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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456247/b-cells-are-the-predominant-mediators-of-early-systemic-viral-dissemination-during-rectal-lcmv-infection
#1
Martin Trapecar, Shahzada Khan, Benjamin L Cohn, Frank Wu, Shomyseh Sanjabi
Determining the magnitude of local immune response during mucosal exposure to viral pathogens is critical to understanding the mechanism of viral pathogenesis. We previously showed that vaginal inoculation of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) fails to induce a robust innate immune response in the lower female reproductive tract (FRT), allowing high titer viral replication and a delay in T-cell-mediated viral control. Despite this immunological delay, LCMV replication remained confined mainly to the FRT and the draining iliac lymph node...
February 19, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453211/fistulation-between-a-colonic-j-pouch-and-the-upper-vagina-in-an-irradiated-pelvis-a-rare-complication-following-low-anterior-resection-with-colonic-j-pouch-anal-anastomosis-for-rectal-cancer
#2
James Tankel, Shlomo Yellineck, Petachia Reissman
Formation of a colonic J-pouch with anastomosis to the rectal stump is an accepted form of reconstruction after low anterior resection (LAR) for rectal carcinoma. It is thought this can help prevent the onset of LAR syndrome as well as improve the quality of life in the first two years following surgery. Rectovaginal fistulation is a recognised complication of this form of surgery usually occurring because of technical failure leading to inclusion of the vaginal wall into the stapled anastomosis. We present an as of yet unreported case of fistulation between the upper horizontal staple line of a colonic J-pouch-the tip of the 'J'-which was formed extracorporeally with the posterior vaginal fornix...
February 16, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452244/does-saline-enema-during-the-first-stage-of-labour-reduce-the-incidence-of-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-neonates-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Adel M Nada, Reham A Mohsen, Yosra M Hassan, Amira Sabry, Noha S Soliman
BACKGROUND: Maternal rectal enemas may reduce neonatal bacterial exposure during labour; this may reduce the risk of neonatal colonization with Clostridium difficile. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a saline enema during the first stage of labour in reducing neonatal colonization with C. difficile. METHODS: The study was conducted in Cairo University Hospital from January 2016 to July 2016. Asymptomatic mothers with uncomplicated vaginal delivery and their neonates without diarrhea were included...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449544/peak1-acting-as-a-tumor-promoter-in-colorectal-cancer-is-regulated-by-the-egfr-kras-signaling-axis-and-mir-181d
#4
Lanlan Huang, Chuangyu Wen, Xiangling Yang, Qiong Lou, Xiaoyan Wang, Jia Che, Junxiong Chen, Zihuan Yang, Xiaojian Wu, Meijin Huang, Ping Lan, Lei Wang, Aikichi Iwamoto, Jianping Wang, Huanliang Liu
PEAK1 is upregulated in multiple human malignancies and has been associated with tumor invasion and metastasis, but little is known about the role of PEAK1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression. We investigated the expression pattern, function and regulatory mechanisms of PEAK1 in CRC. Here, we found that PEAK1 is overexpressed in CRC tissues and that high PEAK1 expression predicts poor survival in colon cancer but not rectal cancer. Functionally, silencing PEAK1 inhibits cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and inhibits the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447434/alterations-in-melatonin-and-serotonin-signalling-in-the-colonic-mucosa-of-mice-with-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#5
Sarah J MacEachern, Catherine M Keenan, Evangelia Papakonstantinou, Keith A Sharkey, Bhavik Anil Patel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by pain, bleeding, cramping and altered gastrointestinal (GI) function. Changes in mucosal serotonin (5-HT) signalling occur in animal models of colitis and in humans suffering from IBD. Melatonin is co-released with 5-HT from the mucosa and has a wide variety of actions in the GI tract. Here we examined how melatonin signalling is affected by colitis and determined how this relates to 5-HT signalling. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using electroanalytical approaches, we investigated how 5-HT release, reuptake and availability as well as melatonin availability are altered in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice...
