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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911029/update-in-artificial-heart-technology-are-we-there-yet
#1
EDITORIAL
Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Steven J Phillips
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910039/silencing-genes-in-the-heart
#2
Henry Fechner, Roland Vetter, Jens Kurreck, Wolfgang Poller
Silencing of cardiac genes by RNA interference (RNAi) has developed into a powerful new method to treat cardiac diseases. Small interfering (si)RNAs are the inducers of RNAi, but cultured primary cardiomyocytes and heart are highly resistant to siRNA transfection. This can be overcome by delivery of small hairpin (sh)RNAs or artificial microRNA (amiRNAs) by cardiotropic adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. Here we describe as example of the silencing of a cardiac gene, the generation and cloning of shRNA, and amiRNAs directed against the cardiac protein phospholamban...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895342/innovations-in-cardiovascular-care-historical-perspective-contemporary-practice-recent-trends-and-future-directions
#3
Hasanat Sharif, Mayera Tufail
Cardiovascular diseases continue to be a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world population. First open heart procedure was performed by Gibbon in 1953, since then many advancements have been introduced to the field of cardiac surgery. Minimally invasive techniques were introduced, which include minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), off-pump technique, minimally invasive valve surgery or transcatheter techniques to implant stentless or sutureless valves. The hybrid strategy to address coronary disease combines catheterisation procedures with standard surgical techniques...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890144/classification-of-a-driver-s-cognitive-workload-levels-using-artificial-neural-network-on-ecg-signals
#4
Amir Tjolleng, Kihyo Jung, Wongi Hong, Wonsup Lee, Baekhee Lee, Heecheon You, Joonwoo Son, Seikwon Park
An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed in the present study to classify the level of a driver's cognitive workload based on electrocardiography (ECG). ECG signals were measured on 15 male participants while they performed a simulated driving task as a primary task with/without an N-back task as a secondary task. Three time-domain ECG measures (mean inter-beat interval (IBI), standard deviation of IBIs, and root mean squared difference of adjacent IBIs) and three frequencydomain ECG measures (power in low frequency, power in high frequency, and ratio of power in low and high frequencies) were calculated...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883348/-cognitive-emotion-regulation-of-patients-qualified-for-implantation-of-heart-rhythm-control-device
#5
Urszula Ziętalewicz, Jan Jędrzejczyk, Włodzimierz Mojkowski, Dariusz Mojkowski
: The aim of the artificial heart stimulation is not only saving lives, but also improvement of the quality of life of patients with cardiac arrhythmias. One of the key dimensions of quality of life is psychological functioning. Until now, little research assess this dimension in patients before the implantation of the heart rhythm control device. AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the severity of depression and anxiety and the frequency of the used cognitive emotion regulation strategies and to examine the relationship between them...
November 25, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883013/thermally-induced-magnetic-relaxation-in-square-artificial-spin-ice
#6
M S Andersson, S D Pappas, H Stopfel, E Östman, A Stein, P Nordblad, R Mathieu, B Hjörvarsson, V Kapaklis
The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice - we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878837/thrombotic-depositions-on-right-impeller-of-double-ended-centrifugal-total-artificial-heart-in-vivo
#7
Jamshid H Karimov, David J Horvath, Shinji Okano, Mark Goodin, Gengo Sunagawa, Nicole Byram, Nader Moazami, Leonard A R Golding, Kiyotaka Fukamachi
The development of total artificial heart devices is a complex undertaking that includes chronic biocompatibility assessment of the device. It is considered particularly important to assess whether device design and features can be compatible long term in a biological environment. As part of the development program for the Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH), we evaluated the device for signs of thrombosis and biological material deposition in four animals that had achieved the intended 14-, 30-, or 90-day durations in each respective experiment...
November 23, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876006/predictors-of-in-hospital-mortality-following-major-lower-extremity-amputations-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-using-artificial-neural-networks
#8
Ana Lopez-de-Andres, Valentin Hernandez-Barrera, Roberto Lopez, Pablo Martin-Junco, Isabel Jimenez-Trujillo, Alejandro Alvaro-Meca, Miguel Angel Salinero-Fort, Rodrigo Jimenez-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Outcome prediction is important in the clinical decision-making process. Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been used to predict the risk of post-operative events, including survival, and are increasingly being used in complex medical decision making. We aimed to use ANN analysis to estimate predictive factors of in-hospital mortality (IHM) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) after major lower extremity amputation (LEA) in Spain. METHODS: We design a retrospective, observational study using ANN models...
