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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637262/qualitative-exploration-of-a-smoking-cessation-trial-for-people-living-with-hiv-in-south-africa
#1
Nandita Krishnan, Joel Gittelsohn, Alexandra Ross, Jessica Elf, Sandy Chon, Raymond Niaura, Neil Martinson, Jonathan E Golub
Introduction: In South Africa, people living with HIV (PLWH) have a high prevalence of smoking, which undermines the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, little is known about barriers to smoking cessation and what interventions work for PLWH in this setting. Methods: A randomized trial comparing intensive anti-smoking counseling versus counseling and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was recently concluded in Klerksdorp, South Africa. In a post-trial follow-up, 23 in-depth interviews with patients and one focus group discussion with counselors from the trial were conducted...
June 16, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637193/effect-of-intensive-personalized-5as-5rs-intervention-on-smoking-cessation-in-hospitalized-acute-coronary-syndrome-patients-not-ready-to-quit-immediately-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Jing-Guang Luo, Ling Han, Li-Wei Chen, Yun Gao, Xiao-Jun Ding, Ying Li, Ye Ja, Ming Yang, Chang-Sheng Ma
Introduction: The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients who are not ready to quit smoking immediately have an extremely low rate of cessation. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of intensive personalized '5As+5Rs'intervention (IPANR intervention) on smoking cessation in this population. Methods: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial was carried out, which compared IPANR intervention with routine 5Rs (control) at Fu Xing Hospital, Capital Medical University, Bei Jing, China...
June 20, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634642/determinants-of-change-in-polypharmacy-status-in-switzerland-the-population-based-colaus-study
#3
Nazanin Abolhassani, Julien Castioni, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the prevalence, the change, and the determinants of change in polypharmacy in a population-based sample. METHODS: Baseline (2003-2006) and follow-up (2009-2012) data are from 4679 participants aged between 35 and 75 years (53.5% women, mean age 52.6 ± 10.6 years) from the population of Lausanne, Switzerland. Polypharmacy was defined by the regular use of ≥5 drugs. Four categories of change were defined: never (no polypharmacy at baseline and follow-up), initiating (no polypharmacy at baseline but at follow-up), maintaining, or quitting...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632075/-is-marijuana-even-a-drug-a-qualitative-study-of-how-teens-view-marijuana-use-and-why-they-use-it
#4
Bettina Friese
This qualitative study examines how youth in the San Francisco Bay Area perceive marijuana and their motives for using or not using marijuana. Current regular users were more likely to perceive marijuana smoking as an enjoyable activity, comparable to a hobby or sport. Current occasional users commonly reported smoking marijuana when it was offered to them, on special occasions, and sometimes as a result of not wanting to be left out. Most former regular users reported quitting marijuana use due to getting into trouble, being ordered into drug treatment and/or being drug tested...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632006/psychosocial-obstacles-to-smoking-cessation-attempts-among-young-adult-sexual-minority-women-who-smoke
#5
José A Bauermeister, Emily J Youatt, Emily S Pingel, Jorge H Soler, Michelle M Johns
Sexual minority women (SMW; i.e., women who identify their sexuality as lesbian, bisexual, or something other than heterosexual) report greater smoking behaviors than their heterosexual counterparts across all ages. We conducted a multivariable regression to examine the correlates of prior smoking cessation attempts and smoking cessation intentions in a sample of young SMW who smoke (N = 338; aged 18-24 years). Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics (i.e., race/ethnicity, sexual identity, age, urbanity), general (i...
February 21, 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630116/attitudes-toward-tobacco-21-among-us-youth
#6
Hongying Dai
BACKGROUND: An important movement in reducing youth smoking is to restrict the supply of cigarettes to youth by raising the minimum age of sales to 21, termed Tobacco 21. This study examined attitudes toward Tobacco 21 among youth and their correlations with tobacco use. METHODS: Data from the 2015 National Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 17 092, the typical age of 11-18 years) were analyzed to examine the prevalence of support toward Tobacco 21 among youth. This study further assessed whether attitudes toward Tobacco 21 were associated with (1) intention to initiate cigarette smoking among never-smoking youth (n = 16 449); and (2) intention to quit tobacco use among current tobacco users (n = 2914)...
June 19, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627925/will-delay-discounting-predict-intention-to-quit-smoking
#7
Liqa N Athamneh, Jeffrey S Stein, Warren K Bickel
Intention to quit cigarette smoking is significantly associated with making quitting attempts and actual quitting. Delay discounting is significantly associated with smoking initiation and success in quitting. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated the relationship between delay discounting and intention to quit smoking. In 2 separate observational, cross-sectional studies, the current investigation examines the relationship between delay discounting and intention to quit smoking within groups of smokers...
