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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921619/alcohol-reduces-arterial-remodeling-by-inhibiting-sonic-hedgehog-stimulated-sca1-progenitor-stem-cell-expansion
#1
Emma Fitzpatrick, Xu Han, Weimin Liu, Eoin Corcoran, Denise Burtenshaw, Maryam Alshamrani, David Morrow, Jay-Christian Helt, Paul A Cahill, Eileen M Redmond
BACKGROUND: Cell and molecular mechanisms mediating the cardiovascular effects of alcohol are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine the effect of moderate Ethanol (EtOH) on Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) signaling in regulating possible Sca1(+) progenitor stem cell involvement during pathologic arterial remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Partial ligation or sham-operation of the left carotid artery was performed in transgenic Sca1-eGFP mice gavaged with or without 'daily moderate' EtOH...
September 18, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905209/expression-differences-of-genes-in-the-pi3k-akt-wnt-b-catenin-shh-notch-and-mapk-signaling-pathways-in-cd34-hematopoietic-cells-obtained-from-chronic-phase-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-and-from-healthy-controls
#2
R de Cássia Viu Carrara, A M Fontes, K J Abraham, M D Orellana, S K Haddad, P V B Palma, R A Panepucci, M A Zago, D T Covas
PURPOSE: The fusion gene BRC-ABL has an important role to the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and several signaling pathways have been characterized as responsible for the terminal blastic phase (BP). However, the initial phase, the chronic phase (CP), is long lasting and there is much yet to be understood about the critical role of BRC-ABL in this phase. This study aims to evaluate transcriptional deregulation in CD34+ hematopoietic cells (CD34+ cells) from patients with untreated newly diagnosed CML compared with CD34+HC from healthy controls...
September 13, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901252/the-origin-and-identification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-teeth-from-odontogenic-to-non-odontogenic
#3
Dixin Cui, Hongyu Li, Mian Wan, Yiran Peng, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou, Liwei Zheng
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in teeth have been exploited as vital seed cells for stem cell-based dental medicine. To date, several mesenchymal stem cell populations originated from odontogenic tissue have been isolated and characterized by their expression of MSC surface markers and capacity of multi-lineage differentiation, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP) and so on. However, their identity in vivo remains elusive, which hinders further understanding of their application in stem cell-based tooth regeneration...
September 13, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898414/bmp-signaling-regulates-the-skeletal-and-connective-tissue-differentiation-during-caudal-fin-regeneration-in-sailfin-molly-poecilia-latipinna
#4
Shailja Rajaram, Sonam Patel, Gowri Kumari Uggini, Isha Desai, Suresh Balakrishnan
Caudal fin regeneration in sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna (Lesueur 1821) involves an initial wound healing stage, followed by blastema that is formed of fast proliferating cells. In order to replicate the lost fin, correct differentiation of the blastemal cells into various tissues is the prime essence. Among the molecular signals governing proper differentiation of blastemal cells, members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family are crucial. Herein, we investigated the specific effects of inhibition of BMP signaling using LDN193189 on skeletal and connective tissue formation in the regenerating tail fin of P...
September 12, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892064/a-mouse-model-for-embryonal-tumors-with-multilayered-rosettes-uncovers-the-therapeutic-potential-of-sonic-hedgehog-inhibitors
#5
Julia E Neumann, Annika K Wefers, Sander Lambo, Edoardo Bianchi, Marie Bockstaller, Mario M Dorostkar, Valerie Meister, Pia Schindler, Andrey Korshunov, Katja von Hoff, Johannes Nowak, Monika Warmuth-Metz, Marlon R Schneider, Ingrid Renner-Müller, Daniel J Merk, Mehdi Shakarami, Tanvi Sharma, Lukas Chavez, Rainer Glass, Jennifer A Chan, M Mark Taketo, Philipp Neumann, Marcel Kool, Ulrich Schüller
Embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) have recently been described as a new entity of rare pediatric brain tumors with a fatal outcome. We show here that ETMRs are characterized by a parallel activation of Shh and Wnt signaling. Co-activation of these pathways in mouse neural precursors is sufficient to induce ETMR-like tumors in vivo that resemble their human counterparts on the basis of histology and global gene-expression analyses, and that point to apical radial glia cells as the possible tumor cell of origin...
