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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449528/the-link-between-tuberculosis-and-body-mass-index
#1
EDITORIAL
Aaron R Casha, Marco Scarci
The evidence behind the strong correlation between reactivation of tuberculosis (TB) and low body mass index (BMI) was reviewed. This strong association between TB and BMI occurred only with pulmonary TB and not extra-pulmonary TB, indicating that a low-BMI body build may in some way predispose to TB reactivation in the lungs. A possible explanation may be the congenital apical lung bullae that occur in 15% of the population and are likely to enlarge in young low-BMI males since biomechanical modeling of pleural stress has shown a massive 40x increase in apical pleural stress in low antero-posterior (AP) diameter chests associated with a low-BMI build...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449516/long-term-oxygen-therapy-it-is-still-relevant
#2
EDITORIAL
Surinder K Jindal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449487/performance-in-the-shuttle-walk-test-is-associated-with-cardiopulmonary-complications-after-lung-resections
#3
Joseph Fennelly, Lauren Potter, Cecilia Pompili, Alessandro Brunelli
BACKGROUND: The current functional guidelines recommend the shuttle walk test (SWT) as an initial screening tool to identify candidates for lung resection without requiring cardiopulmonary exercise testing. This study aims to: (I) assess the use of the SWT in predicting postoperative cardiopulmonary complications; and (II) determine whether the recommended 400 m cut-off is an appropriate distance. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 101 patients that had performed a SWT prior to surgery...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449465/application-of-bronchoscope-for-the-placement-of-nasoenteric-feeding-tube-in-patients-with-esophagectomy-a-novel-technique
#4
Hai-Xia Cao, Wei Zhang, Jun Zhang, Xiong-Huai Hua, Jian-Jun Qin, Yin Li
BACKGROUND: Currently the available techniques for the placement of nasoenteric feeding tube (NET), utilizing transnasal gastroscope are fast and tolerable, which is known as the most popular method. However, lots of hospitals don't have this endoscopic system. Bronchoscope, which is the basic respiratory endoscope, not only has the advantages of transnasal endoscopy, but also is popular in common hospitals. We used oxygen instillation as air supply plant of the bronchoscope, which broke its application limitation in digestive tract...
March 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449369/exposure-to-the-insecticide-endosulfan-induces-liver-morphology-alterations-and-oxidative-stress-in-fruit-eating-bats-artibeus-lituratus
#5
Jerusa Maria Oliveira, Alessandro Brinati, Liany Divina Lima Miranda, Danielle Barbosa Morais, José Cola Zanuncio, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Mariella Bontempo Freitas
Exposure to pesticides may increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidation of cell membrane lipids and proteins. Although fruit bats are potentially exposed to pesticides during their entire lifespan, the impacts of this exposure are still poorly investigated. We examined the effects of low, commercially recommended concentrations (0, 1.05 and 2.1 g/l) of an organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (EDS) formulation on oxidative responses in the liver and kidneys of Neotropical fruit bats (Artibeus lituratus), as well as possible liver morphological alterations following a 35-day oral exposure...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449325/electrosynthesis-of-bifunctional-ws3-x-rgo-hybrid-for-her-and-orr-electrocatalysis
#6
Martin Pumera
We combined the desirable properties of tungsten sulfide and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and fabricated the hybrid materials through simultaneous electrochemical reduction and synthesis, as a versatile and environmentally benign alternative to conventional fabrication techniques. We synthesised a mixed WS2/WS3 film-like material (WS3-x) directly onto GO-modified glassy carbon electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the resultant hybrid materials (WS3-x/rGO) were thoroughly characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as Raman spectroscopy...
April 27, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449270/strong-association-between-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-serum-lipoprotein-subclass-pattern-in-prepubertal-healthy-children
#7
Geir Kåre Resaland, Tarja Rajalahti, Eivind Aadland, Olav Martin Kvalheim
AIM: To reveal the lipoprotein subclass pattern associated to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in healthy children. METHODS: Serum concentrations of lipoprotein subclasses and concentrations and average particle size of their main classes were quantified in 94 ethnic Norwegian children using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-four lipoprotein features were used as input to multivariate regression analysis with CRF measured either as peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) using a continuous treadmill protocol or indirectly by the 10 minute Andersen intermittent running field test...