June 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625602/frax-score-can-be-used-to-avoid-superfluous-dxa-scans-in-detecting-osteoporosis-in-celiac-disease-accuracy-of-the-frax-score-in-celiac-patients
#8
Raffaella Tortora, Nicola Imperatore, Pietro Capone, Nicolò Gerbino, Matilde Rea, Giovanna Affinito, Nicola Caporaso, Antonio Rispo
The Fracture Risk Assessment (FRAX) tool has been developed to estimate patients' 10-yr probability of fracture, thus establishing which patients should undergo dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan. This study aimed to evaluate if the FRAX tool can replace or optimize the use of DXA scan in celiac disease (CD). We prospectively enrolled all CD patients aged over 40 yr diagnosed at our third-level unit. At time of CD diagnosis, all patients underwent FRAX score calculation for risk of major osteoporotic and hip fractures and DXA scan (used as gold standard) to assess the accuracy of the FRAX score...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623848/very-brief-physician-advice-and-supplemental-proactive-telephone-calls-to-promote-smoking-reduction-and-cessation-in-chinese-male-smokers-with-no-intention-to-quit-a-randomized-trial
#9
Lei Wu, Yao He, Bin Jiang, Di Zhang, Hui Tian, Fang Zuo, Tai Hing Lam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is inconsistent evidence that behavioural support to promote smoking reduction is effective at increasing smoking cessation. We examined the effectiveness of a brief physician advice together with four very brief telephone calls in promoting smoking cessation among Chinese men via reduction compared with equivalent advice on diet and exercise. DESIGN: A two-group pragmatic randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Male patients attending the Endocrinology and Acupuncture outpatient clinics of a general hospital in Beijing, China...
June 17, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622026/the-moderating-effects-of-self-esteem-and-self-efficacy-on-responses-to-graphic-health-warnings-on-cigarette-packages-a-comparison-of-smokers-and-nonsmokers
#10
Seungwoo Chun, Joon Woo Park, Nathan Heflick, Seon Min Lee, Daejin Kim, Kyenghee Kwon
Do graphic pictorial health warnings (GPHWs) on cigarette packaging work better for some people than others? According to the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), fear appeals should heighten positive change only if a person believes he or she is capable of change (i.e., self-efficacy). We exposed 242 smokers and 241 nonsmokers (aged 18-29) in the Republic of Korea to either a GPHW or a text-only warning in a between-subjects experiment. Results indicated that the GPHW increased intentions and motivations to quit smoking (for smokers) and intentions and motivations to not start smoking (for nonsmokers)...
June 16, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621646/the-contribution-of-excise-cigarette-taxes-on-the-decline-in-youth-smoking-in-canada-during-the-time-of-the-federal-tobacco-control-strategy-2002-2012
#11
Phongsack Manivong, Sam Harper, Erin Strumpf
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of changes in cigarette taxes on smoking for youths aged 15-18 in Canada during the time of the Federal Tobacco Control Strategy (FTCS). METHODS: We used a difference-in-differences framework and leveraged the variation in cigarette taxes across Canada and over time. We used regression models with province and year fixed effects, and individual-level and provincial-level covariates on 2002-2012 data from the Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey...
June 16, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619581/-cardiovascular-risk-of-smoking-by-gender
#12
Daniel Thomas
In France, the increase in the prevalence of women's smoking has been major over the past 30 years. The consequences are a significant increase and an unusual precocity of all the women's cardiovascular (CV) pathologies (myocardial infarction, stroke and aortic pathologies). Associated factors (combined oral contraception, unequal distribution of other CV risk factors by sex) increase the CV impact of women's smoking. For the same tobacco use, women have a 25% higher risk of coronary heart disease than men...
June 12, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618425/electronic-cigarettes-in-germany-patterns-of-use-and-perceived-health-improvement
#13
Kirsten Lehmann, Silke Kuhn, Jens Reimer
AIMS: The aim of the study was to characterize e-cigarette users in terms of their consumption patterns, motives, and the perceived health benefits they experience from using e-cigarettes. DESIGN: The study was a cross-sectional online survey in 2015. A total of 3,320 German e-cigarette users were enrolled. A total of 91.5% were former tobacco smokers, 7.5% used both e-cigarettes and tobacco products, 1.0% were never-smokers. RESULTS: No differences were found between ex-smokers and dual users with regard to sociodemographic and smoking history (mean age 40...