November 22, 2016: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875647/what-pacemakers-can-teach-us-about-the-ethics-of-maintaining-artificial-organs
#9
Katrina Hutchison, Robert Sparrow
One day soon it may be possible to replace a failing heart, liver, or kidney with a long-lasting mechanical replacement or perhaps even with a 3-D printed version based on the patient's own tissue. Such artificial organs could make transplant waiting lists and immunosuppression a thing of the past. Supposing that this happens, what will the ongoing care of people with these implants involve? In particular, how will the need to maintain the functioning of artificial organs over an extended period affect patients and their doctors and the responsibilities of those who manufacture such devices? Drawing on lessons from the history of the cardiac pacemaker, this article offers an initial survey of the ethical issues posed by the need to maintain and service artificial organs...
November 2016: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875262/autoregulation-of-cardiac-output-is-overcome-by-adrenergic-stimulation-in-the-anaconda-heart
#10
William Joyce, Michael Axelsson, Tobias Wang
Most vertebrates increase cardiac output during activity by elevating heart rate with relatively stable stroke volume. However, several studies have demonstrated 'intrinsic autoregulation' of cardiac output where artificially increased heart rate is associated with decreased stroke volume, leaving cardiac output unchanged. We explored the capacity of noradrenaline to overcome autoregulation in the anaconda heart. Electrically pacing in situ perfused hearts from the intrinsic heart rate to the maximum attainable resulted in a proportional decrease in stroke volume...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867245/diamond-coated-artificial-cardiovascular-devices
#11
Hongjun Zeng, Robert Jarvik, Grace Catausan, Nicolaie Moldovan, John Carlisle
Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), an extremely smooth, low cost diamond coating was successfully developed herein for antithrombogenic application which requires high biocompatibility, low wear, low friction, and chemical inertness. The substrate materials utilized in the Jarvik 2000 ventricular assist device (VAD), silicon carbide and titanium alloy, provide an excellent substrate match for UNCD integration. The paper addresses the development of medical-quality UNCD films to significantly improve the knowledge base regarding the defect mechanisms of UNCD films, to reduce or eliminate known wear-inducing imperfections in the film, and to thoroughly characterize and test the films as well as assembled UNCD-coated VADs...
September 25, 2016: Surface & Coatings Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863978/predicting-the-physiological-response-of-tivela-stultorum-hearts-with-digoxin-from-cardiac-parameters-using-artificial-neural-networks
#12
Dora-Luz Flores, Claudia Gómez, David Cervantes, Alberto Abaroa, Carlos Castro, Rubén A Castañeda-Martínez
Multi-layer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP-ANNs) were used to predict the concentration of digoxin needed to obtain a cardio-activity of specific biophysical parameters in Tivela stultorum hearts. The inputs of the neural networks were the minimum and maximum values of heart contraction force, the time of ventricular filling, the volume used for dilution, heart rate and weight, volume, length and width of the heart, while the output was the digoxin concentration in dilution necessary to obtain a desired physiological response...
November 15, 2016: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863908/role-of-echocardiography-for-catheter-based-management-of-valvular-heart-disease
#13
REVIEW
Takahiro Shiota
Catheter-based treatment of valvular heart disease, such as transvalvular aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or mitral clip procedure, has been increasingly accepted as a treatment choice for the past several years. Such new treatment options have been changing the management of patients with valvular heart disease drastically while socio-economic factors regarding their application need to be taken into consideration. The use of echocardiography, including transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), for such catheter-based treatments is essential for the success of the procedures...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862058/translation-of-first-north-american-50-and-70-cc-total-artificial-heart-virtual-and-clinical-implantations-utility-of-3d-computed-tomography-to-test-fit-devices
#14
Alice S Ferng, Isabel Oliva, Clinton Jokerst, Ryan Avery, Alana M Connell, Phat L Tran, Richard G Smith, Zain Khalpey
Since the creation of SynCardia's 50 cc Total Artificial Hearts (TAHs), patients with irreversible biventricular failure now have two sizing options. Herein, a case series of three patients who have undergone successful 50 and 70 cc TAH implantation with complete closure of the chest cavity utilizing preoperative "virtual implantation" of different sized devices for surgical planning are presented. Computed tomography (CT) images were used for preoperative planning prior to TAH implantation. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of preoperative chest CT images were generated and both 50 and 70 cc TAHs were virtually implanted into patients' thoracic cavities...
