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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450255/anterior-insula-activation-during-inhibition-to-smoking-cues-is-associated-with-ability-to-maintain-tobacco-abstinence
#1
Jodi M Gilman, Milena Radoman, Randi M Schuster, Gladys Pachas, Nour Azzouz, Maurizio Fava, A Eden Evins
Relapse to smoking after initial abstinence is a major clinical challenge with significant public health consequences. At the brain and behavioral level, those who relapse to tobacco smoking have both greater cue-reactivity and lower inhibitory control than those who remain abstinent. Little is known about neural activation during inhibitory control tasks in the presence of drug-related cues. In the current study, tobacco smokers (SMK; n = 22) and non-smoking controls (CON; n = 19) completed a Go/NoGo task involving smoking cues during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450229/addiction-cigarette-smoking-and-voluntary-control-of-action-do-cigarette-smokers-lose-their-free-will
#2
REVIEW
Roy F Baumeister
Opinions differ widely as to whether addicts lose the ability to control their behavior and employ free will. This article reviews empirical findings regarding multiple questions relevant to the issue of free will among addicted smokers: Is smoking voluntary behavior? Can people quit smoking? Why don't people quit smoking? Why do smokers relapse when they try to quit? Do addicted smokers suffer from irresistible cravings? Are there some people who cannot quit? Are there conditions that make resistance impossible? Why would they smoke knowing it can kill them? The evidence reviewed here seems most consistent with the view that smokers retain control over their actions but cannot easily stop having frequent desires to smoke...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450227/smoke-signals-the-decline-of-brand-identity-predicts-reduced-smoking-behaviour-following-the-introduction-of-plain-packaging
#3
Hugh Webb, Benjamin M Jones, Kathleen McNeill, Li Lim, Andrew J Frain, Kerry J O'Brien, Daniel P Skorich, Peta Hoffmann, Tegan Cruwys
This study tests a social identity based mechanism for the effectiveness of plain tobacco packaging legislation, introduced in Australia in December 2012, to reduce cigarette smoking. 178 Australian smokers rated their sense of identification with fellow smokers of their brand, positive brand stereotypes, quitting behaviours and intentions, and smoking intensity, both before and seven months after the policy change. Mediation analyses showed that smokers, especially those who initially identified strongly with their brand, experienced a significant decrease in their brand identity following the introduction of plain packaging and this was associated with lower smoking behaviours and increased intentions to quit...
June 2017: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448147/acceptance-and-patterns-of-personal-vaporizer-use-in-australia-and-the-united-kingdom-results-from-the-international-tobacco-control-survey
#4
Cheolmin Lee, Hua-Hie Yong, Ron Borland, Ann McNeill, Sara C Hitchman
BACKGROUND: This study examined the prevalence and correlates of (1) perceived social acceptability of personal vaporizer (PV)/e-cigarette use, and (2) reported vaping in public and private places, in the UK and Australia with different regulatory environments for PVs. METHODS: Data analyzed come from 2849 smokers and recent ex-smokers in the UK and Australia who participated in the 2014 wave of the International Tobacco Control Survey. RESULTS: UK respondents were more likely to think vaping is socially acceptable than Australians (56...
February 10, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448145/concurrent-nicotine-and-tobacco-product-use-among-homeless-smokers-and-associations-with-cigarette-dependence-and-other-factors-related-to-quitting
#5
Julie Neisler, Lorraine R Reitzel, Lorra Garey, Darla E Kenzdor, Emily T Hébert, Maya Vijayaraghavan, Michael S Businelle
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking rates among homeless adults are exceptionally high, contributing to health disparities experienced by this disadvantaged population. Concurrent nicotine and tobacco product use have been shown to result in greater health problems than cigarette smoking alone, and little is known about the rates, motives, and perceived impacts of concurrent use in this group. The purpose of this study is to explore concurrent use rates and constructs of interest among homeless adult daily smokers and to examine differences between concurrent users and non-concurrent users on cigarette dependence, perceived risk of smoking, readiness to quit, and the receipt of recent cessation intervention...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447386/kick-it-the-development-of-an-evidence-based-smoking-cessation-smartphone-app
#6
Joseph E M van Agteren, Sharon Lawn, Billie Bonevski, Brian J Smith
Currently, the evidence for mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation interventions is limited and heterogeneous, warranting the need for innovative rigorously developed solutions. The aim of this study was to describe the development of a smoking cessation smartphone application (app) developed using evidence-based principles. The app (Kick.it) was designed using the Intervention Mapping framework, incorporating an extensive literature review and qualitative study, in combination with the Behavioural Change Taxonomy v1, the Theoretical Domains Framework, and the Persuasive System Design framework...
February 13, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447146/health-risk-behaviors-and-chronic-conditions-among-adults-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-united-states-2015-and-2016
#7
Fang Xu, James M Dahlhamer, Emily P Zammitti, Anne G Wheaton, Janet B Croft
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, involves chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. In 2015, an estimated 3.1 million adults in the United States had ever received a diagnosis of IBD (1). Nationally representative samples of adults with IBD have been unavailable or too small to assess relationships between IBD and other chronic conditions and health-risk behaviors (2). To assess the prevalence of health-risk behaviors and chronic conditions among adults with and without IBD, CDC aggregated survey data from the 2015 and 2016 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)...
