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Abdulla Al Mamun Bhuyan, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib is primarily utilized for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma. The drug is at least partially effective by triggering suicidal tumor cell death. Side effects of afatinib treatment include anemia. At least in theory, afatinib induced anemia could be secondary to stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
María J Rubio-Cabetas, Clara Pons, Beatriz Bielsa, María L Amador, Cristina Marti, Antonio Granell
Analysis of the transcriptomic changes produced in response to hypoxia in root tissues from two rootstock Prunus genotypes differing in their sensitivity to waterlogging: resistant Myrobalan 'P.2175' (P. cerasifera Erhr.), and sensitive 'Felinem' hybrid [P. amygdalus Batsch × P. persica (L.) Batsch] revealed alterations in both metabolism and regulatory processes. Early hypoxia response in both genotypes is characterized by a molecular program aimed to adapt the cell metabolism to the new conditions. Upon hypoxia conditions, tolerant Myrobalan represses first secondary metabolism gene expression as a strategy to prevent the waste of resources/energy, and by the up-regulation of protein degradation genes probably leading to structural adaptations to long-term response to hypoxia...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Amena Khatun, Kyu-Ho Kang, Do-Yeal Ryu, Md Saidur Rahman, Woo-Sung Kwon, Myung-Geol Pang
Aminopeptidase N (APN) is defined as a multifunctional enzyme, which regulate cellular physiology of a wide variety of cells in human. Earlier studies reported that mammalian semen shares this common enzyme as a major protein of seminal plasma that has correlation with male fertility, while the regulatory mechanisms of APN in spermatozoa are still far from being well understood. Present study was designed to investigate the role of APN in biological and chemical functions of spermatozoa using an in vitro antagonistic approach...
June 12, 2018: Theriogenology
Taylor Pini, Tamara Leahy, Simon P de Graaf
Semen cryopreservation is an important tool for artificial breeding, species conservation and human reproductive medicine. However, sublethal freezing damage remains an important limitation of the cryopreservation process, inevitably leading to reduced fertility in vivo. This review explores several facets of sublethal freezing damage, touching on cryocapacitation, the generation of reactive oxygen species and alterations to sperm proteins, lipids and sugars. The effects of sublethal freezing damage on sperm performance in vivo are also discussed, examining fertile lifespan and interaction with female reproductive tract immune cells, mucus and oviductal cells...
June 11, 2018: Theriogenology
Zhiqiang Xiong, Xuejiao Zhang, Siyu Zhang, Lei Lei, Wei Ma, Dengyu Li, Weidong Wang, Qing Zhao, Baoshan Xing
Newly emerged two-dimensional material, black phosphorus (BP) shows promising applications in many fields owing to its superior properties. Despite the biological effects of BP were studied, its environmental impacts have not yet received enough attention. In this study, the bacterial toxicity of exfoliated BP nanosheets was for the first time evaluated against two model bacteria strains, Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). By monitoring the bacterial growth curve and colony counting, the bacterial toxicity of BP nanosheets was examined...
June 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Qiyuan Sun, Tianfang Zhang, Feifeng Wang, Changqing Liu, Chunshan Wu, Rong-Rong Xie, Yuyi Zheng
Microcystins (MCs), produced by cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic water, are common toxic metabolites and a potential threat to human health. However, the mechanism of MC photodegradation by photosensitizers in raw water remains unclear. In photodegradation and quenching experiments, this study investigates the photosensitized degradation of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) by fulvic acid (FA, a kind of dissolved organic matter with natural photosensitizing properties) under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. The photodegradation mechanisms of FA are also explored...
June 15, 2018: Chemosphere
Shutao Gao, Pengli Zheng, Zhenhua Li, Xiaochen Feng, Weixiao Yan, Shizhu Chen, Weisheng Guo, Dandan Liu, Xinjian Yang, Shuxiang Wang, Xing-Jie Liang, Jinchao Zhang
Improving the supply of O2 and the circulation lifetime of photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in vivo would be a promising approach to eliminate hypoxic tumors. Herein, by taking advantage of the significant gas-adsorption capability of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a biomimetic O2 -evolving photodynamic therapy (PDT) nanoplatform with long circulating properties was fabricated. Zirconium (IV)-based MOF (UiO-66) was used as a vehicle for O2 storing, then conjugated with indocyanine green (ICG) by coordination reaction, and further coated with red blood cell (RBC) membranes...
