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Pelvic visceral nerves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856909/the-sacral-autonomic-outflow-is-sympathetic
#1
I Espinosa-Medina, O Saha, F Boismoreau, Z Chettouh, F Rossi, W D Richardson, J-F Brunet
A kinship between cranial and pelvic visceral nerves of vertebrates has been accepted for a century. Accordingly, sacral preganglionic neurons are considered parasympathetic, as are their targets in the pelvic ganglia that prominently control rectal, bladder, and genital functions. Here, we uncover 15 phenotypic and ontogenetic features that distinguish pre- and postganglionic neurons of the cranial parasympathetic outflow from those of the thoracolumbar sympathetic outflow in mice. By every single one, the sacral outflow is indistinguishable from the thoracolumbar outflow...
November 18, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783853/physiology-of-visceral-pain
#2
G F Gebhart, Klaus Bielefeldt
Pain involving thoracic, abdominal, or pelvic organs is a common cause for physician consultations, including one-third of chronic pain patients who report that visceral organs contribute to their suffering. Chronic visceral pain conditions are typically difficult to manage effectively, largely because visceral sensory mechanisms and factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of visceral pain are poorly understood. Mechanistic understanding is particularly problematic in "functional" visceral diseases where there is no apparent pathology and pain typically is the principal complaint...
September 15, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717709/cns-sites-activated-by-renal-pelvic-epithelial-sodium-channels-enacs-in-response-to-hypertonic-saline-in-awake-rats
#3
Vanessa S Goodwill, Christopher Terrill, Ian Hopewood, Arthur D Loewy, Mark M Knuepfer
In some patients, renal nerve denervation has been reported to be an effective treatment for essential hypertension. Considerable evidence suggests that afferent renal nerves (ARN) and sodium balance play important roles in the development and maintenance of high blood pressure. ARN are sensitive to sodium concentrations in the renal pelvis. To better understand the role of ARN, we infused isotonic or hypertonic NaCl (308 or 500mOsm) into the left renal pelvis of conscious rats for two 2hours while recording arterial pressure and heart rate...
September 22, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27286126/the-influence-of-distal-colon-irritation-on-the-changes-of-cystometry-parameters-to-esophagus-and-colon-distentions
#4
Ezidin G Kaddumi
The co-occurrence of multiple pathologies in the pelvic viscera in the same patient, such as, irritable bowel syndrome and interstitial cystitis, indicates the complexity of viscero-visceral interactions and the necessity to study these interactions under multiple pathological conditions. In the present study, the effect of distal colon irritation (DCI) on the urinary bladder interaction with distal esophagus distention (DED), distal colon distention (DCD), and electrical stimulation of the abdominal branches of vagus nerve (abd-vagus) were investigated using cystometry parameters...
May 2016: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26950857/optogenetic-activation-of-mechanically-insensitive-afferents-in-mouse-colorectum-reveals-chemosensitivity
#5
Bin Feng, Sonali C Joyce, G F Gebhart
The sensory innervation of the distal colorectum includes mechanically insensitive afferents (MIAs; ∼25%), which acquire mechanosensitivity in persistent visceral hypersensitivity and thus generate de novo input to the central nervous system. We utilized an optogenetic approach to bypass the process of transduction (generator potential) and focus on transformation (spike initiation) at colorectal MIA sensory terminals, which is otherwise not possible in typical functional studies. From channelrhodopsin2-expressing mice (driven by Advillin-Cre), the distal colorectum with attached pelvic nerve was harvested for ex vivo single-fiber recordings...