April 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449226/an-integrated-network-analysis-identifies-how-arcab-enables-metabolic-oscillations-in-the-nitric-oxide-detoxification-network-of-escherichia-coli
#8
Sarah A Sacco, Kristin J Adolfsen, Mark P Brynildsen
The virulences of many pathogens depend on their abilities to detoxify the immune antimicrobial nitric oxide (NO•). The functions of bacterial NO• detoxification machinery depend on oxygen (O2 ), with O2 inhibiting some enzymes, whereas others use it as a substrate. Previously, Escherichia coli NO• detoxification was found to be highly attenuated under microaerobic conditions and metabolic oscillations were observed. The oscillations in [NO•] and [O2 ] were found to result from the inhibitory action of NO• on aerobic respiration, the catalytic inactivation of NO• by Hmp (an NO• dioxygenase), and an imbalanced competition for O2 between Hmp and cytochrome terminal oxidase activity...
April 27, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449077/executive-network-activation-is-linked-to-walking-speed-in-older-adults-functional-mri-and-tcd-ultrasound-evidence-from-the-mobilize-boston-study
#9
Azizah J Jor'dan, Victoria N Poole, Ikechukwu Iloputaife, William Milberg, Brad Manor, Michael Esterman, Lewis A Lipsitz
Background: Changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF) in response to a cognitive task (task-related ΔCBF) have been shown by Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) to be reduced in slow walkers. However, it is unknown whether reduced task-related ΔCBF is associated with reduced neural activity in specific brain regions, as measured by blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: We assessed the regional changes in neural activity associated with reduced middle cerebral artery (MCA) task-related ΔCBF to an executive task and slow walking speed in 67 community-dwelling older adults from the MOBILIZE Boston Study...
April 26, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449046/prone-positioning-as-a-bridge-to-recovery-from-refractory-hypoxaemia-following-lung-transplantation%C3%A2
#10
Jordi Riera, Carolina Maldonado, Cristopher Mazo, María Martínez, Jaume Baldirà, Leonel Lagunes, Salvador Augustin, Antonio Roman, Maria Due, Jordi Rello, Deborah J Levine
OBJECTIVES: Refractory hypoxaemia is the leading cause of mortality in the postoperative period after lung transplantation. The role of prone positioning as a rescue therapy in this setting has not been assessed. We evaluated its effects in lung transplant recipients presenting refractory hypoxaemia following the surgery. METHODS: Prospectively collected data from 131 consecutive adult patients undergoing lung transplantation between January 2013 and December 2014 were evaluated...
April 25, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448952/sepsis-and-septic-shock-pathogenesis-and-treatment-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Hayk Minasyan
The majority of bacteremias do not develop to sepsis: bacteria are cleared from the bloodstream. Oxygen released from erythrocytes and humoral immunity kill bacteria in the bloodstream. Sepsis develops if bacteria are resistant to oxidation and proliferate in erythrocytes. Bacteria provoke oxygen release from erythrocytes to arterial blood. Abundant release of oxygen to the plasma triggers a cascade of events that cause: 1. oxygen delivery failure to cells; 2. oxidation of plasma components that impairs humoral regulation and inactivates immune complexes; 3...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448943/mitochondria-in-endothelial-cells-sensors-and-integrators-of-environmental-cues
#12
REVIEW
Sergio Caja, Jose Antonio Enríquez
The involvement of angiogenesis in disease and its potential as a therapeutic target have been firmly established over recent decades. Endothelial cells (ECs) are central elements in vessel homeostasis and regulate the passage of material and cells into and out of the bloodstream. EC proliferation and migration are modified by alterations to mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics resulting from several signals and environmental cues, such as oxygen, hemodynamics, and nutrients. As intermediary signals, mitochondrial ROS are released as important downstream modulators of the expression of angiogenesis-related genes...
April 18, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448913/temporal-characterization-of-flowback-and-produced-water-quality-from-a-hydraulically-fractured-oil-and-gas-well
#13
James Rosenblum, Andrew W Nelson, Bridger Ruyle, Michael K Schultz, Joseph N Ryan, Karl G Linden
This study examined water quality, naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM), major ions, trace metals, and well flow data for water used and produced from start-up to operation of an oil and gas producing hydraulically-fractured well (horizontal) in the Denver-Julesburg (DJ) Basin in northeastern Colorado. Analysis was conducted on the groundwater used to make the fracturing fluid, the fracturing fluid itself, and nine flowback/produced water samples over 220days of operation. The chemical oxygen demand of the wastewater produced during operation decreased from 8200 to 2500mg/L, while the total dissolved solids (TDS) increased in this same period from 14,200 to roughly 19,000mg/L...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448912/effects-of-low-levels-of-ultraviolet-radiation-on-antioxidant-mechanisms-of-japanese-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#14
Wilson F Ramírez-Duarte, Tomofumi Kurobe, Swee J Teh
Extreme weather events like drought are expected to increase with climate change, which will increase exposure of freshwater fish to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Compared to fully grown adult fish, fish in early life stages are more susceptible to UV radiation due to the lack of well-developed pigmentation. Even though several studies have described affectation of fish health after exposure to UV radiation, most of the studies have used intensities that are only found on the surface of the earth crust or at shallow depths in water bodies, and little is known about impacts of weaker UV radiation, which can be found in deep water...