February 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446786/the-synergistic-effect-between-positivity-socio-demographic-factors-and-smoking-cessation-results-of-a-cohort-study
#8
M C Grassi, G Alessandri, S Pasquariello, M Milioni, D Enea, M Ceccanti, G V Caprara, G La Torre
OBJECTIVE: To examine the extent to which a effect does exist between Positivity (POS), smoking and socio-demographic factors in determining quitting smoking in subjects participating in a Group Counselling Program (GCP) for smoking cessation. METHODS: 481 subjects were contacted through a telephone call. A logistic regression analysis was carried out. Possible interaction between sociodemographic variables and POS level was tested using the Synergism Index (SI)...
January 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445521/a-method-for-co-creation-of-an-evidence-based-patient-workbook-to-address-alcohol-use-when-quitting-smoking-in-primary-care-a-case-study
#9
Nadia Minian, Aliya Noormohamed, Laurie Zawertailo, Dolly Baliunas, Norman Giesbrecht, Bernard Le Foll, Jürgen Rehm, Andriy Samokhvalov, Peter L Selby
Plain English summary: The purpose of this paper is to describe a patient engagement event designed to create an educational workbook with smokers who drink alcohol at harmful levels. The goal was to create a workbook that combined scientific evidence with patients' values, preferences, and needs. Fourteen adult smokers who drink alcohol were invited to the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) to take part in a four-hour event to help design the workbook with the CAMH research team...
2018: Research involvement and engagement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444289/knowledge-attitude-and-behaviors-of-health-professionals-towards-smoking-cessation-in-primary-healthcare-settings
#10
Abdullah Matouq, Yousef Khader, Albaraa Khader, Anas Al-Rabadi, Mousa Al Omari, Ibrahim Iblan, Nihaya Al-Sheyab
This study aimed to assess the behaviors of multiple health professionals in primary healthcare settings in Jordan towards smoking cessation counseling and to determine the barriers to effective smoking cessation behaviors. A survey of 456 health professionals in primary healthcare settings was conducted. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect the data. About half of health professionals reported that they usually ask patients about smoking status and advise them to stop smoking (51.4% and 50...
February 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444268/advancing-tobacco-product-warning-labels-research-methods-and-theory-a-summary-of-a-grantee-meeting-held-by-the-us-national-cancer-institute
#11
James F Thrasher, Noel T Brewer, Jeff Niederdeppe, Ellen Peters, Andrew A Strasser, Rachel Grana, Annette R Kaufman
Background: The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends prominent pictorial health warnings on tobacco products. To advance research methods, theory and understanding of how tobacco product warning labels (TPWLs) work, the US National Cancer Institute convened a grantee meeting. Our article describes the key insights that emerged from the meeting, situated within the context of the scientific literature. Results & Recommendations: First, presentations confirmed that large, pictorial TPWLs motivate people to try to quit and encourage smoking cessation...
February 10, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440887/long-term-health-related-quality-of-life-and-symptom-response-profiles-with-arformoterol-in-copd-results-from-a-52-week-trial
#12
James F Donohue, Vamsi K Bollu, Donald E Stull, Lauren M Nelson, Valerie Sl Williams, Michael D Stensland, Nicola A Hanania
Background: Symptom severity is the largest factor in determining subjective health in COPD. Symptoms (eg, chronic cough, dyspnea) are associated with decreased health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We evaluated the impact of arformoterol on HRQoL in COPD patients, measured by St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). Post hoc growth mixture model (GMM) analysis examined symptom response profiles. Methods: We examined data from a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 12-month safety trial of twice-daily nebulized arformoterol 15 µg (n=420) versus placebo (n=421)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439844/comparison-of-two-approaches-in-achieving-smoking-abstinence-among-patients-in-an-outpatient-clinic-a-phase-2-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
K Y Ho, William H C Li, M P Wang, K K W Lam, T H Lam, Sophia S C Chan
OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of quitting immediately and cutting down to quit in promoting smoking abstinence among smokers in an outpatient clinic. METHODS: A total of 100 subjects were randomized into two groups, 50 in the quit immediately group, who received an intervention on abruptly quitting, and 50 in the cut down to quit group, who received an intervention on gradual reduction. All subjects were followed up at 6 and 12 months via telephone. The intention-to-treat principle was used...
