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Artificial heart

Z Riedelová-Reicheltová, E Brynda, T Riedel
Fibrin is a versatile biopolymer that has been extensively used in tissue engineering. In this paper fibrin nanostructures prepared using a technique based on the catalytic effect of fibrin-bound thrombin are presented. This technique enables surface-attached thin fibrin networks to form with precisely regulated morphology without the development of fibrin gel in bulk solution. Moreover, the influence of changing the polymerization time, along with the antithrombin III and heparin concentrations on the morphology of fibrin nanostructures was explored...
October 20, 2016: Physiological Research
Abraham Speedie, Cinosh Mathew, Ramgopal S Shahi, Rajneesh Calton
INTRODUCTION: The development of implantable technology for cardiac rhythm management remains one of the seminal achievements of the second half of the 20th century. The development of artificial pacemakers for the electrical control of the cardiac rhythm has greatly enhanced the physician's ability to treat cardiac dysrhythmias. An ageing population and the extension of indications will in all probability result in an increasing number of cardiac device implantations. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY: To study mortality and morbidity in patients with permanent pacemaker implantation at a tertiary care hospital in North India...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Mark D DeBoer, Daniel R Cherñavvsky, Katarina Topchyan, Boris P Kovatchev, Gary L Francis, Marc D Breton
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and performance of using a heart rate (HR) monitor to inform an artificial pancreas (AP) system during exercise among adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, cross-over trial, adolescents with T1D age 13 - 18 years were enrolled to receive on separate days either the unmodified UVa AP (stdAP) or an AP system connected to a portable HR monitor (AP-HR) that triggered an exercise algorithm for blood glucose (BG) control...
October 13, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Robert Koprowski
BACKGROUND: The paper presents an automatic method for analysis and processing of images from a camera operating in visible light. This analysis applies to images containing the human facial area (body) and enables to measure the blood pulse rate. Special attention was paid to the limitations of this measurement method taking into account the possibility of using consumer cameras in real conditions (different types of lighting, different camera resolution, camera movement). METHODS: The proposed new method of image analysis and processing was associated with three stages: (1) image pre-processing-allowing for the image filtration and stabilization (object location tracking); (2) main image processing-allowing for segmentation of human skin areas, acquisition of brightness changes; (3) signal analysis-filtration, FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) analysis, pulse calculation...
October 3, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Krzysztof Wróbel, Katarzyna Kurnicka, Marcin Zygier, Wojciech Dyk, Ryszard Wojdyga, Dariusz Zieliński, Małgorzata Jarzębska, Zbigniew Juraszyński, Barbara Lichodziejewska, Piotr Pruszczyk, Andrzej Biederman, Giovanni Speziali, Uwe Kasten
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Artificial chordal implantation in order to repair flail or prolapse mitral valve leaflet requires open heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. Transapical off-pump implantation of neochordae is a new surgical technique proposed to treat degenerative mitral valve regurgitation. The procedure is performed using the NeoChord DS1000 system (NeoChord, Inc., Eden Praire, MN), which facilitates both implantation and tension adjustment of the neochordae under transesophageal echocardiographic 2D and 3D guidance...
October 7, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
J Heiberg, L S Hansen, K Wemmelund, A H Sørensen, C Ilkjaer, E Cloete, D Nolte, F Roodt, R Dyer, J Swanevelder, E Sloth
PURPOSE: Our institution has recently implemented a point-of-care (POC) ultrasound training program, consisting of an e-learning course and systematic practical hands-on training. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the learning outcome of this curriculum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 16 medical students with no previous ultrasound experience comprised the study group. The program covered a combination of 4 well-described point-of-care (POC) ultrasound protocols (focus assessed transthoracic echocardiography, focused assessment with sonography in trauma, lung ultrasound, and dynamic needle tip positioning for ultrasound-guided vascular access) and it consisted of an e-learning course followed by 4 h of practical hands-on training...
