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Visceral nerves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534336/-establishment-of-pelvic-nerve-denervation-modal-in-mice
#1
Huiwen Shi, Yue Tian, Feixiang Dai, Lei Xiao, Zhigang Ke, Weidong Tong
OBJECTIVE: To establishment and verify pelvic nerve denervation (PND) model in mice. METHODS: (1) Establishment of models. Seventy-two healthy male SPE class C57 mice with age of 7 weeks and body weight of (25±1) g were chosen. These 72 mice were randomly divided into PND group containing 36 mice and sham operation group containing 36 mice. Referring to the establishment method of PND rats, after anesthesia, a laparotomy was performed on the mouse with an abdominal median incision...
May 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526575/percutaneous-electrical-nerve-field-stimulation-modulates-central-pain-pathways-and-attenuates-post-inflammatory-visceral-and-somatic-hyperalgesia-in-rats
#2
Reji Babygirija, Manu Sood, Pradeep Kannampalli, Jyoti N Sengupta, Adrian Miranda
A non-invasive, auricular percutaneous electrical nerve field stimulation (PENFS) has been suggested to modulate central pain pathways. We investigated the effects of BRIDGE® device on the responses of amygdala and lumbar spinal neurons and the development of post-colitis hyperalgesia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and PENFS on the same day. Control rats had sham devices. The visceromotor response (VMR) to colon distension and paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was recorded after 7 days...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499738/cognitive-effects-of-subdiaphragmatic-vagal-deafferentation-in-rats
#3
Melanie Klarer, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Myrtha Arnold, Wolfgang Langhans, Urs Meyer
Vagal afferents are a crucial neuronal component of the gut-brain axis and mediate the information flow from the viscera to the central nervous system. Based on the findings provided by experiments involving vagus nerve stimulation, it has been suggested that vagal afferent signaling may influence various cognitive functions such as recognition memory and cognitive flexibility. Here, we examined this hypothesis using a rat model of subdiaphragmatic vagal deafferentation (SDA), the most complete and selective abdominal vagal deafferentation method existing to date...
May 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476920/clinically-styled-vagus-nerve-stimulation-augments-spontaneous-discharge-in-second-and-higher-order-sensory-neurons-in-rat-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#4
Eric Beaumont, Regenia B Phillips Campbell, Michael C Andresen, Stephanie Lc Scofield, Krishna Singh, Imad Libbus, Bruce H KenKnight, Logan Snyder, Nathan Cantrell
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) currently treats patients with drug resistant epilepsy, depression and heart failure. The mild intensities used in chronic VNS suggest that primary visceral afferents and central nervous system activation are involved. Here we measured the activity of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in anesthetized rats using clinically-styled VNS. Our chief findings indicate that VNS at threshold bradycardic intensity activated NTS neuron discharge in one third of NTS neurons...
May 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468001/sensory-neurons-in-the-human-geniculate-ganglion
#5
Tadasu Sato, Yu Yamaguma, Yu Sasaki, Noriyuki Kanda, Nobuyuki Sasahara, Souichi Kokubun, Takehiro Yajima, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
The geniculate ganglion (GG) contains visceral and somatic sensory neurons of the facial nerve. In this study, the number and cell size of sensory neurons in the human GG were investigated. The estimated number of GG neurons ranged from 1,580 to 2,561 (mean ± SD = 1,960 ± 364.6). The cell size of GG neurons ranged from 393.0 to 2,485.4 μm2 (mean ± SD = 1,067.4 ± 99.5 μm2). Sensory neurons in the GG were significantly smaller in size than those in the dorsal root (range = 326.6-5343.4 μm2, mean ± SD = 1,683...