February 8, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438481/mortality-reduction-from-quitting-smoking-in-hong-kong-population-wide-proportional-mortality-study
#14
Zhi-Ming Mai, Sai-Yin Ho, Ching-Man Lo, Man-Ping Wang, Richard Peto, Tai-Hing Lam
Background: The effects of smoking cessation might be different in different populations. Proportional mortality studies of all deaths, relating the certified cause to retrospectively determined smoking habits, have helped assess the hazards of smoking in Hong Kong, and further analyses can help assess the effects of prolonged cessation (although not of recent cessation, as life-threatening disease can itself cause cessation, particularly in old age). Methods: The LIMOR study sought the certified causes of all deaths in 1998, and interviewed 81% of families at death registries to determine the decedent's smoking history...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438157/effects-of-varenicline-alone-and-in-combination-with-low-dose-naltrexone-on-alcohol-primed-smoking-in-heavy-drinking-tobacco-users-a-preliminary-laboratory-study
#15
Walter Roberts, Julia M Shi, Jeanette M Tetrault, Sherry A McKee
OBJECTIVES: Heavy-drinking tobacco users are less likely to successfully quit smoking than their moderate-drinking counterparts, even when they are prescribed smoking cessation medication. One strategy for improving treatment outcomes in this subgroup of tobacco users may be to combine medication therapies to target both alcohol and tobacco use simultaneously. Adding naltrexone to frontline smoking cessation treatments may improve treatment outcomes in this group. METHOD: This double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study examined the effects of varenicline (2 mg/d) and varenicline (2 mg/d), combined with a low dose of naltrexone (25 mg/d) on alcohol-primed smoking behavior in a laboratory model of smoking relapse in heavy-drinking tobacco users (n = 30)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438156/anxiety-sensitivity-physical-and-cognitive-concerns-in-relation-to-smoking-oriented-cognition-an-examination-among-treatment-seeking-adults-who-smoke
#16
Kirsten J Langdon, Jafar Bakhshaie, Alicia Lopez, Niloofar Tavakoli, Lorra Garey, Amanda M Raines, Brooke Y Kauffman, Norman B Schmidt, Michael J Zvolensky
OBJECTIVES: Elevated levels of anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety and internal sensations) is highly common among adults who smoke, and contributes to several maladaptive smoking beliefs and behaviors. AS is comprised of 3 empirically established factors, relating to fears of social concerns, fears of physical symptoms, and fears of cognitive dyscontrol. Relatively few studies have examined how these 3 subscales pertain to smoking processes. The aim of the present investigation was to examine, among treatment-seeking adults who smoke, the interactive effects of AS-physical and cognitive concerns in relation to: perceived barriers to smoking cessation; smoking-related negative reinforcement expectancies; and smoking-related avoidance and inflexibility...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436437/treatment-of-tobacco-dependence-in-uk-hospitals-an-observational-study
#17
John Hutchinson, Zaheer Mangera, Laura Searle, Anna Lewis, Sanjay Agrawal
Over a million smokers are admitted to hospitals in the UK each year. The extent to which tobacco dependence is identified and addressed in this population is unclear. Data on 14,750 patients from 146 hospitals collected for the British Thoracic Society smoking cessation audit were analysed to determine smoking prevalence, attempts to ask smokers about quitting, and referrals to smoking cessation services. Associations with hospital organisational factors were assessed by logistic regression. Overall hospital smoking prevalence was 25%...
February 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434547/effects-of-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-and-motivation-to-quit-in-tobacco-smokers-a-randomized-sham-controlled-double-blind-trial
#18
Maria C Vitor de Souza Brangioni, Danilo A Pereira, Aurore Thibaut, Felipe Fregni, Joaquim P Brasil-Neto, Raphael Boechat-Barros
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has been shown to reduce cravings in tobacco addiction; however, results have been somewhat mixed. In this study, we hypothesized that motivation to quit smoking is a critical factor of tDCS effects in smokers. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of both tDCS and motivation to quit on cigarette consumption and the relationship between these two factors...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434154/the-clinical-features-of-ischemic-stroke-patients-for-whom-smoking-was-considered-the-sole-risk-factor-for-ischemic-stroke
#19
Takuya Fukuoka, Yoshihiko Nakazato, Hitoshi Kawasaki, Kei Ikeda, Tomotsugu Furuya, Akifumi Miyake, Takashi Mitsufuji, Yasuo Ito, Kazushi Takahashi, Nobuo Araki, Norio Tahahashi, Toshimasa Yamamoto
Objective The purpose of this study was to clarify the clinical features of ischemic patients for whom cigarette smoking was the sole risk factor for ischemic stroke. Methods Among the 1,329 patients (male, n=833; female, n=496) with acute ischemic stroke who were admitted to our hospital between April 2005 and September 2016, 346 (26%) were smokers (male, n=308 [36.9%]; female, 38 [7.6%]). In 42 (3.1%; male, n=41; female, n=1) cases, cigarette smoking was considered to be the sole risk factor for ischemic stroke...
February 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431134/smoking-cessation-support-for-regular-smokers-in-hungarian-primary-care-a-nationwide-representative-cross-sectional-study
#20
Valéria Sipos, Anita Pálinkás, Nóra Kovács, Karola Orsolya Csenteri, Ferenc Vincze, József Gergő Szőllősi, Tibor Jenei, Magor Papp, Róza Ádány, János Sándor
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of general practitioners' (GPs') smoking cessation support (SCS). STUDY DESIGN: We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and April 2016. SETTING AND PARTICIPANT: A sample of 2904 regular smokers aged 18 years or older was selected randomly from 18 general medical practices involved in a national representative, general medical practice-based morbidity monitoring system...
February 3, 2018: BMJ Open
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