November 10, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861431/pediatric-artificial-lung-a-low-resistance-pumpless-artificial-lung-alleviates-an-acute-lamb-model-of-increased-right-ventricle-afterload
#15
Fares Alghanem, Benjamin S Bryner, Emilia M Jahangir, Uditha P Fernando, John M Trahanas, Hayley R Hoffman, Robert H Bartlett, Alvaro Rojas-Peña, Ronald B Hirschl
Lung disease in children often results in pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure. The availability of a pediatric artificial lung (PAL) would open new approaches to the management of these conditions by bridging to recovery in acute disease or transplantation in chronic disease. This study investigates the efficacy of a novel PAL in alleviating an animal model of pulmonary hypertension and increased right ventricle afterload.Five juvenile lambs (20-30 Kg) underwent PAL implantation in a pulmonary artery to left atrium configuration...
November 15, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859378/mechanical-circulatory-support-devices-for-pediatric-patients-with-congenital-heart-disease
#16
REVIEW
Steven G Chopski, William B Moskowitz, Randy M Stevens, Amy L Throckmorton
The use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices is a viable therapeutic treatment option for patients with congestive heart failure. Ventricular assist devices, cavopulmonary assist devices, and total artificial heart pumps continue to gain acceptance as viable treatment strategies for both adults and pediatric patients as bridge-to-transplant, bridge-to-recovery, and longer-term circulatory support alternatives. We present a review of the current and future MCS devices for patients having congenital heart disease (CHD) with biventricular or univentricular circulations...
November 8, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857900/sudden-death-of-a-middle-aged-man-with-an-artificial-vagina-in-situ
#17
Muditha Vidanapathirana, Rohan P Ruwanpura, Sriyantha Rrg Amararatne
Artificial vaginas are designed to imitate the female sex organ. This is the first reported case in the forensic literature of a man being pronounced dead with an artificial vagina in situ. A middle-aged man was found unconscious in a bathroom when the door was forced open and was pronounced dead on admission. Autopsy revealed that the penis was inside an artificial vagina. There were no injuries, but there were left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and narrow coronaries. The cause of death was ascertained as ischemic heart disease due to coronary atherosclerosis and the comments included were no evidence of violence, and ischemic heart disease could have been precipitated due to abnormal sexual activity...
October 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851258/1623-common-hurdles-in-the-postoperative-management-of-a-patient-with-a-total-artificial-heart
#18
Marissa Mery, Siavosh Saatee, Sonia Nhieu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846734/reproductive-technologies-and-the-risk-of-congenital-heart-defects
#19
Satoru Iwashima, Takamichi Ishikawa, Hiroaki Itoh
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has become widespread, accounting for ∼2% of all births worldwide, with a similar proportion in Japan. Our goal was to determine whether ART is associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defect (CHD). The study subjects were 2716 pregnant women (2317 in a spontaneous conception [SC] group and 399 in an assisted conception [AC] group). Of patients in the AC group, 142 were treated with ovulation-inducing agents (OIAs), 56 with artificial insemination by the husband (AIH), 159 with in vitro fertilization (IVF), and 42 with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)...
November 16, 2016: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836935/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo-for-lung-injury-in-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards-review-of-the-literature
#20
Summer Paolone
Despite advances in mechanical ventilation, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates ranging from 26% to 58%. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a modified cardiopulmonary bypass circuit that serves as an artificial membrane lung and blood pump to provide gas exchange and systemic perfusion for patients when their own heart and lungs are unable to function adequately. ECMO is a complex network that provides oxygenation and ventilation and allows the lungs to rest and recover from respiratory failure while minimizing iatrogenic ventilator-induced lung injury...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Nursing Research
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