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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223599/pharmacological-intervention-and-abstinence-in-smokers-undergoing-cessation-treatment-a-psychophysiological-study
#1
Yong Cui, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Jonathan Xian, Jennifer A Minnix, Cho Y Lam, Maher Karam-Hage, Paul M Cinciripini, Jason D Robinson
As a composite concept, negative affect comprises various aversive emotional experiences, such as irritability and nervousness. It is a critical motivational factor that helps maintain smoking behavior, and contributes significantly to smoking cessation failure as a core withdrawal symptom. Prior research has indicated an important role of nicotinic mechanisms in negative affect processing. The most effective smoking cessation medication, varenicline, targets nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) as a partial agonist, while another first-line cessation medication, bupropion, has shown antagonistic effects on nAChRs...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221522/barriers-to-smoking-cessation-among-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-south-africa
#2
Zifikile Phindile Shangase, Joyce Mahlako Tsoka-Gwegweni, Catherine O Egbe
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The long-term health effects of smoking and the risk of adverse TB outcomes, including increased periods of infectiousness, have been reported among DR-TB patients in South Africa. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the barriers to smoking cessation among DR-TB inpatients at a hospital in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative design using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 DR-TB inpatients was employed...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220743/the-cigarette-dependence-scale-and-heaviness-of-smoking-index-as-predictors-of-smoking-cessation-after-10weeks-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-and-at-6-month-follow-up
#3
Laurie Zawertailo, Sabrina Voci, Peter Selby
INTRODUCTION: The reliability and validity of the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS) has been tested in online studies and compared with other tobacco dependence measures. Findings regarding its ability to predict smoking cessation have been mixed. We examined whether the CDS predicted cessation among a sample that received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) at a community workshop and assessed the incremental predictive validity of the CDS-5 and CDS-12 over the 2-item Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI)...
November 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220524/brain-responses-to-cigarette-related-and-emotional-images-in-smokers-during-smoking-cessation-no-effect-of-varenicline-or-bupropion-on-the-late-positive-potential
#4
Francesco Versace, Elise M Stevens, Jason D Robinson, Yong Cui, Menton M Deweese, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Charles E Green, Maher Karam-Hage, Cho Y Lam, Jennifer A Minnix, David W Wetter, Paul M Cinciripini
Introduction: Varenicline and bupropion are two effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Researchers have hypothesized that they might be effective, in part, because they reduce cue reactivity and cue-induced cravings. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly measure brain responses to cigarette-related and other motivationally relevant images during a pharmacologically aided quit attempt. Methods: Smokers involved in a 12-week placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of smoking cessation medications (varenicline, bupropion, placebo) took part in the study...
December 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217965/guidance-for-the-clinical-management-of-thirdhand-smoke-exposure-in-the-child-health-care-setting
#5
Jeremy E Drehmer, Bethany Hipple Walters, Emara Nabi-Burza, Jonathan P Winickoff
Objective: To explain the concept of thirdhand smoke and how it can be used to protect the health of children and improve delivery of tobacco control interventions for parents in the child health care setting. Methods: Review of the literature and descriptive report. Results: The thirdhand smoke concept has been used in the CEASE intervention to improve the delivery of tobacco control counseling and services to parents. Materials and techniques have been developed for the child health care setting that use the concept of thirdhand smoke...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management: JCOM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214844/barriers-to-quitting-smoking-among-young-adults-the-role-of-socioeconomic-status
#6
Samantha Carlson, Rachel Widome, Lindsey Fabian, Xianghua Luo, Jean Forster
PURPOSE: The aims of this analysis were to explore how self-reported barriers to quitting vary by socioeconomic status (SES) among young-adult smokers and to assess their relationship to quitting. DESIGN: This analysis uses 2 waves of telephone-survey data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort study. SETTING: Midwestern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (n = 419) were smokers aged 17 to 24 years. MEASURES: Socioeconomic status was estimated using the highest level of education completed by the participants' parents...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207891/reluctance-of-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-its-early-stages-and-their-families-to-participate-in-a-partnership-based-self-management-trial-a-search-for-explanation
#7
Helga Jónsdóttir, Thorbjörg Sóley Ingadóttir
Recruitment, the process of accessing, screening, selecting and retaining participants for research remains a challenge. In a randomized controlled trial, partnership-based self-management intervention for patients who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in its initial stages, and their families, a theoretical framework developed for patients with an advanced COPD and their families was modified and implemented in a primary care context. In contrast to recruitment to the original study where 4% decline participation, in this study 25% of the potential patients declined participation...
