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Visceral nerves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735654/identification-of-cytokine-specific-sensory-neural-signals-by-decoding-murine-vagus-nerve-activity
#1
Theodoros P Zanos, Harold A Silverman, Todd Levy, Tea Tsaava, Emily Battinelli, Peter W Lorraine, Jeffrey M Ashe, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey, Chad E Bouton
The nervous system maintains physiological homeostasis through reflex pathways that modulate organ function. This process begins when changes in the internal milieu (e.g., blood pressure, temperature, or pH) activate visceral sensory neurons that transmit action potentials along the vagus nerve to the brainstem. IL-1β and TNF, inflammatory cytokines produced by immune cells during infection and injury, and other inflammatory mediators have been implicated in activating sensory action potentials in the vagus nerve...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732591/differential-conduction-and-cgrp-release-in-visceral-versus-cutaneous-peripheral-nerves-in-the-mouse
#2
Roberto De Col, Karl Messlinger, Tali Hoffmann
Cutaneous afferent nerves convey sensory information from the external, visceral nerves from the internal environment. The saphenous nerve arising from lumbar dorsal root ganglia and the vagus nerve originating in the nodosum ganglia are prototypic examples of such cutaneous and visceral nerves. Despite a common sensory role, these two nerves have distinct embryonic origin and vary in neuropeptide expression. Because of their distinct physiological roles, it is plausible that they differ also in conductive properties...
May 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719743/ultrasound-guided-erector-spinae-plane-block-in-a-child-undergoing-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#3
David Terence Thomas, Serkan Tulgar
Erector spinae plane block (ESP) is a recently described regional anesthesia technique that leads to the blockage of both visceral and somatic nerve fibers. While there are anecdotal reports of ESP used in children, none are for laparoscopic procedures. Herein we report a child undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in which ESP was used as part of multimodal anesthesia. Ultrasound-guided ESP block is an easily performed peripheral nerve block that leads to long-lasting postoperative analgesia. It can be successfully used in pediatric laparoscopic procedures such as cholecystectomy and should be kept in mind as an option for multimodal analgesia in children...
February 27, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694503/neonatal-tobacco-smoke-reduces-thermogenesis-capacity-in-brown-adipose-tissue-in-adult-rats
#4
T C Peixoto, E G Moura, E Oliveira, V Younes-Rapozo, P N Soares, V S T Rodrigues, T R Santos, N Peixoto-Silva, J C Carvalho, C Calvino, E P S Conceição, D S Guarda, S Claudio-Neto, A C Manhães, P C Lisboa
Maternal smoking is a risk factor for progeny obesity. We have previously shown, in a rat model of neonatal tobacco smoke exposure, a mild increase in food intake and a considerable increase in visceral adiposity in the adult offspring. Males also had secondary hyperthyroidism, while females had only higher T4. Since brown adipose tissue (BAT) hypofunction is related to obesity, here we tested the hypothesis that higher levels of thyroid hormones are not functional in BAT, suggesting a lower metabolic rate...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681988/nervous-system-development-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas-mollusca-bivalvia
#5
Olga V Yurchenko, Olga I Skiteva, Elena E Voronezhskaya, Vyacheslav A Dyachuk
Background: Bivalves comprise a large, highly diverse taxon of invertebrate species. Developmental studies of neurogenesis among species of Bivalvia are limited. Due to a lack of neurogenesis information, it is difficult to infer a ground pattern for Bivalvia. To provide more comprehensive morphogenetic data on bivalve molluscs and relationships among molluscan clades, we investigated neurogenesis in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , from the appearance of the first sensory cells to the formation of the larval ganglionic nervous system by co-immunocytochemistry of the neuronal markers FMRFamide or 5-HT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)...
2018: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673037/sphingosine-1-phosphate-selectively-activates-vagal-afferent-c-fiber-subtype-in-guinea-pig-esophagus
#6
X Yu, M J Patil, M Yu, Y Liu, J Wang, B J Undem, S Yu
BACKGROUND: Activation and sensitization of visceral afferent nerves by inflammatory mediators play important roles in visceral nociception. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid with intracellular and extracellular functions. Extracellularly, it can act as an autacoid via interactions with S1P receptors. The present study aims to determine the effect of S1P on esophageal vagal afferent nerve functions. METHODS: Extracellular single-unit recordings were performed in ex vivo guinea pig esophageal-vagal preparations...