May 4, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467174/nodular-typhlocolitis-heterakiasis-and-mesenchymal-neoplasia-in-a-ring-necked-pheasant-phasianus-colchicus-with-immunohistochemical-characterization-of-visceral-metastases
#6
Lauren Himmel, Rachel Cianciolo
A 9-y-old, male ring-necked pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus) was autopsied following euthanasia because of acute distress, recumbency, and dyspnea. The bird had experienced a protracted period of neuromuscular disease localized to the left sciatic nerve. Gross and histologic examination of the large intestine revealed intramural nodules predominantly comprised of atypical, whorling spindle cells with small cores of granulomatous inflammation centered on cross-sections of immature adult nematodes. The body structures of these metazoan organisms and clinical disease manifestation are consistent with Heterakis isolonche infection...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466969/microscopic-anatomy-of-the-visceral-fasciae
#7
Carla Stecco, Maria Martina Sfriso, Andrea Porzionato, Anna Rambaldo, Giovanna Albertin, Veronica Macchi, Raffaele De Caro
The term 'visceral fascia' is a general term used to describe the fascia lying immediately beneath the mesothelium of the serosa, together with that immediately surrounding the viscera, but there are many types of visceral fasciae. The aim of this paper was to identify the features they have in common and their specialisations. The visceral fascia of the abdomen (corresponding to the connective tissue lying immediately beneath the mesothelium of the parietal peritoneum), thorax (corresponding to the connective tissue lying immediately beneath the mesothelium of the parietal pleura), lung (corresponding to the connective tissue under the mesothelium of the visceral pleura), liver (corresponding to the connective tissue under the mesothelium of the visceral peritoneum), kidney (corresponding to the Gerota fascia), the oesophagus (corresponding to its adventitia) and heart (corresponding to the fibrous layer of the pericardial sac) from eight fresh cadavers were sampled and analysed with histological and immunohistochemical stains to evaluate collagen and elastic components and innervation...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433752/serotonergic-transmission-and-gap-junctional-coupling-in-proventricular-muscle-cells-in-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#8
Ryoichi Yoshimura, Taeko Suetsugu, Yasuhisa Endo
The visceral muscle tissues of insects consist of striated muscle cells. The mechanisms responsible for delivering signals to the contractile muscles in the insect digestive tract remain unclear. We found that serotonergic nerves innervate the hemocoel surfaces of foregut and midgut muscles in the American cockroach. Electron microscopy of the neuromuscular junctions in the proventriculus (gizzard) revealed typical synaptic structures, the accumulation of large core/cored vesicles (neuropeptides) and small clear vesicle (neurotransmitter) at presynapses, and synaptic clefts...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432399/-when-is-surgical-resection-of-metastases-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-indicated-and-is-there-a-scientific-basis
#9
A Heidenreich, P Paffenholz, F Haidl, D Pfister
Surgical resection of metastases represents an integral part of curative management in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCT). Primary nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (nsRPLND) for low volume metastases in clinical stages I-IIB has to be differentiated from the more complex and more extensive postchemotherapeutic procedures. In Europe, primary nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (nsRPLND) for clinical stage I nonseminomatous GCT (NSGCT) plays a subordinate. In clinical stage IIA/B, nsRPLND is indicated for patients with marker-negative metastases in whom cure rates of about 65% can be achieved with surgery alone...
April 21, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428901/microcystic-reticular-schwannoma-of-the-frontal-lobe-an-unusual-occurrence
#10
Lauren Pearson, Erinc Akture, Julien Wonderlick, Gregory Fuller, Maryam Zenali
Schwannoma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor that typically involves cranial nerves of the head and neck region. Intraparenchymal occurrence of this tumor is uncommon. Even rarer in this site is the microcystic/reticular pattern of schwannoma. This histologic variant, first described in 2008, has a predilection for visceral organs. Herein, we report the first case of microcystic/reticular schwannoma of the frontal lobe.
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413456/role-of-stem-cell-growth-factor-c-kit-in-the-pathogenesis-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
Yuna Chai, Yusheng Huang, Hongmei Tang, Xing Tu, Jianbo He, Ting Wang, Qingye Zhang, Fen Xiong, Detang Li, Zhenwen Qiu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease with a complicated etiopathogenesis, often characterized by gastrointestinal motility disorder and high visceral sensitivity. IBS is a comprehensive multi-systemic disorder, with the interaction of multiple factors, such as mental stress, intestinal function and flora, heredity, resulting in the disease. The existence of a common mechanism underlying the aforementioned factors is currently unknown. The lack of therapies that comprehensively address the disease symptoms, including abdominal pain and diarrhea, is a limitation of current IBS management...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411350/acute-appendicitis-somatosensory-disturbances-head-zones-and-the-differential-diagnosis-of-anterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-acnes
#12
Rudi M H Roumen, Wouter Vening, Rosanne Wouda, Marc M Scheltinga
BACKGROUND: Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a neuropathic abdominal wall pain syndrome typically characterized by locally altered skin sensations. On the other hand, visceral disease may also be associated with similar painful and altered skin sensations ("Head zones"). Aim of the study was to determine if patients with acute appendicitis demonstrated somatosensory disturbances in the corresponding right lower quadrant Head zone. METHODS: The presence of somatosensory disturbances such as hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia, altered cool perception, or positive pinch test was determined in 100 patients before and after an appendectomy...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399552/anatomic-relationship-between-right-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-and-cervical-fascia-and-its-application-significance-in-anterior-cervical-spine-surgical-approach
#13
Jianlin Shan, Heng Jiang, Dajiang Ren, Chongwei Wang
STUDY DESIGN: An anatomic study of anterior cervical dissection of 42 embalmed cadavers. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the anatomic relationship between recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and cervical fascia combined with the requirements in anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There has been no systematic research about how to avoid RLN injury in anterior cervical spine surgical approach from the aspect of the anatomic relationship between RLN and cervical fascia...