June 7, 2018: Biomaterials
Wenjuan Shen, Hongliang Kang, Zhihui Ai
This study systematically compared the degradation of atrazine (ATR) with aerobic zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl/Air) and zero-valent iron (ZVI/Air) systems. By comparing the ATR degradation curves and rate in the ZVAl/Air and the ZVI/Air systems, a significant induction period was observed in the ZVAl/Air system, and the pseudo-first-order rate constant of ATR degradation in the second stage by ZVAl was 6.4 times faster than that by ZVI. The differences in ATR degradation patterns of the two systems stemmed from the different redox nature and electrical conductivity of aluminum (oxide) and iron (oxide)...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jun Cao, Luyao Chen, Mohan Li, Fuliang Cao, Linguo Zhao, Erzheng Su
Proanthocyanidin (PAC) holds strong free radicals scavenging ability and is widely used as oxygen free radical scavenger. Huge demand, safety and economic aspect are forcing the PAC extraction to explore new resource and greener solvent. An efficient extraction method of PAC from Ginkgo biloba leaves was established by employing deep eutectic solvent (DES)-water mixture. After a rational design, a DES-water mixture (named as Ch-M55 ) was chosen as the extraction solvent, which was prepared from choline chloride and malonic acid at a molar ratio of 1:2 with water addition of 55% (w/w)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ulas Acaroz, Sinan Ince, Damla Arslan-Acaroz, Zeki Gurler, Ismail Kucukkurt, Hasan Hüseyin Demirel, Halil Ozancan Arslan, Nuray Varol, Kui Zhu
Acrylamide (ACR) is a hazardous substance associated with the accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species and causes oxidative stress. Presence of ACR in foods leads to public health concerns due to its known neurotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects. The present study investigated the ameliorative effects of boron (B) against ACR exposed rats. Forty Wistar albino male rats, fed with low-boron diet, were randomly and equally allocated into 5 groups. The control group was orally treated with physiological saline as placebo, the second group was orally given 15 mg/kg ACR...
June 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Albert van der Vliet, Tobias P Dick, Steve D Aust, Willem H Koppenol, Fulvio Ursini, Antony J Kettle, Joseph S Beckman, Valerie O'Donnell, Victor Darley-Usmar, Jack Lancaster, Neil Hogg, Kelvin J A Davies, Henry Jay Forman, Yvonne M W Janssen-Heininger
Since 1981, Gordon Research Conferences have been held on the topic of Oxygen Radicals on a biennial basis, to highlight and discuss the latest cutting edge research in this area. Since the first meeting, one special feature of this conference has been the awarding of the so-called Iron Bolt, an award that started in jest but has gained increasing reputation over the years. Since no written documentation exists for this Iron Bolt award, this perspective serves to overview the history of this unusual award, and highlights various experiences of previous winners of this "prestigious" award and other interesting anecdotes...