April 19, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663708/the-postmigratory-alar-topography-of-visceral-cranial-nerve-efferents-challenges-the-classical-model-of-hindbrain-columns
#7
Luis Puelles, Petr Tvrdik, Margaret Martínez-de-la-Torre
The classic columnar model of cranial nerve central representation assumes that all motor and sensory hindbrain neurons develop within four radial migration domains, held to be separated by a sulcal alar-basal boundary (sulcus limitans). This essay reviews a number of developmental data that challenge these concepts. These results are interpreted within the framework of present day neuromeric conception of the brainstem (the prosomeric model). Advances in dorsoventral patterning of the spinal cord and hindbrain now show that there exist up to eight alar microzones and five basal microzones (molecularly and histogenetically distinct longitudinal progenitor domains)...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592781/no-requirement-of-interlukine-1-for-long-term-potentiation-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-of-adult-mice
#8
Jing-Shan Lu, Qian Song, Ming-Ming Zhang, Min Zhuo
Background The enhanced expression of cytokines in the pathological states suggests that they have important roles in the initiation or maintenance of disease states. FINDINGS: To determine the involvement of cytokines in chronic neuropathic pain, the expression of cytokines in the anterior cingulate cortex neurons in the ligation of the common peroneal nerve mice was investigated. We utilized a cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plate array to detect 23 cytokines in total eight mice including a female, and no significant differences were found in those cytokines between the common peroneal nerve model and sham surgery mice...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582112/role-of-neurogenic-inflammation-in-local-communication-in-the-visceral-mucosa
#9
REVIEW
Lori A Birder, F Aura Kullmann
Intense research has focused on the involvement of the nervous system in regard to cellular mechanisms underlying neurogenic inflammation in the pelvic viscera. Evidence supports the neural release of inflammatory factors, trophic factors, and neuropeptides in the initiation of inflammation. However, more recently, non-neuronal cells including epithelia, endothelial, mast cells, and paraneurons are likely important participants in nervous system functions. For example, the urinary bladder urothelial cells are emerging as key elements in the detection and transmission of both physiological and nociceptive stimuli in the lower urinary tract...
March 26, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577893/participation-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-in-paclitaxel-induced-acute-visceral-and-peripheral-nociception-in-rodents
#10
Mateus Fortes Rossato, Flavia Karine Rigo, Sara Marchesan Oliveira, Gustavo Petri Guerra, Cássia Regina Silva, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Marcus Vinícius Gomez, Juliano Ferreira, Gabriela Trevisan
The clinical use of paclitaxel as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by the severe acute and chronic hypersensitivity caused when it is administered via intraperitoneal or intravenous routes. Thus far, evidence has suggested that transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) has a key role in the chronic neuropathy induced by paclitaxel. Despite this, the role of TRPV1 in paclitaxel -related acute nociception, especially the development of visceral nociception, has not been evaluated. Thus, the goal of this study was to evaluate the participation of TRPV1 in a model of acute nociception induced by paclitaxel in rats and mice...
March 22, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565953/unique-complications-of-percutaneous-endoscopic-lumbar-discectomy-and-percutaneous-endoscopic-interlaminar-discectomy
#11
Chuanli Zhou, Guoqing Zhang, Ripul R Panchal, Xianfeng Ren, Hongfei Xiang, Ma Xuexiao, Xiaoliang Chen, Gu Tongtong, Wang Hong, Alana D Dixson
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (PED) includes 2 main procedures: percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and percutaneous endoscopic interlaminar discectomy (PEID), both of which are minimally invasive surgical procedures that effectively deal with lumbar degenerative disorders. Because of the challenging learning curve for the surgeon and the individual characteristics of each patient, preventing and avoiding complications is difficult. The most common complications, such as nucleus pulposus omission, nerve root injury, dural tear, visceral injury, nerve root induced hyperalgesia or burning-like nerve root pain, postoperative dysesthesia, posterior neck pain, and surgical site infection, are difficult to avoid; however, more focus on these issues perioperatively may be in order...
