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Visceral nerves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136257/risk-factors-for-pathological-fracture-and-metastatic-epidural-spinal-cord-compression-in-patients-with-spinal-metastases
#1
Catherine S Hibberd, Gerald M Y Quan
Vertebral pathological fracture and metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC) due to metastatic cancer inevitably cause pain, neurological deficit, impaired function, and decreased quality of life and are indications for surgery. In such cases, earlier surgical intervention has the potential to prevent permanent neurological deficit and disability and to maintain function and quality of life. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and evaluate risk factors for pathological fracture and MESCC in patients with spinal metastases...
November 11, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124786/schwann-cell-precursors-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Jorge B Aquino, Romina Sierra
Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) are frequently regarded as neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) found in contact with axons during nerve formation. Nevertheless, cells with SCPs properties can be found up to the adulthood. They are well characterized with regard to both gene expression profile and cellular behavior -for instance, proliferation, migratory capabilities and survival requirements-. They differ in origin regarding their anatomic location: even though most of them are derived from migratory NCCs, there is also contribution of the boundary cap neural crest cells (bNCCs) to the skin and other tissues...
November 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123119/acupuncture-points-can-be-identified-as-cutaneous-neurogenic-inflammatory-spots
#3
Do-Hee Kim, Yeonhee Ryu, Dae Hyun Hahm, Boo Yong Sohn, Insop Shim, O Sang Kwon, Suchan Chang, Young Seob Gwak, Min Sun Kim, Jae Hyo Kim, Bong Hyo Lee, Eun Young Jang, Rongjie Zhao, Jin Mo Chung, Chae Ha Yang, Hee Young Kim
Acupuncture, a traditional medical procedure practised for over 2000 years in Asia, stimulates specific but poorly defined sites called acupoints. To date, no unique anatomical acupoint structures have been found. However, noxious sensory signals from visceral organs produce hypersensitive spots on the skin (neurogenic spots), caused by cutaneous neurogenic inflammation, in the dermatome that overlaps with visceral afferent innervations. Here, we show that an acupoint is one form of neurogenic inflammation on the skin...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122559/constant-hepatic-atp-concentrations-during-prolonged-fasting-and-absence-of-effects-of-cerbomed-nemos-%C3%A2-on-parasympathetic-tone-and-hepatic-energy-metabolism
#4
Sofiya Gancheva, Alessandra Bierwagen, Daniel F Markgraf, Gidon J Bönhof, Kevin G Murphy, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Jesper Lundbom, Dan Ziegler, Michael Roden
OBJECTIVE: Brain insulin-induced improvement in glucose homeostasis has been proposed to be mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. Non-invasive transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) activating afferent branches of the vagus nerve may prevent hyperglycemia in diabetes models. We examined the effects of 14-min taVNS vs sham stimulation by Cerbomed Nemos(®) on glucose metabolism, lipids, and hepatic energy homeostasis in fasted healthy humans (n = 10, age 51 ± 6 yrs, BMI 25...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118201/inflow-of-oxygen-and-glucose-into-brain-tissue-induced-by-intravenous-norepinephrine-relationships-with-central-metabolic-and-peripheral-vascular-responses
#5
R Aaron Bola, Eugene A Kiyatkin
As an essential part of sympathetic activation that prepares the organism for "fight or flight," peripheral norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in regulating cardiac activity and the tone of blood vessels, increasing blood flow to the heart and the brain and decreasing blood flow to the organs not as necessary for immediate survival. To assess whether this effect is applicable to the brain, we used high-speed amperometry to measure the changes in nucleus accumbens (NAc) levels of oxygen and glucose induced by intravenous (iv) injections of NE in awake, freely-moving rats...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114928/a-new-substitute-for-formalin-application-to-embalming-cadavers
#6
Yoshinori Haizuka, Miki Nagase, Satoshi Takashino, Yasushi Kobayashi, Yoshihisa Fujikura, George Matsumura
The development of formalin-free fixatives is an urgent issue in gross anatomy because of the health hazard and the tissue-hardening actions of formalin. We recently identified the fixative, antimicrobial, and preservative effects of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), a precursor of the water-soluble macromolecular polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone, in animal experiments. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether NVP solution can be used as an alternative to formalin in human cadaveric dissection. Twelve donated cadavers were infused with NVP via the femoral and common carotid arteries using a peristaltic pump...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101765/novel-anatomic-mapping-of-pelvic-plexus-at-prostatic-and-periprostatic-region-on-fresh-frozen-cadaveric-setting
#7
Emre Huri, Mustafa F Sargon, Ilkan Tatar, Makbule Cisel Aydin, Mehmet Ezer, Figen Soylemezoglu
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the exact localization of neural pathway and the frequency of nerve fibers, which are located in the pelvic facial layers in the prostate and periprostatic regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used four fresh frozen cadavers in this trial. Anatomical layers of anterior rectus fascia and abdominal rectus muscle were dissected to reach the retropubic area. Prostate, visceral and parietal pelvic fascia, levator ani muscle and puboprostatic ligaments were identified...