June 16, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616900/what-factors-are-associated-with-abstinence-amongst-socioeconomically-disadvantaged-smokers-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-use-of-cessation-aids-and-quitting-approach
#14
Laura Twyman, Billie Bonevski, Christine Paul, Jamie Bryant, Robert West, Mohammad Siahpush, Catherine D'este, Christopher Oldmeadow, Kerrin Palazzi
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: This study aimed to compare current and ex-smokers' sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, use of cessation aids and abrupt versus gradual quitting approaches. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of financially disadvantaged adults attending a community service organisation was conducted in New South Wales, Australia, between February 2012 and December 2013. Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors, use of cessation aids and gradual versus abrupt quit approach were assessed...
June 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616898/smoking-and-the-eye-what-qu%C3%A3-bec-teenagers-know-and-fear
#15
Julie Brûlé, Benoît Tousignant, Stéphanie Marcotte, Marie-Christelle Moreau
BACKGROUND: Although most people associate smoking with lung cancer and heart disease, few are aware of the impact of smoking on ocular health. Studies have suggested a better knowledge of this association might promote higher quit rates, particularly in teenagers. The purpose of our study was to determine the knowledge of teenagers about the effects of smoking on ocular health and the fear associated with several tobacco-related health conditions. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 180 high school students aged 14 to 17 years...
June 14, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616847/interactive-voice-response-calls-to-promote-smoking-cessation-after-hospital-discharge-pooled-analysis-of-two-randomized-clinical-trials
#16
Nancy A Rigotti, Yuchiao Chang, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Sandra J Japuntich, Elyse R Park, Hilary A Tindle, Douglas E Levy, Zachary Z Reid, Joanna Streck, Timothy Gomperts, Jennifer H K Kelley, Daniel E Singer
BACKGROUND: Hospitalization offers smokers an opportunity to quit smoking. Starting cessation treatment in hospital is effective, but sustaining treatment after discharge is a challenge. Automated telephone calls with interactive voice response (IVR) technology could support treatment continuance after discharge. OBJECTIVE: To assess smokers' use of and satisfaction with an IVR-facilitated intervention and to test the relationship between intervention dose and smoking cessation...
June 14, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616772/evaluation-of-the-cognitive-behavioral-smoking-reduction-program-smoke_less-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Tobias Rüther, Alexa Kiss, Kerstin Eberhardt, Andrea Linhardt, Christoph Kröger, Oliver Pogarell
The vast majority of smokers are unable or unwilling to quit, but many are open to reducing smoking. No treatment options exist for these smokers besides medication-based therapies. Thus, this study investigated the efficacy of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) smoking reduction program, Smoke_less. A sample of 155 outpatient smokers aged 18-70 years was recruited at the Tobacco Dependence Outpatient Clinic of the Medical Center of the University of Munich, Germany, and randomly assigned to the experimental group (Smoke_less: four weekly CBT group sessions and two telephone calls over 5 weeks, n = 51), active comparator group (one 15-minute counseling session, n = 49), or waiting control group (no intervention during the study, n = 55)...
June 14, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612691/-smoking-and-young-people-effectiveness-of-smoking-prevention-and-cessation-programmes
#18
K Monshouwer, S Onrust, E Rikkers-Mutsaerts, J Lammers
- In this article, we discuss the scientific knowledge on the effects of interventions that help young people to quit smoking and interventions that should prevent young people from starting to smoke.- We also describe the interventions in the Netherlands that, after a quality assessment, have been included in the database of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) Centre for Healthy Living.- Interventions have varying degrees of success in helping young people to quit smoking. There are only indications of a modest effect of behavioural interventions...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608758/a-systematic-narrative-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-behavioural-smoking-cessation-interventions-in-selected-disadvantaged-groups-2010-2017
#19
Amanda Wilson, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Johnson George, Alexandra Denham, Billie Bonevski
Tobacco remains the key modifiable risk factor for the development of a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis and cancer. Among priority populations, smoking prevalence remains high, smokers tend to relapse more often and earlier and fewer are able to sustain quit attempts. This systematic review provides an update on the literature. Areas covered: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials published from 2010-2017, in English language, were identified after searching on Medline, Ovid, Embase and PsycINFO databases...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605678/trends-in-utilization-of-smoking-cessation-agents-before-and-after-the-passage-of-fda-boxed-warning-in-the-united-states
#20
Drishti Shah, Anuj Shah, Xi Tan, Usha Sambamoorthi
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the FDA required a black box warning (BBW) on bupropion and varenicline, the two commonly prescribed smoking cessation agents due to reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events. We investigated if there was a decline in use of bupropion and varenicline after the BBW by comparing the percent using these medications before and after BBW. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2007 to 2014...
May 18, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
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