September 11, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891097/ventral-neural-patterning-in-the-absence-of-a-shh-activity-gradient-from-the-floorplate
#6
Angelo Iulianella, Daisuke Sakai, Hiroshi Kurosaka, Paul Trainor
BACKGROUND: Vertebrate spinal cord development requires Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling from the floorplate and notochord, where it is thought to act in concentration dependent manner to pattern distinct cell identities along the ventral-to-dorsal axis. While in vitro experiments demonstrate naïve neural tissues are sensitive to small changes in Shh levels, genetic studies illustrate that some degree of ventral patterning can occur despite significant perturbations in Shh signaling. Consequently, the mechanistic relationship between Shh morphogen levels and acquisition of distinct cell identities remains unclear...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889454/intrafamilial-variability-of-the-triphalangeal-thumb-phenotype-in-a-dutch-population-evidence-for-phenotypic-progression-over-generations
#7
Martijn Baas, Jacob W P Potuijt, Steven E R Hovius, A Jeannette M Hoogeboom, Robert-Jan H Galjaard, Christianne A van Nieuwenhoven
Triphalangeal thumbs (TPTs) are regularly caused by mutations in the ZRS in LMBR1. Phenotypic variability can be present in TPT-families. However, recent observations suggest an increased occurrence of severe phenotypes in the Dutch TPT-population. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the progression of the clinical severity of TPT-phenotype through generations. Index patients from a Dutch TPT-population were identified. A 105C>G mutation in the ZRS has previously been confirmed in this population...
September 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887094/salvianolic-acids-for-injection-safi-promotes-functional-recovery-and-neurogenesis-via-sonic-hedgehog-pathway-after-stroke-in-mice
#8
Ye Zhang, Xiangjian Zhang, Lili Cui, Rong Chen, Cong Zhang, Yaoru Li, Tingting He, Xingyuan Zhu, Zuyuan Shen, Lipeng Dong, Jingru Zhao, Ya Wen, Xiufen Zheng, Pan Li
There is a pressing need of developing approaches for delayed post-stroke therapy for patients who fail to receive thrombolysis within the narrow time window. Neuroprotection of Salvianolic Acids for Injection (SAFI) for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in acute phase has been well documented. The current study was to determine the influence of SAFI at the subacute phase after stroke in mice, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to permanent occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery (dMCAO), followed by daily intraperitoneal injection of SAFI 24 h after stroke for 14 days...
September 5, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886322/carnosol-inhibits-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-in-both-lncap-and-du145-prostate-cancer-cell-lines
#9
H Gao, Q Song, J Yang, S Yu, J Zhao, G Yu
To investigate the effect of carnosol on the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway in human hormone-dependent prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and hormone-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145. The expression levels of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1 (Gli1) and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in human prostate cancer tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. After treated with carnosol (0.25-16 μmol/L), the cell survival of LNCaP and DU145 cells were detected by MTT assay. The expression levels of Gli1 and Shh mRNA and protein in the two cells were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot, respectively...
August 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886265/microvesicles-releasing-by-oral-cancer-cells-enhance-endothelial-cell-angiogenesis-via-shh-rhoa-signaling-pathway
#10
Xiao Huaitong, Feng Yuanyong, Tao Yueqin, Zhao Peng, Shang Wei, Song Kai
The present study aimed to investigate the significance of hedgehog signaling pathway in association with clinicopathology parameters and its effect on angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The expression of Sonic Hh (Shh) and Gli1 were done on primary tumors and metastatic lymph nodes in OSCC samples from 80 patients by immunohistochemical analysis. The western blot was used to examine the expression of Shh in OSCC cell lines and OSCC-derived microvesicles (MVs). The role of Shh carried by MVs to induce endothelial cell angiogenesis was further investigated by matrigel assay...