November 4, 2017: Urology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089436/protease-mediated-suppression-of-drg-neuron-excitability-by-commensal-bacteria
#8
Jessica L Sessenwein, Corey C Baker, Sabindra Pradhananga, Megan E Maitland, Elaine O Petrof, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Curtis Noordhof, David E Reed, Stephen J Vanner, Alan E Lomax
Peripheral pain signaling reflects a balance of pro and anti-nociceptive influences; the contribution by the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to this balance has received little attention. Disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome are associated with exaggerated visceral nociceptive actions that may involve altered microbial signaling, particularly given the evidence for bacterial dysbiosis. Thus, we tested whether a community of commensal GI bacteria derived from a healthy human donor (microbial ecosystem therapeutics; MET-1) can affect the excitability of male mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066998/somatotopy-in-the-medullary-dorsal-horn-as-a-basis-for-orofacial-reflex-behavior
#9
W Michael Panneton, BingBing Pan, Qi Gan
The somatotopy of the trigeminocervical complex of the rat was defined as a basis for describing circuitry for reflex behaviors directed through the facial motor nucleus. Thus, transganglionic transport of horseradish peroxidase conjugates applied to individual nerves/peripheral receptive fields showed that nerves innervating oropharyngeal structures projected most rostrally, followed by nerves innervating snout, periocular, and then periauricular receptive fields most caudally. Nerves innervating mucosae or glabrous receptive fields terminated densely in laminae I, II, and V of the trigeminocervical complex, while those innervating hairy skin terminated in laminae I-V...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063998/diabetes-mellitus-and-the-colon
#10
REVIEW
Marc S Piper, Richard J Saad
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can affect the structure and function of the colon promoting commonly encountered lower gastrointestinal symptoms such as constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, bloating, and abdominal pain. Specific colonic disorders for which adults with DM are at greater risk include chronic constipation, enteropathic diarrhea, colorectal cancer (CRC), inflammatory bowel disease, microscopic colitis, and Clostridium difficile colitis. Smooth muscle structure and function, density of the interstitial cells of Cajal, and the health and function of the autonomic and enteric nerves of the colon are all potential affected by DM...
December 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057349/clinical-evaluation-of-microendoscopy-assisted-extreme-lateral-interbody-fusion
#11
Tomohide Segawa, Hirohiko Inanami, Hisashi Koga
BACKGROUND: Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has rapidly become a popular operative procedure for lumbar canal stenosis and scoliosis. This approach provides direct access to the lateral aspect of the disc with minimal disruption of spinal structures, including ligaments and muscles. However, it involves risk of injuries to the lumbar nerve plexus, segmental artery and intestinal tract because of the limited surgical field. This study aimed to clarify the benefit of using a microendoscope to prevent these injuries...
September 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053705/vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-pregnant-rats-and-effects-on-inflammatory-markers-in-the-brainstem-of-neonates
#12
Allison Judkins, Rhaya L Johnson, Samuel T Murray, Steven Yellon, Christopher G Wilson
BackgroundVagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) is an FDA-approved method delivering electrical impulses for treatment of depression and epilepsy in adults. The vagus nerve innervates the majority of visceral organs and cervix, but potential impacts of VNS on the progress of pregnancy and the fetus are not well studied.MethodsWe tested the hypothesis that VNS in pregnant dams does not induce inflammatory changes in the cardiorespiratory control regions of the pups' brainstem, potentially impacting the morbidity and mortality of offspring...
October 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052293/butyrate-promotes-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-an-ibs-like-model-via-enteric-glial-cell-derived-nerve-growth-factor
#13
X Long, M Li, L-X Li, Y-Y Sun, W-X Zhang, D-Y Zhao, Y-Q Li
BACKGROUND: Altered visceral sensation is common in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and nerve growth factor (NGF) participates in visceral pain development. Sodium butyrate (NaB) could induce colonic hypersensitivity via peripheral up-regulation of NGF in animals. Enteric glial cells (EGCs) appear to be an important source of NGF. Whether butyrate could induce visceral hypersensitivity via increased EGC-derived NGF is still unknown. METHODS: CRL-2690 cells were used for transcriptome analyses after butyrate treatment...
October 20, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049229/neck-to-shoulder-pain-as-an-unusual-presentation-of-pulmonary-embolism-in-a-patient-with-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-a-case-report
#14
Dong Gyu Lee, Min Cheol Chang
RATIONALE: Information on referred pain can be helpful for diagnosing diseases of the visceral organs. Here, the authors report a patient with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) who had referred pain at the right side from the neck to shoulder, as a presentation of pulmonary embolism (PE). PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old man with complete tetraplegia, due to cervical SCI after C5 and C6 vertebral body fracture, complained of right neck-to-shoulder pain (numerical scale rating: 6)...