February 15, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446077/coffee-drinking-and-colorectal-cancer-and-its-subsites-a-pooled-analysis-of-8-cohort-studies-in-japan
#6
Ikuko Kashino, Shamima Akter, Tetsuya Mizoue, Norie Sawada, Ayaka Kotemori, Keitaro Matsuo, Isao Oze, Hidemi Ito, Mariko Naito, Tomio Nakayama, Yuri Kitamura, Akiko Tamakoshi, Ichiro Tsuji, Yumi Sugawara, Manami Inoue, Chisato Nagata, Atsuko Sadakane, Keitaro Tanaka, Shoichiro Tsugane, Taichi Shimazu
Coffee is a rich source of bioactive compounds that have potential anti-carcinogenic effects. However, it remains unclear whether coffee drinking is associated with colorectal cancer. Also, despite different etiological factors involved in gut physiology, few studies have investigated this association by anatomical site of the lesion. To address these issues, this study examined the association between coffee drinking and colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis from 8 cohort studies conducted in Japan. Among 320,322 participants followed up for 4,503,276 person-years, 6,711 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445027/a-curative-intent-trimodality-approach-for-isolated-abdominal-nodal-metastases-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-update-of-a-single-institutional-experience
#7
Benny Johnson, Zhaohui Jin, Michael G Haddock, Christopher L Hallemeier, James A Martenson, Rory L Smoot, David W Larson, Eric J Dozois, David M Nagorney, Axel Grothey
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to define survival rates in patients with isolated advanced abdominal nodal metastases secondary to colorectal cancer (CRC), treated with curative-intent trimodality therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five patients received trimodality therapy, defined as chemotherapy delivered with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by lymphadenectomy and intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). Infusional 5-fluorouracil was the most common radiosensitizer used (63%, 41 patients)...
February 14, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442059/modified-transverse-coloplasty-pouch-new-reconstruction-techniques-after-total-mesorectal-excision-our-experience
#8
G Grimaldi, Chiara Eberspacher, A M Romani, D Merletti, A Maturo, S Pontone, D Pironi
AIM: The incidence of rectal cancer continues to rise. The functional results after complete Total Mesorectal Excision (TME) depend on the segment of colon used for reconstruction of colonic continuity and the form, the volume and the functional proprieties of the "neorectum". The aim of our study is evaluate the efficacy of our Modified Transverse Coloplasty Pouch (MTCP) after the treatment of low rectal cancer in terms of functional outcomes and quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 136 patients, underwent TME from January 2007 to December 2016 with diagnosis of extraperitoneal carcinoma of the rectum...
November 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439668/hipect4-multicentre-randomized-clinical-trial-to-evaluate-safety-and-efficacy-of-hyperthermic-intra-peritoneal-chemotherapy-hipec-with-mitomycin-c-used-during-surgery-for-treatment-of-locally-advanced-colorectal-carcinoma
#9
A Arjona-Sánchez, P Barrios, E Boldo-Roda, B Camps, J Carrasco-Campos, V Concepción Martín, A García-Fadrique, A Gutiérrez-Calvo, R Morales, G Ortega-Pérez, E Pérez-Viejo, A Prada-Villaverde, J Torres-Melero, E Vicente, P Villarejo-Campos, J M Sánchez-Hidalgo, A Casado-Adam, Ruben García-Martin, Manuel Medina, T Caro, C Villar, Enrique Aranda, M T Cano-Osuna, C Díaz-López, E Torres-Tordera, F J Briceño-Delgado, S Rufián-Peña
BACKGROUND: Local relapse and peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) for pT4 colon cancer is estimated in 15,6% and 36,7% for 12 months and 36 months from surgical resection respectively, achieving a 5 years overall survival of 6%. There are promising results using prophylactic HIPEC in this group of patients, and it is estimated that up to 26% of all T4 colon cancer could benefit from this treatment with a minimal morbidity. Adjuvant HIPEC is effective to avoid the possibility of peritoneal seeding after surgical resection...
