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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040555/the-effectiveness-of-varenicline-versus-nicotine-replacement-therapy-on-long-term-smoking-cessation-in-primary-care-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-electronic-medical-records
#1
Gemma M J Taylor, Amy E Taylor, Kyla H Thomas, Timothy Jones, Richard M Martin, Marcus R Munafò, Frank Windmeijer, Neil M Davies
Background: There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of varenicline and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for long-term smoking cessation in primary care, or whether the treatment effectiveness differs by socioeconomic position (SEP). Therefore, we estimated the long-term effectiveness of varenicline versus NRT (> 2 years) on smoking cessation, and investigated whether effectiveness differs by SEP. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 654 general practices in England, within the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, using three different analytical methods: multivariable logistic regression, propensity score matching and instrumental variable analyses...
June 26, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036936/barriers-and-facilitators-for-health-behavior-change-among-adults-from-multi-problem-households-a-qualitative-study
#2
Gera E Nagelhout, Lette Hogeling, Renate Spruijt, Nathalie Postma, Hein de Vries
Multi-problem households are households with problems on more than one of the following core problem areas: socio-economic problems, psycho-social problems, and problems related to child care. The aim of this study was to examine barriers and facilitators for health behavior change among adults from multi-problem households, as well as to identify ideas for a health promotion program. A qualitative study involving 25 semi-structured interviews was conducted among Dutch adults who received intensive family home care for multi-problem households...
October 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035089/intent-to-quit-quit-attempts-and-perceived-health-risk-reduction-among-african-american-latino-and-white-nondaily-and-daily-smokers-in-the-united-states
#3
Taneisha S Scheuermann, Nicole L Nollen, Xianghua Luo, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Jasjit S Ahluwalia
OBJECTIVE: Ethnic and racial differences in smoking patterns and behaviors have been well documented and most African American and Latino smokers are nondaily or light smokers. However, differences within smoking levels are understudied. Our primary aim was to determine whether there are racial and ethnic differences among African American, Latino, and White nondaily, light daily, and moderate to heavy daily smokers on (1) perceived health risk reduction, (2) intentions to quit, and (3) past year quit attempts...
October 16, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033021/-smoking-cessation-and-pregnancy
#4
M Underner, O Pourrat, J Perriot, G Peiffer, N Jaafari
Active and passive smoking during pregnancy induce several deleterious effects that may have a negative impact on pregnancy progress, fetus development and both mother and newborn health. Smoking cessation should be a rule for any woman as soon as the beginning of her pregnancy, or better in anticipation of a pregnancy when contraception is no more taken. Every caregiver must help every pregnant woman who smokes to quit smoking. Smoking cessation interventions in pregnant women must combine a psychological support (mainly with cognitive behavioral therapy) and nicotine replacement therapy, which can also be used during breast feeding...
October 9, 2017: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029966/softening-among-u-s-smokers-with-psychological-distress-more-quit-attempts-and-lower-consumption-as-smoking-drops
#5
Margarete C Kulik, Stanton A Glantz
INTRODUCTION: It has been argued that as smoking prevalence declines, the remaining smokers represent a "hard core" who are unwilling or unable to quit, a process known as hardening. However, as recently shown, the general smoking population is softening not hardening (i.e., as prevalence falls, more quit attempts and lower consumption among continuing smokers). People with psychological distress smoke more, so they may represent hard-core smokers. METHODS: Using cross-sectional time series analysis, in 2016-2017 changes in quit attempts and cigarette consumption were evaluated over 19 years among smokers with serious psychological distress (Kessler-6 score ≥13) based on the National Health Interview Survey (1997-2015), controlling for sociodemographic variables...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026701/how-much-do-italian-patients-in-supportive-periodontal-therapy-know-about-the-role-of-smoking-in-oral-health-and-what-is-their-lifestyle
#6
Roberto Pippi, Maria Vita, Roberto Alvaro, Carlo Di Paolo
OBJECTIVE: The level of awareness of patients receiving supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) concerning the role of smoking as a risk factor for oral health was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was administered to 158 patients previously treated for periodontitis in four periodontally oriented private dental offices in Rome. The generalized linear model was used to test the simultaneous effect of questions posed to all patients. Fisher's exact test was used to verify significant associations among qualitative variables...