May 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26652274/impairments-of-the-primary-afferent-nerves-in-a-rat-model-of-diabetic-visceral-hyposensitivity
#6
Li Dong, Xizi Liang, Biying Sun, Xiaowei Ding, Hongxiu Han, Guohua Zhang, Weifang Rong
BACKGROUND: Diabetic neuropathy in visceral organs such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is still poorly understood, despite that GI symptoms are among the most common diabetic complications. The present study was designed to explore the changes in visceral sensitivity and the underlying functional and morphological deficits of the sensory nerves in short-term diabetic rats. Here, we compared the colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceromotor response (VMR, an index of visceral pain) in vivo, the mechanosensitivity of colonic afferents ex vivo as well as the expression of protein gene product (PGP) 9...
December 10, 2015: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26491706/impact-of-bioelectronic-medicine-on-the-neural-regulation-of-pelvic-visceral-function
#7
William C de Groat, Changfeng Tai
Neuromodulation elicited by electrical stimulation of peripheral or spinal nerves is a U.S. Food and Drug Administered (FDA)-approved therapy for treating disorders of the pelvic viscera, including urinary urgency, urgency-frequency, nonobstructive urinary retention and fecal incontinence. The technique is also being tested experimentally for its efficacy in treating interstitial cystitis, chronic constipation and pelvic pain. The goal of neuromodulation is to suppress abnormal visceral sensations and involuntary reflexes and restore voluntary control...
January 22, 2015: Bioelectronic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26260200/laparoscopic-anatomy-of-the-autonomic-nerves-of-the-pelvis-and-the-concept-of-nerve-sparing-surgery-by-direct-visualization-of-autonomic-nerve-bundles
#8
Nucelio Lemos, Caroline Souza, Renato Moretti Marques, Gil Kamergorodsky, Eduardo Schor, Manoel J B C Girão
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the laparoscopic neuroanatomy of the autonomic nerves of the pelvis using the laparoscopic neuronavigation technique, as well as the technique for a nerve-sparing radical endometriosis surgery. DESIGN: Step-by-step explanation of the technique using videos and pictures (educational video) to demonstrate the anatomy of the intrapelvic bundles of the autonomic nerve system innervating the bladder, rectum, and pelvic floor. SETTING: Tertiary referral center...
November 2015: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26218221/colokinetic-effect-of-noradrenaline-in-the-spinal-defecation-center-implication-for-motility-disorders
#9
Kiyotada Naitou, Takahiko Shiina, Kurumi Kato, Hiroyuki Nakamori, Yuuki Sano, Yasutake Shimizu
Chronic abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) usually appears in combination with disturbed bowel habits, but the etiological relationship between these symptoms remains unclear. Noradrenaline is a major neurotransmitter controlling pain sensation in the spinal cord. To test the hypothesis that the descending noradrenergic pathway from the brain stem moderates gut motility, we examined effects of intrathecal application of noradrenaline to the spinal defecation center on colorectal motility. Colorectal intraluminal pressure and expelled volume were recorded in vivo in anesthetized rats...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25914629/peripheral-injury-of-pelvic-visceral-sensory-nerves-alters-gfr%C3%AE-gdnf-family-receptor-alpha-localization-in-sensory-and-autonomic-pathways-of-the-sacral-spinal-cord
#10
Shelley L Forrest, Sophie C Payne, Janet R Keast, Peregrine B Osborne
GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), neurturin and artemin use their co-receptors (GFRα1, GFRα2 and GFRα3, respectively) and the tyrosine kinase Ret for downstream signaling. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) most of the unmyelinated and some myelinated sensory afferents express at least one GFRα. The adult function of these receptors is not completely elucidated but their activity after peripheral nerve injury can facilitate peripheral and central axonal regeneration, recovery of sensation, and sensory hypersensitivity that contributes to pain...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25887464/persistent-visceral-allodynia-in-rats-exposed-to-colorectal-irradiation-is-reversed-by-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-treatment
#11
Christelle Durand, Sophie Pezet, Hélène Eutamène, Christelle Demarquay, Noëlle Mathieu, Lara Moussa, Rachel Daudin, Valérie Holler, Jean-Christophe Sabourin, Fabien Milliat, Agnès François, Vassilia Theodorou, Radia Tamarat, Marc Benderitter, Alexandra Sémont
Each year, millions of people worldwide are treated for primary or recurrent pelvic malignancies, involving radiotherapy in almost 50% of cases. Delayed development of visceral complications after radiotherapy is recognized in cancer survivors. Therapeutic doses of radiation may lead to the damage of healthy tissue around the tumor and abdominal pain. Because of the lack of experimental models, the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced long-lasting visceral pain are still unknown. This makes managing radiation-induced pain difficult, and the therapeutic strategies proposed are mostly inefficient...