June 15, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Karla Acosta-Virgen, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Daniel Talamás Lara, Anel Lagunes-Guillén, Aaron Martínez-Higuera, Antonio Lazcano, Adolfo Martínez-Palomo, Martha Espinosa-Cantellano
The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia has traditionally been reported as lacking peroxisomes, organelles involved in fatty acid metabolism and detoxification of reactive oxygen species. We here report the finding with transmission electron microscopy of an oxidase activity in cytoplasmic vesicles of trophozoites and cysts of G. lamblia. These vesicles were positive to 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and to cerium chloride staining. In addition, using bioinformatic tools, two peroxisomal proteins were identified in the G...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Cristina Monteiro, José Miguel P Ferreira de Oliveira, Francisco Pinho, Verónica Bastos, Helena Oliveira, Francisco Peixoto, Conceição Santos
Cadmium (Cd) accumulation is known to occur predominantly in kidney and liver; however, low-level long-term exposure to Cd may also result in bone damage. Few studies have addressed Cd-induced toxicity in osteoblasts, particularly upon cell mitochondrial energy processing and putative associations with oxidative stress in bone. To assess the influence of Cd treatment on mitochondrial function and oxidative status in osteoblast cells, human MG-63 cells were treated with Cd (up to 65 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid and protein oxidation and antioxidant defense mechanisms such as total antioxidant activity (TAA) and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Michael I Koukourakis, Alexandra Giatromanolaki
PURPOSE: The anaerobic metabolism of glucose by cancer cells, even under well oxygenated conditions, has been documented by Otto Warburg as early as 1927. Micro-environmental hypoxia and intracellular pathways activating the hypoxia-related gene response, shift cancer cell metabolism to anaerobic pathways. In the current review we focus on a major enzyme involved in anaerobic transformation of pyruvate to lactate, namely lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5). CONCLUSIONS: The value of LDH5 as a marker of prognosis of cancer patients, as a predictor of response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and, finally, as a major target for cancer treatment and radio-sensitization is reported and discussed...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Si Young Lee, Hyejin Jung, Nak-Kyoon Kim, Hyung-Suk Oh, Byoung Koun Min, Yun Jeong Hwang
Oxygen-Cu (O-Cu) combination catalysts have recently achieved highly improved selectivity for ethylene production from the electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR). In this study, we developed anodized copper (AN-Cu) Cu(OH)2 catalysts by a simple electrochemical synthesis method and achieved ~40% Faradaic efficiency for ethylene production, and high stability over 40 hours. Notably, the initial reduction conditions applied to AN-Cu were critical to achieving selective and stable ethylene production activity from the CO2RR, as the initial reduction condition af-fects the structures and chemical states, crucial for highly selective and stable ethylene production over methane...
June 18, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Dae-Gwan Yi, Sujin Hong, Won-Ki Huh
Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is associated with cellular dysfunction, disease etiology, and senescence. Here, we used the eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly studied for cellular aging, to demonstrate how defective mitochondrial function affects yeast replicative lifespan (RLS). We show that RLS of respiratory-deficient cells decreases significantly, indicating that the maintenance of RLS requires active respiration. The shortening of RLS due to mitochondrial dysfunction was not related to the accumulation of extrachromosomal ribosomal DNA circles, a well-known cause of aging in yeast...
2018: PloS One
George H Crocker, Joseph F Moon, Jeff A Nessler, Sean C Newcomer
Crocker, GH, Moon, JF, Nessler, JA, and Newcomer, SC. Energetics of swimming with hand paddles of different surface areas. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Hand paddles are one of the most common training aids used by the competitive swimmer, yet little is known regarding how hand paddle surface area affects the metabolic cost of transport (COT) while swimming. The purpose of this study was to determine how altering hand paddle size affects energy use during submaximal, front-crawl (i.e., freestyle) swimming...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jing Kang, Zongsheng Tian, Mingxian Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in insular cortex metabolites and the correlation with clinical manifestations in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). Lateral insular metabolite levels were measured and relevant ratios were calculated in OSA patients and healthy individuals, including N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr), choline/creatine (Cho/Cr), inositol/creatine (Ins/Cr), glutamate compound/creatine (Glx/Cr), N-acetyl aspartate/choline (NAA/Cho), and lactic acid (Lac)...
June 15, 2018: Neuroreport
Miljana Z Jovandaric, Svetlana J Milenkovic
INTRODUCTION: Metabolic acidosis with increasing lactate concentration develops due to the lack of oxygen in the tissues. OBJECTIVES: The effect of lactic acidosis on neurological development in the first year of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our study included 50 newborns with perinatal hypoxia requiring oxygen therapy and 50 healthy newborns. pH, pCO2, pO2, base excess (BE) and lactates from arterialized capillary blood were determined in both groups of newborns, in the first and second hours after birth, and neurological development in the first year of life was estimated...
June 18, 2018: Neurological Research
Ashley R Bjorklund, Beatrice Odongkara Mpora, Marie E Steiner, Gwenyth Fischer, Cynthia S Davey, Tina M Slusher
BACKGROUND: While bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is commonly used in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) to support neonates with respiratory distress, there are limited non-invasive support options for non-neonatal children. AIM: To demonstrate safety of a new device designed to support children during respiratory distress in LMIC. METHODS: A paediatric bCPAP device was designed called SEAL-bCPAP (Simplified Ear-plug Adapted-bCPAP)...
June 18, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
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