January 1, 2017: Chronic Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202347/butt-why-exploring-factors-associated-with-cigarette-scavenging-behaviors-among-adult-smokers-enrolling-in-a-clinical-trial-for-smoking-cessation
#8
Ryan Lantini, Marie A Sillice, Joseph L Fava, Ernestine Jennings, Rochelle K Rosen, Santina M Horowitz, Bruce M Becker, Beth C Bock
INTRODUCTION: Cigarette smoking is associated with many adverse health effects and is an important public health concern. Increased understanding of smokers' behavior is central to developing effective interventions. Cigarette scavenging, a behavior that involves smoking shared or previously used cigarettes has thus far only been shown to be prevalent among homeless or incarcerated populations. The current study examines whether cigarette scavenging is prevalent in a more general population of adult smokers enrolling in a smoking cessation clinical trial, and whether engagement in this behavior is associated with demographic or smoking-related psychosocial factors...
November 26, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202249/smoke-free-home-and-vehicle-policies-among-community-college-smokers
#9
Deborah J Ossip, Tye Johnson, Vanessa Assibey-Mensah, Sijiu Wang, Donald McLaren, Karen Calabro, Alexander V Prokhorov, Scott McIntosh
BACKGROUND: Personal smoke-free policies (home and vehicle) reduce secondhand smoke exposure, improve health, and increase quitting among smokers. Overall, 83.0% and 78.1% of Americans report smoke-free homes and vehicles, respectively. However, little is known about such policies among 2-year community college (CC) students, who represent a large, diverse population with higher smoking rates and less negative attitudes toward smoking than 4-year college students. METHODS: Prevalence of, and factors associated with, personal smoke-free policies were examined for 2,475 CC smokers enrolled in a national trial of web-assisted tobacco intervention...
December 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199898/conditional-effects-of-gain-loss-framed-narratives-among-current-smokers-at-different-stages-of-change
#10
Hye Kyung Kim, Tae Kyoung Lee
This study examines how current smokers respond differently to gain-loss-framed antismoking narratives depending on their stages of change to quit smoking. An experiment (N = 461) was conducted with a 2 (narrative perspective: first person vs. third person) × 2 (framing: gain vs. loss) factorial design having smoker's stage of change (precontemplation vs. contemplation/preparation) as a moderator. We observed differential framing effects depending on smoker's current stages of change only when they were exposed to first-person narratives...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196725/pharmacogenetic-study-of-seven-polymorphisms-in-three-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-subunits-in-smoking-cessation-therapies
#11
Giulia Pintarelli, Antonella Galvan, Paolo Pozzi, Sara Noci, Giovanna Pasetti, Francesca Sala, Ugo Pastorino, Roberto Boffi, Francesca Colombo
Smoking-cessation therapy reduces the risk of smoking-related diseases, but is successful only in a fraction of smokers. There is growing evidence that genetic variations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits influence the risk of nicotine dependence and the ability to quit smoking. To investigate the role of polymorphisms in nAChR genes on smoking quantity and the outcome of smoking-cessation therapies, we carried out an association study on 337 smokers who underwent pharmacotherapy with varenicline, bupropion, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) alone, or NRT plus bupropion...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195588/characteristics-and-clinical-treatment-of-tobacco-smokers-enrolled-in-a-va-substance-use-disorders-clinic
#12
Julie C Gass, David H Morris, Jamie Winters, Joseph W VanderVeen, Stephen Chermack
Individuals with a substance use disorder (SUD) diagnosis are more than twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as the general population. Emerging research has suggested that treating a substance use disorder simultaneously with tobacco use leads to a higher rate of treatment success for both substances. Despite this, substance use treatment protocols tend not to focus on tobacco use; in fact, traditional substance use treatments often discourage patients from attempting to quit smoking. One rationale is that patients may not be motivated to quit smoking...
January 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190143/perceptions-of-tobacco-control-media-campaigns-among-smokers-with-lower-socioeconomic-status
#13
Anna McCullough, Clare Meernik, Hannah Baker, Kristen Jarman, Barbara Walsh, Adam Goldstein
People with low socioeconomic status (SES) in the United States have disparately high rates of smoking and experience disproportionately high burdens of smoking-related disease. Tobacco control media campaigns are a critical strategy for reducing tobacco use prevalence, but evidence is mixed about the optimal use of mass media to reach and promote tobacco use cessation among people with low SES. Improved understanding of the factors influencing how low-SES tobacco users evaluate tobacco control media campaigns may inform development of more effective messages and strategies...
November 1, 2017: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188726/smoking-to-fit-a-stigmatised-identity-a-qualitative-study-of-marginalised-young-people-in-australia
#14
Marita Hefler, Stacy M Carter
In countries with comprehensive tobacco control, smoking is increasingly denormalised, with smokers subject to social stigmatisation. Qualitative research and commentary about denormalisation and stigma has largely focused on the impact on current or former smokers. Little attention has been given to the interaction between existing stigma among socially marginalised and disadvantaged young people and its role in smoking uptake, maintenance and resistance to quitting, or remaining a non-smoker. This article draws on a qualitative (grounded theory) study of young people aged 16-25 years who attended social services for at-risk youth in an inner city area in Australia, to explore the intersection between stigmatised identity and smoking in a context of increasing smoking denormalisation...