March 2018: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559921/nitric-oxide-orchestrates-a-power-law-modulation-of-sympathetic-firing-behaviors-in-neonatal-rat-spinal-cords
#12
Chun-Kuei Su, Yi-Yin Chen, Chiu-Ming Ho
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible gas and has multifarious effects on both pre- and postsynaptic events. As a consequence of complex excitatory and inhibitory integrations, NO effects on neuronal activities are heterogeneous. Using in vitro preparations of neonatal rats that retain the splanchnic sympathetic nerves and the thoracic spinal cord as an experimental model, we report here that either enhancement or attenuation of NO production in the neonatal rat spinal cords could increase, decrease, or not change the spontaneous firing behaviors recorded from splanchnic sympathetic single fibers...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543647/painful-neurotrophins-and-their-role-in-visceral-pain
#13
Ana E López-Pérez, Kulmira Nurgali, Raquel Abalo
Beyond their well-known role in embryonic development of the central and peripheral nervous system, neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, exert an essential role in pain production and sensitization. This has mainly been studied within the framework of somatic pain, and even antibodies (tanezumab and fasinumab) have recently been developed for their use in chronic somatic painful conditions, such as osteoarthritis or low back pain. However, data suggest that neurotrophins also exert an important role in the occurrence of visceral pain and visceral sensitization...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535604/development-of-an-ex-vivo-method-for-multi-unit-recording-of-microbiota-colonic-neural-signaling-in-real-time
#14
Maria M Buckley, Dervla O'Malley
Background and Objectives: Bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining whole-body homeostasis. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates vagal afferent signaling in the modulation of host physiology by microbes, which are most abundant in the colon. This study aims to optimize and advance dissection and recording techniques to facilitate real-time recordings of afferent neural signals originating in the distal colon. New Protocol: This paper describes a dissection technique, which facilitates extracellular electrophysiological recordings from visceral pelvic, spinal and vagal afferent neurons in response to stimulation of the distal colon...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511622/effect-of-a-neural-relay-on-liver-regeneration-in-mice-activation-of-serotonin-release-from-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
Ryosuke Inoue, Kenya Kamimura, Takuro Nagoya, Norihiro Sakai, Takeshi Yokoo, Ryo Goto, Kohei Ogawa, Yoko Shinagawa-Kobayashi, Yukari Watanabe-Mori, Akira Sakamaki, Satoshi Abe, Hiroteru Kamimura, Norio Miyamura, Hiroshi Nishina, Shuji Terai
The development of therapeutic options to promote hepatic regeneration following severe liver injury is essential. While humoral factors have been reported as mechanisms of liver regeneration, the contributions of interorgan communication to liver regeneration have not been reported. In this study, we examined the effect of a neural relay on liver regeneration via activation of serotonin release from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Our results demonstrated that the afferent visceral nerve from the liver activates the efferent vagus nerve from the brain, leading to activation of serotonin release from the GI tract and contributing to liver regeneration...
March 2018: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510808/from-acute-to-chronic-postsurgical-pain-the-significance-of-the-acute-pain-response
#16
Morten Rune Blichfeldt-Eckhardt
The thesis comprises an overview and four papers, all published or submitted for publication in international peer-reviewed scientific journals.
 
Chronic pain after surgery is a common and debilitating complication after many types of surgery. The cause and pathology behind is still mainly uncovered, though several risk factors have been proposed. One of the strongest risk factors for persistent postsurgical pain is the intensity of the acute pain response though the mechanisms involved remain unsettled...
March 2018: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507613/up-regulated-autophagy-as-a-protective-factor-in-adipose-tissue-of-wokw-rats-with-metabolic-syndrome
#17
J Kosacka, M Nowicki, S Paeschke, P Baum, M Blüher, N Klöting
Background: Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W (RT1u) rats (WOKW) are a model of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adipose tissue (AT) and peripheral nerves of WOKW rats exhibit up-regulated autophagy and inflammation corresponding with decreased apoptosis rate. The aim of this study was to characterize AT in WOKW rats in relation to autophagic activity. Methods: mRNA and protein expression of adiponectin, pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic markers including MCP1, TNFα, cleaved caspase-3 and RNF157, a new candidate gene regulated through autophagy, were analyzed in adipocytes isolated from visceral and subcutaneous AT of 5-month old WOKW rats with MetS and LEW...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497113/tolerance-of-chronic-hdaci-treatment-for-neurological-visceral-and-lung-niemann-pick-type-c-disease-in-mice
#18
Md Suhail Alam, Bruce Cooper, Joseph D Farris, Kasturi Haldar
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are of significant interest as drugs. However, their use to treat neurological disorders has raised concern because HDACs are required for brain function. We have previously shown that a triple combination formulation (TCF) of the pan HDACi vorinostat (Vo), 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 improves pharmacokinetic exposure and entry of Vo into the brain. TCF treatment significantly delayed both neurodegeneration and death in the Npc1 nmf164 murine model of Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451205/optical-read-out-and-modulation-of-peripheral-nerve-activity
#19
REVIEW
Arjun K Fontaine, Hans E Anderson, John H Caldwell, Richard F Weir
Numerous clinical and research applications necessitate the ability to interface with peripheral nerve fibers to read and control relevant neural pathways. Visceral organ modulation and rehabilitative prosthesis are two areas which could benefit greatly from improved neural interfacing approaches. Therapeutic neural interfacing, or 'bioelectronic medicine', has potential to affect a broad range of disorders given that all the major organs of the viscera are neurally innervated. However, a better understanding of the neural pathways that underlie function and a means to precisely interface with these fibers are required...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425907/visceral-pain-novel-approaches-for-optogenetic-control-of-spinal-afferents
#20
Nick J Spencer, Tim J Hibberd, Malin Lagerström, Yoichiro Otsuka, Nigel Kelley
Painful stimuli arising within visceral organs are detected by peripheral nerve endings of spinal afferents, whose cell bodies are located in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Recent technical advances have made it possible to reliably expose and inject single DRG with neuronal tracers or viruses in vivo. This has facilitated, for the first time, unequivocal identification of different types of spinal afferent endings in visceral organs. These technical advances paved the way for a very exciting series of in vivo experiments where individual DRG are injected to facilitate opsin expression (e...
February 7, 2018: Brain Research
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