November 2015: Ultrasound Int Open
Thomas Beltrame, Robert Amelard, Rodrigo Villar, Mohammad Javad Shafiee, Alexander Wong, Richard L Hughson
The study of oxygen uptake (VO2) dynamics during walking exercise transitions adds valuable information regarding fitness level and energy expenditure. However, direct VO2 measurements are not applicable for measurements in the general population under realistic settings. Devices to measure VO2 are associated with elevated cost, uncomfortable use of a mask, need of trained technicians and impossibility of long-term data collection. The objective of this study was to predict the VO2 dynamics from heart rate and inputs from the treadmill ergometer by a novel artificial neural network approach...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Nurul Ashikin Abdul-Kadir, Norlaili Mat Safri, Mohd Afzan Othman
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) can cause the formation of blood clots in the heart. The clots may move to the brain and cause a stroke. Therefore, this study analyzed the ECG features of AF and normal sinus rhythm signals for AF recognition which were extracted by using a second-order dynamic system (SODS) concept. OBJECTIVE: To find the appropriate windowing length for feature extraction based on SODS and to determine a machine learning method that could provide higher accuracy in recognizing AF...
November 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Mohsen Afarideh, Zahra Aryan, Alireza Ghajar, Sina Noshad, Manouchehr Nakhjavani, Usman Baber, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Alireza Esteghamati
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to determine the prospective association between baseline serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In an open cohort setting, people with type 2 diabetes were followed for their first ever CVD presentation from 1995 to 2015. Statistical methods included Cox regression analysis for reporting of hazard ratios (HRs), artificial neural network modelings, and risk reclassification analyses...
September 9, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Arkady Rutkovskiy, Kåre-Olav Stensløkken, Ingvar Jarle Vaage
Ossification is a tightly regulated process, performed by specialized cells called osteoblasts. Dysregulation of this process may cause inadequate or excessive mineralization of bones or ectopic calcification, all of which have grave consequences for human health. Understanding osteoblast biology may help to treat diseases such as osteogenesis imperfecta, calcific heart valve disease, osteoporosis, and many others. Osteoblasts are bone-building cells of mesenchymal origin; they differentiate from mesenchymal progenitors, either directly or via an osteochondroprogenitor...
September 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
Gardner Yost, Christine Rachel Joseph, Thomas Royston, Antone Tatooles, Geetha Bhat
Despite increasing use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as a surgical treatment for advanced heart failure in an era of improved outcomes with LVAD support, the mechanical interactions between these pumps and the cardiovascular system are not completely understood. We utilized an in vitro mock circulatory loop to analyze the heat production incurred by operation of an axial flow and centrifugal flow LVAD.A HeartMate II and a HeartWare HVAD were connected to an abbreviated flow loop and were implanted in a viscoelastic gel...
September 20, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Joseph A R Englert, Jennifer A Davis, Selim R Krim
BACKGROUND: Heart transplantation remains the definitive therapy for patients with advanced heart failure; however, owing to limited donor organ availability and long wait times, continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have become standard therapy. METHODS: This review summarizes the history, progression, function, and basic management of LVADs. Additionally, we provide some clinical pearls and important caveats for managing this unique patient population...
2016: Ochsner Journal
Matthias Kleinheyer, Daniel L Timms, Geoffrey D Tansley, Frank Nestler, Nicholas A Greatrex, O Howard Frazier, William E Cohn
Unlike the earlier reciprocating volume displacement-type pumps, rotary blood pumps (RBPs) typically operate at a constant rotational speed and produce continuous outflow. When RBP technology is used in constructing a total artificial heart (TAH), the pressure waveform that the TAH produces is flat, without the rise and fall associated with a normal arterial pulse. Several studies have suggested that pulseless circulation may impair microcirculatory perfusion and the autoregulatory response and may contribute to adverse events such as gastrointestinal bleeding, arteriovenous malformations, and pump thrombosis...