August 2015: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25823505/a-modified-nerve-sparing-panhysterectomy-for-benign-uterine-diseases-techniques-and-evaluation-of-postoperative-pelvic-dysfunctions
#12
Liping Chen, Manhua Liu, Xiaoqin Huang, Yanli Zheng, Junjun Qiu, Hongbin Liu
OBJECTIVE: To describe a modified nerve-sparing panhysterectomy and to investigate the feasibility and impact of this nerve-sparing technique in improving postoperative pelvic visceral dysfunctions of benign uterine disease patients. METHODS: From January 2008 to January 2010, a total of 300 patients diagnosed with benign uterine diseases at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University were enrolled. Of those, 150 randomly selected patients underwent modified panhysterectomy (research group), while the other 150 patients underwent conventional panhysterectomy (control group)...
2015: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25749859/axotomy-of-tributaries-of-the-pelvic-and-pudendal-nerves-induces-changes-in-the-neurochemistry-of-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-and-the-spinal-cord
#13
Carly J McCarthy, Eugenia Tomasella, Mariana Malet, Kim B Seroogy, Tomas Hökfelt, Marcelo J Villar, G F Gebhart, Pablo R Brumovsky
Using immunohistochemical techniques, we characterized changes in the expression of several neurochemical markers in lumbar 4-sacral 2 (L4-S2) dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neuron profiles (NPs) and the spinal cord of BALB/c mice after axotomy of the L6 and S1 spinal nerves, major tributaries of the pelvic (targeting pelvic visceral organs) and pudendal (targeting perineum and genitalia) nerves. Sham animals were included. Expression of cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor 3 (ATF3), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT) types 1 and -2 was analysed seven days after injury...
May 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25725351/regeneration-of-sensory-but-not-motor-axons-following-visceral-nerve-injury
#14
Sophie C Payne, Philip J Belleville, Janet R Keast
Following peripheral nerve injury, restoration of function may occur via the regeneration of injured axons or compensatory sprouting of spared axons. Injury to visceral nerves that control urogenital organs is a common consequence of pelvic surgery, however their capacity to reinnervate organs is poorly understood. To determine if and how sensory and motor connections to the bladder are re-established, a novel surgical model of visceral nerve injury was performed unilaterally in adult male Wistar rats. Bladder-projecting motor and sensory neurons in pelvic ganglia and lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia, respectively, were identified and characterised by retrograde tracing and immunofluorescence...
April 2015: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25652923/experimental-and-computational-evidence-for-an-essential-role-of-nav1-6-in-spike-initiation-at-stretch-sensitive-colorectal-afferent-endings
#15
Bin Feng, Yi Zhu, Jun-Ho La, Zachary P Wills, G F Gebhart
Stretch-sensitive afferents comprise ∼33% of the pelvic nerve innervation of mouse colorectum, which are activated by colorectal distension and encode visceral nociception. Stretch-sensitive colorectal afferent endings respond tonically to stepped or ramped colorectal stretch, whereas dissociated colorectal dorsal root ganglion neurons generally fail to spike repetitively upon stepped current stimulation. The present study investigated this difference in the neural encoding characteristics between the soma and afferent ending using pharmacological approaches in an in vitro mouse colon-nerve preparation and complementary computational simulations...