April 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392009/genitourinary-and-gastrointestinal-co-morbidities-in-children-the-role-of-neural-circuits-in-regulation-of-visceral-function
#14
REVIEW
A P Malykhina, K E Brodie, D T Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common problem in childhood. Lower urinary tract symptoms in children include overactive bladder, voiding postponement, stress incontinence, giggle incontinence, and dysfunctional voiding. Gastrointestinal co-morbidities, including constipation or fecal incontinence, are commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms in children, often reaching 22-34%. This review summarized the potential mechanisms underlying functional lower urinary and gastrointestinal co-morbidities in children...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368924/smarcb1-ini1-loss-in-epithelioid-schwannoma-a-clinicopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-65-cases
#15
Vickie Y Jo, Christopher D M Fletcher
The epithelioid variant of schwannoma is rare, and loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression has been observed in a subset of cases. Our aim was to further define the clinicopathologic features and to evaluate SMARCB1/INI1 deficiency in a large cohort of 65 epithelioid schwannomas diagnosed between 2002 and 2015, which consisted of 32 men and 33 women with median age at diagnosis of 45 years (range, 13 to 75 y). Most tumors arose in the extremities (upper, 20, lower, 15) and trunk (17); 9 were visceral (8 gastrointestinal)...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360118/raising-the-pressure-hemodynamic-effects-of-splanchnic-nerve-stimulation
#16
Marat Fudim, Suraj Yalamuri, J Taylor Herbert, Peter R Liu, Manesh R Patel, Aaron Sandler
A number of cardiovascular and neurological diseases are characterized by a dysregulation of intravascular volume distribution. The veins and arteries of the visceral organs form the so-called splanchnic vascular compartment and are the largest reservoir for intravascular blood. The blood localized in the splanchnic compartment can be mobilized in and out of the compartment via passive compression or active neurohormonal recruitment. We studied the hemodynamic effects of splanchnic nerve stimulation during five cases of Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) in patients with pancreatic cancer...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323640/a-micro-scale-printable-nanoclip-for-electrical-stimulation-and-recording-in-small-nerves
#17
Charles A Lissandrello, Winthrop F Gillis, Jun Shen, Ben W Pearre, Flavia Vitale, Matteo Pasquali, Bradley J Holinski, Daniel J Chew, Alice E White, Timothy J Gardner
OBJECTIVE: The vision of bioelectronic medicine is to treat disease by modulating the signaling of visceral nerves near various end organs. In small animal models, the nerves of interest can have small diameters and limited surgical access. New high-resolution methods for building nerve interfaces are desirable. In this study, we present a novel nerve interface and demonstrate its use for stimulation and recording in small nerves. APPROACH: We design and fabricate micro-scale electrode-laden nanoclips capable of interfacing with nerves as small as 50 µm in diameter...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315267/pharmacological-modulation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-and-the-treatment-of-pain
#18
Manuel Merlos, Javier Burgueño, Enrique Portillo-Salido, Carlos Ramón Plata-Salamán, José Miguel Vela
There is a critical need for new analgesics acting through new mechanisms of action, which could increase the efficacy with respect to existing therapies and reduce their unwanted effects. Current preclinical evidence supports the modulatory role of sigma-1 receptors (σ1R) in nociception, mainly based on the pain-attenuated phenotype of σ1R knockout mice and on the antinociceptive effect exerted by σ1R antagonists on pains of different etiologies. σ1R is highly expressed in different pain areas of the CNS and the periphery (particularly dorsal root ganglia), and interacts and modulates the functionality of different receptors and ion channels ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279620/asystole-during-direct-laryngoscopy-for-vocal-fold-injection-in-a-healthy-patient
#19
Zahrah Taufique, Gregory R Dion, Milan R Amin
OBJECTIVES: This study aims (1) to present a case of asystole during direct laryngoscopy in an otherwise healthy patient at an outpatient surgery center and (2) to review literature on cardiac complications, specifically asystole and bradycardia, during direct laryngoscopy. METHODS: A 67-year-old woman with no prior cardiac history underwent induction with succinylcholine and remifentanil for direct laryngoscopy and vocal fold augmentation. During suspension laryngoscopy, the patient became asystolic, and advanced care life support measures were started...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272292/the-erector-spinae-plane-block-provides-visceral-abdominal-analgesia-in-bariatric-surgery-a-report-of-3-cases
#20
Ki Jinn Chin, Laith Malhas, Anahi Perlas
Postoperative pain after bariatric surgery can be significant and yet difficult to manage. These patients frequently have associated obstructive sleep apnea and are at risk of respiratory depression with opioid analgesia. Abdominal wall blocks such as the subcostal transversus abdominis plane block are not of significant benefit, probably in part because they provide only somatic analgesia. The ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane (ESP) block is a recently described regional anesthetic technique for providing thoracic analgesia when performed at the level of the T5 transverse process...
May 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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