November 1, 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185842/characterizing-a-hidden-group-of-at-risk-drinkers-epidemiological-profiles-of-alcohol-use-disorder-diagnostic-orphans
#15
Paul A Gilbert, Miesha Marzell
BACKGROUND: Drinkers who report some symptoms of alcohol-use disorder (AUD) but fail to meet full criteria are "diagnostic orphans." To improve risk-reduction efforts, we sought to develop better epidemiologic profiles of this underrecognized subgroup. METHODS: This study estimated the population prevalence and described AUD symptoms of diagnostic orphans using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model odds of being a diagnostic orphan or meeting mild, moderate, and severe AUD criteria versus no AUD symptoms...
November 29, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185480/initial-cross-over-test-of-a-positive-allosteric-modulator-of-alpha-7-nicotinic-receptors-to-aid-cessation-in-smokers-with-or-without-schizophrenia
#16
Kenneth A Perkins, Kn Roy Chengappa, Joshua L Karelitz, Margaret C Boldry, Valerie Michael, Taylor Herb, Jessica Gannon, Jaspreet Brar, Lisa Ford, Stephanie Rassnick, Darlene Brunzell
Preclinical research shows that compounds acting at α7 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) can reduce nicotine self-administration, suggesting that a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of α7 receptors, JNJ-39393406, may aid smoking cessation. Moreover, individuals with schizophrenia, who have very high rates of smoking, have reduced expression of α7 nAChRs and may particularly benefit from this compound. In two parallel studies using a within-subject crossover design, 36 healthy smokers (Study 1) and 62 smokers with schizophrenia (Study 2), both groups high in quit interest, attempted to initiate quitting temporarily during each of two 3-week phases...
November 29, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184639/social-determinants-of-health-and-attempt-to-change-unhealthy-lifestyle-a-population-based-study
#17
Mina Danaei, Charles John Palenik, Gholamreza Abdollahifard, Mehrdad Askarian
Background: A healthy lifestyle is important because of its long-term benefits; however, there is a paucity of information concerning health choices among Iranians. We evaluated personal health behaviors, attempts to change unhealthy behaviors, and factors affecting attempts at change. Methods: The design of this cross-sectional study was to assemble a representative cadre of >18-year-old adults in Shiraz, Iran, using a multistage cluster sampling technique. Validated questionnaires collected participant's demographic information, such as weight, height, cigarette smoking history, physical activity, and attempts at lifestyle changes during the previous year...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183920/reassessing-the-importance-of-lost-pleasure-associated-with-smoking-cessation-implications-for-social-welfare-and-policy
#18
Terry Frank Pechacek, Pratibha Nayak, Paul Slovic, Scott R Weaver, Jidong Huang, Michael P Eriksen
INTRODUCTION: Benefit-cost analyses of tobacco regulations include estimates of the informed choice of smokers to continue smoking. Few studies have focused on subjective feelings associated with continued smoking. This study estimates how smoker discontent and regret relate to risk perceptions and health concerns. METHODS: We analysed data from a 2015 nationally representative, online survey of 1284 US adult current smokers. Information was collected on regret, intention to quit, perceived addiction, risk perceptions and health concerns...
November 28, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182761/sugar-and-aldehyde-content-in-flavored-electronic-cigarette-liquids
#19
Pebbles Fagan, Pallav Pokhrel, Thaddeus A Herzog, Eric T Moolchan, Kevin D Cassel, Adrian A Franke, Xingnan Li, Ian Pagano, Dennis R Trinidad, Kari-Lyn K Sakuma, Kymberle Sterling, Dorothy Jorgensen, Tania Lynch, Crissy Kawamoto, Mignonne C Guy, Ian Lagua, Sarah Hanes, Linda A Alexander, Mark S Clanton, Camonia Graham-Tutt, Thomas Eissenberg
Introduction: Sugars are major constituents and additives in traditional tobacco products, but little is known about their content or related toxins (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids. This study quantified levels of sugars and aldehydes in e-cigarette liquids across brands, flavors, and nicotine concentrations (n = 66). Methods: Unheated e-cigarette liquids were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and enzymatic test kits...
November 22, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180862/smoking-cessation-affects-the-natural-history-of-copd
#20
Jiu-Wu Bai, Xiao-Xin Chen, Shengsheng Liu, Li Yu, Jin-Fu Xu
Background: Cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered and readily identifiable risk factor for COPD. However, it is not clear which quantitative factors related to smoking influence the prognosis of COPD patients. Methods: A total of 204 patients with a long-term history of smoking were enrolled into this study and followed up for 5 years. Patients were divided into "death" or "survival" groups based on follow-up results and "quitting-smoking" or "continuing-smoking" groups based on whether they gave up smoking...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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