October 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988909/detailed-muscular-structure-and-neural-control-anatomy-of%C3%A2-the-levator-ani-muscle-a-study-based-on-female-human%C3%A2-fetuses
#15
Krystel Nyangoh Timoh, David Moszkowicz, Mazen Zaitouna, Cedric Lebacle, Jelena Martinovic, Djibril Diallo, Maud Creze, Vincent Lavoue, Emile Darai, Gérard Benoit, Thomas Bessede
BACKGROUND: Injury to the levator ani muscle or pelvic nerves during pregnancy and vaginal delivery is responsible for pelvic floor dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: We sought to demonstrate the presence of smooth muscular cell areas within the levator ani muscle and describe their localization and innervation. STUDY DESIGN: Five female human fetuses were studied after approval from the French Biomedicine Agency. Specimens were serially sectioned and stained by Masson trichrome and immunostained for striated and smooth muscle, as well as for somatic, adrenergic, cholinergic, and nitriergic nerve fibers...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973941/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-g-csf-signaling-in-spinal-microglia-drives-visceral-sensitization-following-colitis
#16
Lilian Basso, Tamia K Lapointe, Mircea Iftinca, Candace Marsters, Morley D Hollenberg, Deborah M Kurrasch, Christophe Altier
Pain is a main symptom of inflammatory diseases and often persists beyond clinical remission. Although we have a good understanding of the mechanisms of sensitization at the periphery during inflammation, little is known about the mediators that drive central sensitization. Recent reports have identified hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors as important regulators of tumor- and nerve injury-associated pain. Using a mouse model of colitis, we identify the proinflammatory cytokine granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF or Csf-3) as a key mediator of visceral sensitization...
October 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939014/novel-endomorphin-analogs-are-more-potent-and-longer-lasting-analgesics-in-neuropathic-postoperative-inflammatory-and-visceral-pain-relative-to-morphine
#17
Amy K Feehan, Jenny Morgenweck, Xing Zhang, Ariel Amgott-Kwan, James E Zadina
Activation of the mu-opioid receptor provides the gold standard for pain relief, but a majority of opioids used clinically have adverse effects that have contributed to an epidemic of overdose deaths. We recently characterized mu-opioid receptor selective endomorphin (EM) analogs that provide potent antinociception with reduction or absence of a number of side effects of traditionally prescribed opioids including abuse liability, respiratory depression, motor impairment, tolerance, and inflammation [91]. The current study explores the effectiveness of these EM analogs relative to morphine in four major pain models by both intrathecal and intravenous administration in male, Sprague-Dawley rats and male CD-1 mice...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935526/characterization-of-calcium-transients-during-early-embryogenesis-in-ascidians-ciona-robusta-ciona-intestinalis-type-a-and-ciona-savignyi
#18
Taichi Akahoshi, Kohji Hotta, Kotaro Oka
The calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is an important second messenger, and a rapid increase in Ca(2+) level (Ca(2+) transient) is involved in various aspects of embryogenesis. Although Ca(2+) transients play an important role in early developmental stages, little is known about their dynamics throughout embryogenesis. Here, Ca(2+) transients were characterized by visualizing Ca(2+) dynamics in developing chordate embryos using a fluorescent protein-based Ca(2+) indicator, GCaMP6s in combination with finely tuned microscopy...
November 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932012/the-effects-of-abdominal-interferential-current-therapy-on-waist-circumference-and-visceral-fat-distance-in-obese-women
#19
Young-Han Park, Jung-Ho Lee
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m(2). The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Waist circumference was measured in cm using a tape measure with the participant in an upright posture, and the length of visceral fat was measured using a high-resolution, B-mode ultrasound machine...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898265/sigma-1-receptor-regulates-erk-activation-and-promotes-survival-of-optic-nerve-head-astrocytes
#20
Jing Zhao, Barbara A Mysona, Jing Wang, Graydon B Gonsalvez, Sylvia B Smith, Kathryn E Bollinger
The sigma 1 receptor (S1R) is a unique transmembrane protein that has been shown to regulate neuronal differentiation and cellular survival. It is expressed within several cell types throughout the nervous system and visceral organs, including neurons and glia within the eye. S1R ligands are therapeutic targets for diseases ranging from neurodegenerative conditions to neoplastic disorders. However, effects of S1R activation and inhibition within glia cells are not well characterized. Within the eye, the astrocytes at the optic nerve head are crucial to the health and survival of the neurons that send visual information to the brain...
2017: PloS One
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