February 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435982/nitrate-in-drinking-water-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Jörg Schullehner, Birgitte Hansen, Malene Thygesen, Carsten B Pedersen, Torben Sigsgaard
Nitrate in drinking water may increase risk of colorectal cancer due to endogenous transformation into carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Epidemiological studies are few and often challenged by their limited ability of estimating long-term exposure on a detailed individual level. We exploited population-based health register data, linked in time and space with longitudinal drinking water quality data, on an individual level to study the association between long-term drinking water nitrate exposure and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427228/the-influence-of-screening-on-outcomes-of-clinically-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#11
A M Dinaux, L G J Leijssen, L G Bordeianou, H Kunitake, D L Berger
BACKGROUND: Screening for colorectal cancer has resulted in declining incidence rates of both colon and rectal cancer and it may influence stage at presentation and improve survival. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of screening on patients diagnosed with locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients who underwent neoadjuvant therapy and had an R0-resection for clinical AJCC stage II or stage III disease...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427046/hepatobiliary-phase-liver-mr-imaging-findings-after-oxaliplatin-based-chemotherapy-in-cancer-patients
#12
REVIEW
Emre Ünal, Ali Devrim Karaosmanoğlu, Mustafa Nasuh Ozmen, Deniz Akata, Musturay Karcaaltincaba
OBJECTIVE: To describe Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR imaging findings in colon and rectal cancer patients who received Oxaliplatin. CONCLUSION: Spectrum of hepatobiliary phase imaging findings include diffuse heterogeneous dysfunction, macronodular and micronodular FNH-like lesions, and coexistence of periportal increased liver function with FNH-like lesions. Differentiation of these benign lesions from metastasis is crucial to avoid biopsy in patients with colorectal cancers and may allow better understanding of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome pathophysiology and regenerative response of liver...
February 9, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426699/perioperative-lipid-enriched-enteral-nutrition-versus-standard-care-in-patients-undergoing-elective-colorectal-surgery-sanics-ii-a-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Emmeline G Peters, Boudewijn J J Smeets, Jesper Nors, Christian M Back, Jonas A Funder, Thorbjørn Sommer, Søren Laurberg, Uffe S Løve, Wouter K G Leclercq, Gerrit D Slooter, Tammo S de Vries Reilingh, Johannes A Wegdam, Grard A P Nieuwenhuijzen, Mickaël Hiligsmann, Marc P Buise, Willem A Buurman, Wouter J de Jonge, Harm J T Rutten, Misha D P Luyer
BACKGROUND: Postoperative ileus and anastomotic leakage severely impair recovery after colorectal resection. We investigated the effect of perioperative lipid-enriched enteral nutrition versus standard care on the risk of postoperative ileus, anastomotic leakage, and other clinical outcomes. METHODS: We did an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial of patients (≥18 years) undergoing elective colorectal surgery with primary anastomosis at six clinical centres in the Netherlands and Denmark...
February 6, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423501/association-of-sulindac-and-erlotinib-vs-placebo-with-colorectal-neoplasia-in-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#14
N Jewel Samadder, Scott K Kuwada, Kenneth M Boucher, Kathryn Byrne, Priyanka Kanth, Wade Samowitz, David Jones, Sean V Tavtigian, Michelle Westover, Therese Berry, Kory Jasperson, Lisa Pappas, Laurel Smith, Danielle Sample, Randall W Burt, Deborah W Neklason
Importance: Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) are at markedly increased risk for colorectal polyps and cancer. A combination of sulindac and erlotinib led to a 71% reduction in duodenal polyp burden in a phase 2 trial. Objective: To evaluate effect of sulindac and erlotinib on colorectal adenoma regression in patients with FAP. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prespecified secondary analysis for colorectal adenoma regression was carried out using data from a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling 92 patients with FAP, conducted from July 2010 to June 2014 in Salt Lake City, Utah...