September 2016: Artificial Organs
Peter Seizer, Michaela Rockenstiehl, Suzanne Fateh-Moghadam, Susanne Haen, Ferruh Artunc, Martin R Müller, Azadeh Ebrahimi, Reimer Riessen, Meinrad Gawaz, Falko Fend, Michael Haap
HISTORY AND ADMISSION FINDINGS: A 55-year old man suffers from progressive, distinctive dyspnoea and physical weakness since 5 days. Due to ST-segment changes in the ECG and a positive troponin-test, the primary care physician initiates an hospitalization. INVESTIGATIONS: After admission, the laboratory tests confirm the elevated troponin-values, and show additionally elevated pro-brain-natriuric-peptide-values. The coronary angiography presents a highly reduced left ventricular function, an aortic insufficiency III° and a coronary heart disease...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Mahim Saran, Sivasankaran Sivasubramonian, Sreevilasam P Abhilash, Jaganmohan A Tharakan
A 44-year-old woman presented with features of congestive heart failure. Echocardiography revealed severe right ventricular dysfunction along with passive minimally pulsatile pulmonary blood flow suggesting very high systemic venous pressures. This was confirmed with cardiac catheterization in which the pressures of superior vena cava and inferior vena cava (19 mmHg) were higher than the pulmonary artery pressures (17 mmHg). Elevation of systemic venous pressures above the pulmonary venous pressures, Fontan paradox, to drive the forward flow, is a specific feature of artificially created cavopulmonary shunts...
September 2016: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Corbin E Goerlich, O H Frazier, William E Cohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Marc K Halushka, Richard N Mitchell, Robert F Padera
Heart failure, whether acute or chronic, remains a major health care crisis affecting almost 6 million Americans and over 23 million people worldwide. Roughly half of those affected will die within 5 years, and the annual cost exceeds $30 billion in the US alone. Although medical therapy has made some modest inroads in partially stemming the heart failure tsunami, there remains a significant population for whom medication is unsuccessful or has ceased being effective; such patients can benefit from heart transplantation or mechanical circulatory support...
August 29, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Janiana Raíza Jentsch Matias de Oliveira, Michel Fleith Otuki, Daniela Almeida Cabrini, Indiara Brusco, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Juliano Ferreira, Eunice André
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are widely used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and renal disease, and are considered relatively safe and generally well-tolerated drugs. However, adverse effects of ACEIs have been reported, including non-productive cough and angioedema, which can lead to poor adherence to therapy. The mechanisms by which ACEIs promote adverse effects are not fully elucidated, although increased bradykinin plasma levels following ACEI therapy seem to play an important role...
September 7, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Clemens A Strohmaier, Karolina Motloch, Christian Runge, Andrea Trost, Barbara Bogner, Alexandra Kaser-Eichberger, Falk Schrödl, Markus Lenzhofer, Herbert A Reitsamer
PURPOSE: Recent histological data suggest autonomic innervation of the central retinal artery. In the present study, we investigated the effect of electrical brain stem stimulation at the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) on the retinal vessel diameter in rats and whether nitric oxide mediates a possible effect. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 12) were anesthetized using pentobarbital sodium (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally). The animals were artificially ventilated and the femoral artery and vein were cannulated for blood pressure measurement and drug administration...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stephanie Schmitz, Kristin Unthan, Marc Sedlaczek, Felix Wald, Thomas Finocchiaro, Sotirios Spiliopoulos, Reiner Koerfer, Ulrich Steinseifer
At our institute a total artificial heart is being developed. It is directly actuated by a linear drive in between two ventricles, which comprise membranes to separate the drive and blood flow. A compliance chamber (CC) is needed to reduce pressure peaks in the ventricles and to increase the pump capacity. Therefore, the movement of the membrane is supported by applying a negative pressure to the air volume inside the drive unit. This study presents the development of the implantable CC which is connected to the drive unit of the total artificial hearts (TAH)...
September 1, 2016: Artificial Organs
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