September 8, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885585/hair-regenerative-mechanisms-of-red-ginseng-oil-and-its-major-components-in-the-testosterone-induced-delay-of-anagen-entry-in-c57bl-6-mice
#11
Van-Long Truong, Min Ji Bak, Changook Lee, Mira Jun, Woo-Sik Jeong
Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0)tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO) once a day for 28 days...
September 8, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885142/sonic-hedgehog-switches-on-wnt-planar-cell-polarity-signaling-in-commissural-axon-growth-cones-by-reducing-levels-of-shisa2
#12
Keisuke Onishi, Yimin Zou
Commissural axons switch on responsiveness to Wnt attraction during midline crossing and turn anteriorly only after exiting the floor plate. We report here that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-Smoothened signaling downregulates Shisa2, which inhibits the glycosylation and cell surface presentation of Frizzled3 in rodent commissural axon growth cones. Constitutive Shisa2 expression causes randomized turning of post-crossing commissural axons along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis. Loss of Shisa2 led to precocious anterior turning of commissural axons before or during midline crossing...
September 8, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874841/epiphyseal-bone-formation-occurs-via-thyroid-hormone-regulation-of-chondrocyte-to-osteoblast-transdifferentiation
#13
Patrick Aghajanian, Weirong Xing, Shaohong Cheng, Subburaman Mohan
Endochondral ossification in the diaphysis of long bones has been studied in-depth during fetal development but not postnatally in the epiphysis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that Sox9 and Col2 expressing immature chondrocytes in the epiphysis transition into prehypertrophic and hypetrophic chondrocytes and finally into osteoblasts expressing Col1 and BSP during postnatal day 7-10, when serum levels of thyroid hormone (TH) rise. Lineage tracing using Rosa-td tomato (Col2-Cre-ERT2) mice treated with tamoxifen indicated that the same Col2 expressing chondrocytes expressed prehypertrophic, hypertrophic, and subsequently bone formation markers in a sequential manner in euthyroid but not hypothyroid mice, thus providing evidence that chondrocyte to osteoblast transdifferentiation is TH-dependent...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874804/whole-transcriptome-analysis-of-notochord-derived-cells-during-embryonic-formation-of-the-nucleus-pulposus
#14
Sun H Peck, Kendra K McKee, John W Tobias, Neil R Malhotra, Brian D Harfe, Lachlan J Smith
Recapitulation of developmental signals represents a promising strategy for treating intervertebral disc degeneration. During development, embryonic notochord-derived cells (NDCs) are the direct progenitors of cells that populate the adult nucleus pulposus (NP) and are an important source of secreted signaling molecules. The objective of this study was to define global gene expression profiles of NDCs at key stages of embryonic disc formation. NDCs were isolated from Shh-cre;ROSA:YFP mice at embryonic day 12...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870926/hedgehog-stimulation-suppresses-clonogenicity-and-activates-notch-signalling-in-t-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-jurkat-cells
#15
Yuki Okuhashi, Mai Itoh, Shuji Tohda
BACKGROUND/AIM: Hedgehog (HH) and NOTCH pathways are involved in the regulation of cancer stem cells and haematopoietic malignancies. However, the effects of HH stimulation on cell growth and NOTCH signalling in acute T-lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) cells have not been elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two T-ALL cell lines, Jurkat and KOPT-K1 harbouring activating NOTCH1 mutations, were cultured with recombinant Sonic (S) HH and analysed for proliferation, colony formation, and expression of NOTCH-regulated genes and proteins...