April 20, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448818/pegylated-bilirubin-nanoparticle-as-an-anti-oxidative-and-anti-inflammatory-demulcent-in-pancreatic-islet-xenotransplantation
#15
Min Jun Kim, Yonghyun Lee, Sangyong Jon, Dong Yun Lee
Transplanted islets suffer hypoxic stress, which leads to nonspecific inflammation. This is the major cause of islet graft failure during the early stage of intrahepatic islet transplantation. Although bilirubin has shown potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions, its clinical applications have been limited due to its insolubility and short half-life. To overcome this problem, novel amphiphilic bilirubin nanoparticles are designed. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is conjugated to the hydrophobic bilirubin molecule...
April 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448785/a-class-ii-myosin-is-required-for-growth-conidiation-cell-wall-integrity-and-pathogenicity-of-magnaporthe-oryzae
#16
Min Guo, Leyong Tan, Xiang Nie, Zhengguang Zhang
In eukaryotic organisms, myosin proteins are the major ring components that are involved in cytokinesis. To date, little is known about the biological functions of myosin proteins in Magnaporthe oryzae. In this study, insertional mutagenesis conducted in M. oryzae led to identification of Momyo2, a pathogenicity gene predicted to encode a class-II myosin protein homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Myo1. According to qRT-PCR, Momyo2 is highly expressed during early infectious stage. When this gene was disrupted, the resultant mutant isolates were attenuated in virulence on rice and barley...
April 27, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448635/excited-state-dynamics-of-bis-dehydroxycurcumin-tert-butyl-ester-a-diketo-shifted-derivative-of-the-photosensitizer-curcumin
#17
Luca Nardo, Angelo Maspero, Andrea Penoni, Giovanni Palmisano, Erika Ferrari, Monica Saladini
Bis-dehydroxycurcumin tert-butyl ester (K2T23) is a derivative of the natural spice curcumin. Curcumin is widely studied for its multiple therapeutic properties, including photosensitized cytotoxicity. However, the full exploitation of curcumin phototoxic potential is hindered by the extreme instability of its excited state, caused by very efficient non radiative decay by means of transfer of the enolic proton to the nearby keto oxygen. K2T23 is designed to exhibit a tautomeric equilibrium shifted toward the diketo conformers with respect to natural curcumin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448515/chronic-cocaine-induces-hif-vegf-pathway-activation-along-with-angiogenesis-in-the-brain
#18
Wei Yin, Kevin Clare, Qiujia Zhang, Nora D Volkow, Congwu Du
Cocaine induces vasoconstriction in cerebral vessels, which with repeated use can result in transient ischemic attacks and cerebral strokes. However, the neuroadaptations that follow cocaine's vasoconstricting effects are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic cocaine exposure (2 and 4 weeks) on markers of vascular function and morphology in the rat brain. For this purpose we measured nitric oxide (NO) concentration in plasma, brain neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS or NOS1), HIF-1α, and VEGF expression in different brain regions, i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448444/role-of-the-vanins-myeloperoxidase-axis-in-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#19
REVIEW
Francesco Mariani, Luca Roncucci
The presence of chronic inflammation in the colonic mucosa leads to an increased risk of cancer. Among proteins involved in the regulation of mucosal inflammation and that may contribute both to structural damage of the intestinal mucosa and to intestinal carcinogenesis, there are myeloperoxidase (MPO) and vanins. The infiltration of colonic mucosa by neutrophils may promote carcinogenesis through MPO, a key enzyme contained in the lysosomes of neutrophils that regulates local inflammation and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutagenic species...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448439/ykl-40-induced-inhibition-of-mir-590-3p-promotes-interleukin-18-expression-and-angiogenesis-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#20
Te-Mao Li, Shan-Chi Liu, Ya-Hsin Huang, Chien-Chung Huang, Chin-Jung Hsu, Chun-Hao Tsai, Shih-Wei Wang, Chih-Hsin Tang
YKL-40, also known as human cartilage glycoprotein-39 or chitinase-3-like-1, is a pro-inflammatory protein that is highly expressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Angiogenesis is a critical step in the pathogenesis of RA, promoting the infiltration of inflammatory cells into joints and providing oxygen and nutrients to RA pannus. In this study, we examined the effects of YKL-40 in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18), and the stimulation of angiogenesis and accumulation of osteoblasts...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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