February 8, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423216/dietary-proline-supplementation-alters-colonic-luminal-microbiota-and-bacterial-metabolite-composition-between-days-45-and-70-of-pregnancy-in-huanjiang-mini-pigs
#15
Yujiao Ji, Qiuping Guo, Yulong Yin, Francois Blachier, Xiangfeng Kong
Background: Pregnancy is associated with important changes in gut microbiota composition. Dietary factors may affect the diversity, composition, and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota. Among amino acids, proline is known to play important roles in protein metabolism and structure, cell differentiation, conceptus growth and development, and gut microbiota re-equilibration in case of dysbiosis. Results: Dietary supplementation with 1% proline decreased (P < 0...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423167/a-rare-case-of-massive-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding-from-a-ruptured-splenic-artery-aneurysm
#16
Ravi Maharaj, Barry Raghunanan, Wayne Mohammed, Rakesh Rambally, Vandana Devika Sookdeo, Dave Harnanan, Wayne A Warner
Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are an extremely rare cause of asymptomatic massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding with less than a handful of patients surviving such a presentation. A 24-year-old female presented in shock after multiple episodes of massive rectal bleeding. Imaging revealed a heterogeneous mass arising from the tail of the pancreas eroding into the splenic flexure of the colon. Further episodes of bleeding led to an exploratory laparotomy. Intraoperatively, a suspected neoplastic process arising from the tail of the pancreas with contiguous involvement of the splenic flexure of the colon and the greater curvature of the stomach was noted...
February 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420429/elevated-venous-thromboembolism-risk-following-colectomy-for-ibd-is-equal-to-those-for-colorectal-cancer-for-ninety-days-after-surgery
#17
Fadwa Ali, Sadeer G Al-Kindi, Jacqueline J Blank, Carrie Y Peterson, Kirk A Ludwig, Timothy J Ridolfi
BACKGROUND: The risk of postoperative venous thromboembolism is high in patients with colon cancer and IBD. Although The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons suggests posthospital prophylaxis after surgery in patients with colon cancer, there are no such recommendations for patients with IBD. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the incidence and risk factors for postoperative venous thromboembolism. DESIGN: This was a retrospective review using the Explorys platform...
March 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420423/the-american-society-of-colon-and-rectal-surgeons-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-the-management-of-hemorrhoids
#18
Bradley R Davis, Steven A Lee-Kong, John Migaly, Daniel L Feingold, Scott R Steele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417288/antimicrobial-lubricant-reduces-rectal-bacteria-at-transrectal-prostate-biopsy-results-from-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#19
Georg Salomon, Judith Saul, Sandra Prues, Meike Schneider, Lars Budäus, Derya Tilki, Holger Rohde, Axel Haferkamp, Markus Graefen, Katharina Boehm
PURPOSE: Antibiotic resistance may lead to increasing infection rates at transrectal prostate biopsy. Local antimicrobial agents might help to reduce bacterial load. The aim of this study was to test the potency of antimicrobial lubricants to reduce local bacterial loads and specifically fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 384 prostate biopsy (PBx) patients of a larger prospective randomized trial (n = 1000) were included. Patients were randomized for biopsy with pre-interventional instillation of an antimicrobial lubricant (intervention group n = 256) or with the standard lubricant (control group n = 128)...
February 7, 2018: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417285/surgical-laparoscopic-treatment-of-bowel-endometriosis-with-transvaginal-resection-of-the-rectum-using-ultrasonically-activated-shears-a-retrospective-cohort-study-with-description-of-technique
#20
F Rampinelli, P Donarini, C Visenzi, S Ficarelli, G Ciravolo
BACKGROUND: To asses the results of laparoscopic surgical treatment of bowel endometriosis with transvaginal resection of the rectum employing ultrasonic energy retrospective study. METHOD: 100 patients with symptoms of narrowing or partial obstruction of colon were submitted to laparoscopic resection of rectosigmoid tract through a vaginal route. Length of surgery, blood loss, histopathological extent of rectal invasion, surgical complications, and length of hospital stay were the main analyzed outcomes...
February 7, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
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