), thereby attenuating reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Marta Castiñeira Reis, Marta Marín-Luna, Carlos Silva López, Olalla Nieto Faza
Density functional theory is applied to the study of the oxygen atom transfer reaction from sulfoxide (DMSO) to phosphine (PMe3) catalyzed by the [MoO2](2+) active core. In this work, two fundamentally different roles are explored for this dioxometal complex in the first step of the catalytic cycle: as an oxidizing agent and as a Lewis acid. The latter turns out to be the favored pathway for the oxygen atom transfer. This finding may have more general implications for similar reactions catalyzed by the same [MoO2](2+) core...
August 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
B Zhuan, Y Yu, Z Yang, X Zhao, P Li
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the oxidative stress effects of the NADPH oxidase-ROS-NF-κB transduction pathway and vascular peroxidase 1 (VPO1) on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) combined with pulmonary hypertension (PH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: 30 patients with pure COPD and 30 patients with stable COPD combined with PH, who were admitted to our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015, were enrolled as the control group and the observation group, respectively...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
C Fantacci, P Ferrara, F Franceschi, A Chiaretti
OBJECTIVE: We report 2 children with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection complicated with spontaneous pneumopericardium (PP) and pneumomediastinum (PM), one also associated with pneumorrhachis (PR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two previously healthy children presented with fever, violent dry cough, dyspnea, and tachypnea. Chest X-ray and CT scans showed sizeable PP and PM in both patients. One of them also presented PR. Children were initially treated with intravenous antibiotics, antipyretics, and a cough sedative...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Apresio K Fajrial, Adhitya G Saputro, Mohammad K Agusta, Febdian Rusydi, Nugraha, Hermawan K Dipojono
We study the adsorption and the dissociation of O2 molecules on the active sites of a boron-doped pyrolyzed Fe-N-C catalyst using density functional theory. Initially, we determine the possible structure of the FeN4 active site of the pyrolyzed Fe-N-C catalyst doped with a boron atom by considering the presence of a nitrogen atom as a metal-free site. The most stable configuration of the structure occurs when the boron and nitrogen atoms coalesce with the FeN4 site forming a complex site. This structure has higher stability compared to the undoped FeN4 site...
August 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Martin Hangaard Hansen, Anders Nilsson, Jan Rossmeisl
We present atomic-scale structures of the Pt(111)/water interface, by calculating distributions of atomic distances as functions of pH. The structure of the Pt(111)/water interface is a particularly interesting model system in electro-catalysis for proton exchange reactions, especially the oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. Further insight into such reactions requires accurate simulations of the electrolyte structure in the interface. The study displays many interesting details in the behaviour of the electrolyte structure, e...
August 22, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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