September 2017: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025503/e-cigarette-use-and-cigarette-smoking-cessation-among-texas-college-students
#7
Dale S Mantey, Maria R Cooper, Alexandra Loukas, Cheryl L Perry
OBJECTIVES: We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. METHODS: Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025502/who-enrolls-in-a-quit-smoking-program-with-yoga-therapy
#8
Beth C Bock, Herpreet Thind, Shira Dunsiger, Joseph L Fava, Ernestine Jennings, Bruce M Becker, Bess H Marcus, Rochelle K Rosen, Marie A Sillice
OBJECTIVES: Yoga may improve stress, affect, and weight control, all of which are commonly cited barriers to quitting smoking. However, the importance of these concerns may vary by sex, race, ethnicity, and age. We examined smoking-relevant characteristics of individuals enrolling in an 8-week randomized controlled trial testing yoga as a complementary treatment to standard smoking cessation. METHODS: Of 958 callers, 227 were eligible and enrolled. RESULTS: The sample was 55% female, 86% non-Hispanic white, with a mean age of 46 years (SD = 12)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024622/smoking-cessation-efforts-by-u-s-adult-smokers-with-medical-comorbidities
#9
Sara Kalkhoran, Gina R Kruse, Yuchiao Chang, Nancy A Rigotti
BACKGROUND: Continued cigarette smoking by individuals with chronic medical diseases can adversely impact their symptoms, disease progression, and mortality. We assessed the association between medical comorbidities and smoking cessation efforts among U.S. adult smokers. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 12,494 past-year cigarette smokers age ≥18 years from Wave 1 (2013-2014) of the nationally-representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024454/disclosure-of-personalized-rheumatoid-arthritis-risk-using-genetics-biomarkers-and-lifestyle-factors-to-motivate-health-behavior-improvements-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Jeffrey A Sparks, Maura D Iversen, Zhi Yu, Nellie A Triedman, Maria G Prado, Rachel Miller Kroouze, Sarah S Kalia, Michael L Atkinson, Elinor A Mody, Simon M Helfgott, Derrick J Todd, Paul F Dellaripa, Bonnie L Bermas, Karen H Costenbader, Kevin D Deane, Bing Lu, Robert C Green, Elizabeth W Karlson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of disclosure of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk personalized with genetics, biomarkers, and lifestyle factors on health behavior intentions. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled trial among first-degree relatives without RA. Subjects assigned to the Personalized Risk Estimator for RA (PRE-RA) group received the web-based PRE-RA tool for RA risk factor education and disclosure of personalized RA risk estimates including genotype/autoantibody results and behaviors (n=158)...
October 12, 2017: Arthritis Care & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023626/bayesian-variable-selection-for-multistate-markov-models-with-interval-censored-data-in-an-ecological-momentary-assessment-study-of-smoking-cessation
#11
Matthew D Koslovsky, Michael D Swartz, Wenyaw Chan, Luis Leon-Novelo, Anna V Wilkinson, Darla E Kendzor, Michael S Businelle
The application of sophisticated analytical methods to intensive longitudinal data, collected with ecological momentary assessments (EMA), has helped researchers better understand smoking behaviors after a quit attempt. Unfortunately, the wealth of information captured with EMAs is typically underutilized in practice. Thus, novel methods are needed to extract this information in exploratory research studies. One of the main objectives of intensive longitudinal data analysis is identifying relations between risk factors and outcomes of interest...
October 11, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023542/massachusetts-medicaid-members-that-smoked-in-2008-characteristics-associated-with-smoking-status-in-2014
#12
Alexis D Henry, John Gettens, Judith A Savageau, Doris Cullen, Anna Landau
The smoking rate among non-elderly Medicaid enrollees is more than double the rate for those privately insured; smoking-related conditions account for 15% of Medicaid expenditures. Under state health reform, Massachusetts Medicaid (MassHealth) made tobacco cessation treatment available beginning in 2006. We used surveys conducted in 2008 and 2014 to examine changes in smoking abstinence rates among MassHealth members identified as smokers and to identify factors associated with being a former smoker. Members previously identified as smokers were surveyed by mail or phone; 2008 and 2014 samples included 3,116 and 2,971 members, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021949/correlates-of-unsuccessful-smoking-cessation-among-adults-in-bangladesh
#13
Shariful Hakim, Muhammad Abdul Baker Chowdhury, Md Jamal Uddin
Having 21.9 million adult smokers, Bangladesh ranks among the top ten heaviest smoking countries in the world. Correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation remain unknown. We aimed to identify the correlates of unsuccessful smoking cessation among adults in Bangladesh. We used data from the 2009 Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) for Bangladesh. We compared socio-demographic, belief about health effect of smoking, and environmental characteristics of current smokers who had a recent failed quit attempt during the past 12 months of the survey (unsuccessful quitters) with those former smokers who had quit ≥ 12 months earlier of the survey and had not relapsed (successful quitters)...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021116/efficacy-of-a-technology-based-integrated-smoking-cessation-and-alcohol-intervention-for-smoking-cessation-in-adolescents-results-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Severin Haug, Raquel Paz Castro, Tobias Kowatsch, Andreas Filler, Michael P Schaub
OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of a technology-based integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention versus a smoking cessation only intervention in adolescents. METHODS: This was a two-arm, parallel-group, cluster-randomised controlled trial with assessments at baseline and six months follow-up. Subjects in both groups received tailored mobile phone text messages to support smoking cessation for 3months, and the option of registering for a program incorporating strategies for smoking cessation centred around a self-defined quit date...