April 1, 2015: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25478264/recurrence-of-pelvic-chondrosarcoma-through-fascial-defect-into-abdominal-cavity
#16
Kemal Gökkuş, Tolgay Akin, Ergin Sagtas, Murat Saylik, Ahmet Turan Aydın
Our patient was a 76-year-old female who has been operated on 2 times in 8 years for pelvic chondrosarcoma. The patient came to our clinic with a large mass in left iliac region which extended into the paravertebral area. Physical examination and preoperative imagining studies revealed a mass at the left iliac area that infiltrated sciatic notch and extended from posterior iliac region towards the anterior side of iliac bone through the sciatic notch and an incisional hernia including descending colon. The mass was also penetrating the abdominal cavity through the hernia...
2014: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25281204/nmda-receptor-mediates-chronic-visceral-pain-induced-by-neonatal-noxious-somatic-stimulation
#17
Adrian Miranda, Aaron Mickle, Mitchell Bruckert, Pradeep Kannampalli, Banani Banerjee, Jyoti N Sengupta
NMDA receptors (NMDAR) are important in the development and maintenance of central sensitization. Our objective was to investigate the role of spinal neurons and NMDAR in the maintenance of chronic visceral pain. Neonatal rats were injected with acidic saline adjusted to pH 4.0 in the gastrocnemius muscle every other day for 12 days. In adult rats, NR1 and NR2B subunits were examined in the lumbo-sacral (LS) spinal cord. A baseline, visceromotor response (VMR) to graded colorectal distension (CRD) was recorded before and after administration of the NMDA antagonist, CGS-19755...
December 5, 2014: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24793788/understanding-bone-safety-zones-during-bone-marrow-aspiration-from-the-iliac-crest-the-sector-rule
#18
Jacques Hernigou, Laure Picard, Alexandra Alves, Jonathan Silvera, Yasuhiro Homma, Philippe Hernigou
PURPOSE: Should the trocar suddenly lose contact with bone during bone marrow aspiration, it may result in visceral injury. The anatomy of the ilium and the structures adjacent to the iliac bone were studied to determine the danger of breach by a trocar introduced into the iliac crest. METHODS: The authors followed two series of patients, one series to do measurements of distance and angles of the structures at risk to the iliac bone and the other to evaluate the risk of a trocar being directed outside the iliac wing during bone marrow aspiration...
November 2014: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24716774/incidence-of-chronic-postsurgical-pain-cpsp-after-general-surgery
#19
Christian J P Simanski, Astrid Althaus, Sascha Hoederath, Kerry W Kreutz, Petra Hoederath, Rolf Lefering, Carolina Pape-Köhler, Edmund A M Neugebauer
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the incidence and determinants of chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) in a general surgical patient population. DESIGN: This is a prospective cross-sectional study at a university-affiliated clinic/level 1 trauma center. Patients were followed at least 1 year postoperatively. By surgical discipline, procedures were 50% orthopedic/trauma, 33% general (abdominal/visceral), and 17% vascular. SETTING: All patients admitted during one year (N = 3020) were eligible...
July 2014: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24621365/large-small-cell-carcinoma-of-anorectal-canal
#20
Leila Ghahramani, Mohammad Mohammadianpanah, Seyed Vahid Hosseini, Masood Hosseinzade, Ahmad Izadpanah, Saba Ebrahimian, Alimohammad Bananzadeh
Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1), also known as Von Recklinghausen disease, is an autosomal dominant disorder with incidence of one per 4000. Neurofibromas are benign, heterogeneous, peripheral nerve sheath tumors coming up from the connective tissue of peripheral nerve sheaths, particularly the endoneurium. Visceral involvement in disseminated neurofibromatosis is considered rare. Neurofibroma occurs most frequently in the stomach and jejunum, but colon and anorectal canal may also be involved. Gastrointestinal neurofibromas may lead to bleeding, obstruction, intussusception, protein-losing enteropathy and bowel perforation...
March 2014: Archives of Iranian Medicine
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