September 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870814/curcumin-inhibits-bladder-cancer-stem-cells-by-suppressing-sonic-hedgehog-pathway
#16
Dengdian Wang, Xiaochuan Kong, Yuan Li, Weiwei Qian, Jiaxing Ma, Daming Wang, Dexin Yu, Caiyun Zhong
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for the recurrence of human cancers. Thus, targeting CSCs is considered to be a valid way for human cancer treatment. Curcumin is a major component of phytochemicals that exerts potent anticancer activities. However, the effect of curcumin on bladder cancer stem cells (BCSCs) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of curcumin suppressing bladder cancer stem cells. In this study, UM-UC-3 and EJ cells were cultured in serum-free medium (SFM) to form cell spheres that was characterized as BCSCs...
September 1, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864680/dual-inhibition-of-hedgehog-and-c-met-pathways-for-pancreatic-cancer-treatment
#17
Agnieszka A Rucki, Qian Xiao, Stephen Muth, Jianlin Chen, Xu Che, Jennifer Kleponis, Rajni Sharma, Robert A Anders, Elizabeth M Jaffee, Lei Zheng
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant tumors. The c-Met and Hedgehog (Hh) pathways have been shown previously by our group to be key regulatory pathways in the primary tumor growth and metastases formation. Targeting both the HGF/c-Met and Hh pathways has shown promising results in pre-clinical studies; however, the benefits were not readily translated into to clinical trials with PDA patients. In this study, utilizing mouse models of PDA, we showed that inhibition of either HGF/c-Met or Hh pathways sensitize the PDA tumors to gemcitabine resulting in decreased primary tumor volume as well as significant reduction of metastatic tumor burden...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859094/epithelial-heparan-sulfate-regulates-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-in-lung-development
#18
Hua He, Meina Huang, Shenfei Sun, Yihui Wu, Xinhua Lin
The tree-like structure of the mammalian lung is generated from branching morphogenesis, a reiterative process that is precisely regulated by numerous factors. How the cell surface and extra cellular matrix (ECM) molecules regulate this process is still poorly understood. Herein, we show that epithelial deletion of Heparan Sulfate (HS) synthetase Ext1 resulted in expanded branching tips and reduced branching number, associated with several mesenchymal developmental defects. We further demonstrate an expanded Fgf10 expression and increased FGF signaling activity in Ext1 mutant lungs, suggesting a cell non-autonomous mechanism...
August 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855426/neural-differentiation-of-fibroblasts-induced-by-intracellular-co-delivery-of-ascl1-brn2-and-foxa1-via-a-non-viral-vector-of-cationic-polysaccharide
#19
Qingtong Yu, Jingjing Chen, Wenwen Deng, Xia Cao, Michael Adu-Frimpong, Jiangnan Yu, Xi-Ming Xu
Direct reprogramming of other somatic cells into neurons is an alternative strategy for the recovery of injured nervous system. In this work we developed a new non-viral gene carrier based on Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PYP). After modification with ethylenediamine, the cationized Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (Ed-PYP) was combined with plasmids encoding Ascl1, Brn2 and FoxA1 to form spherical nanoscale particles (Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles). Cytotoxicity assay proved that Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles had a safer property than Lipofectamine2000 and polyetherimide (PEI)...
August 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852071/sonic-hedgehog-mimetic-prevents-leukocyte-infiltration-into-the-cns-during-acute-hiv-infection
#20
Vir B Singh, Meera V Singh, Dorota Piekna-Przybylska, Santhi Gorantla, Larisa Y Poluektova, Sanjay B Maggirwar
Infiltration of infected leukocytes culminates in establishment of a brain niche for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) during acute phase of infection, initiating an ongoing cascade of persistent viral replication and inflammation, that causes irreversible neuronal injury and HIV associated neurocognitive disease (HAND). In this study, humanized mice were treated with Smoothened Agonist (SAG), a Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) mimetic in order to fortify blood brain barrier (BBB) and dampen leukocyte extravasation into CNS during AHI...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
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