November 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020262/cigarette-smoking-and-risk-of-early-natural-menopause
#15
Brian W Whitcomb, Alexandra C Purdue-Smithe, Kathleen L Szegda, Maegan E Boutot, Susan E Hankinson, JoAnn E Manson, Bernard Rosner, Walter C Willett, A Heather Eliassen, Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson
Menopause before age 45 affects roughly 5%-10% of women and is associated with higher risk of adverse health conditions. Smoking may increase early menopause risk; however, evidence is inconsistent, and data regarding smoking amount, duration, cessation and patterns over time and risk are scant. We used data from the Nurses' Health Study II of 116,429 nurses from 1989 through 2011 and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) adjusting for confounders. Compared to never-smokers, current smokers had a HR of 1...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020130/the-association-between-tobacco-smoking-and-atherosclerotic-plaques-in-the-carotid-artery-is-partly-mediated-by-cadmium-exposure
#16
Eva M Andersson, Björn Fagerberg, Gerd Sallsten, Yan Borné, Bo Hedblad, Gunnar Engström, Lars Barregard
Exposure to cadmium confers increased cardiovascular risk. Tobacco smoke contains cadmium, which, hypothetically, may mediate parts of the tobacco-associated risk of developing atherosclerotic plaques. Baseline data from the Swedish Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort (1991-1996) were used to test this hypothesis. Mediation analysis was used to examine associations between smoking and blood cadmium levels, and prevalence of ultrasound-assessed carotid atherosclerotic plaques. The total association with smoking status (never-smokers, two categories of ex-smokers, and current smokers) was split into direct and indirect association and the proportion mediated was estimated...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018894/abstinence-induced-withdrawal-severity-among-adolescent-smokers-with-and-without-adhd-disentangling-effects-of-nicotine-and-smoking-reinstatement
#17
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Sara G Balestrieri, Suzanne M Colby, Valerie S Knopik, Jennifer W Tidey
RATIONALE: Individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) start smoking earlier, are more likely to progress to nicotine dependence, and have a more difficult time quitting smoking compared to their non-ADHD peers. Little is known about the underlying behavioral mechanisms associated with this increased risk, particularly at the adolescent stage. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effects of overnight nicotine abstinence and smoking reinstatement on subjective withdrawal states in adolescent smokers with and without ADHD...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016951/compliance-with-opioid-therapy-distinguishing-clinical-characteristics-and-demographics-among-patients-with-cancer-pain
#18
Dhanalakshmi Koyyalagunta, Eduardo Bruera, Mitchell P Engle, Larry Driver, Wenli Dong, Chris Demaree, Diane M Novy
Background: Because an increase of patients who misuse opioids has been identified in our cancer clinical setting through urine drug testing (UDT) and the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patient's with Pain-Short Form (SOAPP-SF), we conducted this retrospective cohort study to identify patient characteristics that are associated with UDT that indicates noncompliance. Methods: Over a two-year period, 167 of 8,727 patients (2.4%) seen in the pain clinic and who underwent UDT were evaluated to determine compliance with prescribed opioid regimens...
July 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016672/the-interaction-of-arsenic-and-n-butyl-n-4-hydroxybutyl-nitrosamine-on-urothelial-carcinogenesis-in-mice
#19
Yuan-Chang Dai, Shou-Chieh Wang, Mohammad Mezbahul Haque, Wei-Han Lin, Lei-Chen Lin, Ching-Hsein Chen, Yi-Wen Liu
The bladder is an important organ for the storage of excreted water and metabolites. If metabolites with carcinogenic characteristics are present in urine, the urothelial lining of the bladder could be damaged and genetically altered. In this study, we analyzed the interaction of arsenic and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) on mouse bladder carcinogenesis. Our previous study found that arsenic affects BBN-altered urothelial enzymatic activity, protein expression, DNA oxidation and global DNA CpG methylation levels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994647/factors-influencing-the-initiation-of-smokeless-tobacco-consumption-among-low-socioeconomic-community-in-bangladesh-a-qualitative-investigation
#20
Md Shahjahan, Md Golam Dostogir Harun, A B M Alauddin Chowdhury, Kapil Ahmed, Hafiz T A Khan
This study explored factors influencing the initiation of smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption in a low socioeconomic urban community in Bangladesh. The study conducted four focus group discussions among 33 informants involves school teachers, community leaders, women, and betel-nut shops owners. The results were prepared by thematic analysis of the transcripts where informants mean age was 30 ( SD ± 6.8) years with varying level of education. Tradition of hospitality, curiosity, offer from an elderly person, and avoiding nausea during pregnancy and at time of quitting smoking were key factors for the initiation of SLT consumption...
January 1, 2017: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
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