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Visceral nerves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433752/serotonergic-transmission-and-gap-junctional-coupling-in-proventricular-muscle-cells-in-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#1
Ryoichi Yoshimura, Taeko Suetsugu, Yasuhisa Endo
The visceral muscle tissues of insects consist of striated muscle cells. The mechanisms responsible for delivering signals to the contractile muscles in the insect digestive tract remain unclear. We found that serotonergic nerves innervate the hemocoel surfaces of foregut and midgut muscles in the American cockroach. Electron microscopy of the neuromuscular junctions in the proventriculus (gizzard) revealed typical synaptic structures, the accumulation of large core/cored vesicles (neuropeptides) and small clear vesicle (neurotransmitter) at presynapses, and synaptic clefts...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432399/-when-is-surgical-resection-of-metastases-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumors-indicated-and-is-there-a-scientific-basis
#2
A Heidenreich, P Paffenholz, F Haidl, D Pfister
Surgical resection of metastases represents an integral part of curative management in patients with testicular germ cell tumors (GCT). Primary nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (nsRPLND) for low volume metastases in clinical stages I-IIB has to be differentiated from the more complex and more extensive postchemotherapeutic procedures. In Europe, primary nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (nsRPLND) for clinical stage I nonseminomatous GCT (NSGCT) plays a subordinate. In clinical stage IIA/B, nsRPLND is indicated for patients with marker-negative metastases in whom cure rates of about 65% can be achieved with surgery alone...
April 21, 2017: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428901/microcystic-reticular-schwannoma-of-the-frontal-lobe-an-unusual-occurrence
#3
Lauren Pearson, Erinc Akture, Julien Wonderlick, Gregory Fuller, Maryam Zenali
Schwannoma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor that typically involves cranial nerves of the head and neck region. Intraparenchymal occurrence of this tumor is uncommon. Even rarer in this site is the microcystic/reticular pattern of schwannoma. This histologic variant, first described in 2008, has a predilection for visceral organs. Herein, we report the first case of microcystic/reticular schwannoma of the frontal lobe.
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413456/role-of-stem-cell-growth-factor-c-kit-in-the-pathogenesis-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#4
Yuna Chai, Yusheng Huang, Hongmei Tang, Xing Tu, Jianbo He, Ting Wang, Qingye Zhang, Fen Xiong, Detang Li, Zhenwen Qiu
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease with a complicated etiopathogenesis, often characterized by gastrointestinal motility disorder and high visceral sensitivity. IBS is a comprehensive multi-systemic disorder, with the interaction of multiple factors, such as mental stress, intestinal function and flora, heredity, resulting in the disease. The existence of a common mechanism underlying the aforementioned factors is currently unknown. The lack of therapies that comprehensively address the disease symptoms, including abdominal pain and diarrhea, is a limitation of current IBS management...
April 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411350/acute-appendicitis-somatosensory-disturbances-head-zones-and-the-differential-diagnosis-of-anterior-cutaneous-nerve-entrapment-syndrome-acnes
#5
Rudi M H Roumen, Wouter Vening, Rosanne Wouda, Marc M Scheltinga
BACKGROUND: Anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES) is a neuropathic abdominal wall pain syndrome typically characterized by locally altered skin sensations. On the other hand, visceral disease may also be associated with similar painful and altered skin sensations ("Head zones"). Aim of the study was to determine if patients with acute appendicitis demonstrated somatosensory disturbances in the corresponding right lower quadrant Head zone. METHODS: The presence of somatosensory disturbances such as hyperalgesia, hypoesthesia, altered cool perception, or positive pinch test was determined in 100 patients before and after an appendectomy...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399552/anatomic-relationship-between-right-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-and-cervical-fascia-and-its-application-significance-in-anterior-cervical-spine-surgical-approach
#6
Jianlin Shan, Heng Jiang, Dajiang Ren, Chongwei Wang
STUDY DESIGN: An anatomic study of anterior cervical dissection of 42 embalmed cadavers. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the anatomic relationship between recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and cervical fascia combined with the requirements in anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There has been no systematic research about how to avoid RLN injury in anterior cervical spine surgical approach from the aspect of the anatomic relationship between RLN and cervical fascia...
April 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392009/genitourinary-and-gastrointestinal-co-morbidities-in-children-the-role-of-neural-circuits-in-regulation-of-visceral-function
#7
REVIEW
A P Malykhina, K E Brodie, D T Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) is a common problem in childhood. Lower urinary tract symptoms in children include overactive bladder, voiding postponement, stress incontinence, giggle incontinence, and dysfunctional voiding. Gastrointestinal co-morbidities, including constipation or fecal incontinence, are commonly associated with lower urinary tract (LUT) symptoms in children, often reaching 22-34%. This review summarized the potential mechanisms underlying functional lower urinary and gastrointestinal co-morbidities in children...
June 15, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368924/smarcb1-ini1-loss-in-epithelioid-schwannoma-a-clinicopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-65-cases
#8
Vickie Y Jo, Christopher D M Fletcher
The epithelioid variant of schwannoma is rare, and loss of SMARCB1/INI1 expression has been observed in a subset of cases. Our aim was to further define the clinicopathologic features and to evaluate SMARCB1/INI1 deficiency in a large cohort of 65 epithelioid schwannomas diagnosed between 2002 and 2015, which consisted of 32 men and 33 women with median age at diagnosis of 45 years (range, 13 to 75 y). Most tumors arose in the extremities (upper, 20, lower, 15) and trunk (17); 9 were visceral (8 gastrointestinal)...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360118/raising-the-pressure-hemodynamic-effects-of-splanchnic-nerve-stimulation
#9
Marat Fudim, Suraj Yalamuri, J Taylor Herbert, Peter R Liu, Manesh R Patel, Aaron Sandler
A number of cardiovascular and neurological diseases are characterized by a dysregulation of intravascular volume distribution. The veins and arteries of the visceral organs form the so-called splanchnic vascular compartment and are the largest reservoir for intravascular blood. The blood localized in the splanchnic compartment can be mobilized in and out of the compartment via passive compression or active neurohormonal recruitment. We studied the hemodynamic effects of splanchnic nerve stimulation during five cases of Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) in patients with pancreatic cancer...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323640/a-micro-scale-printable-nanoclip-for-electrical-stimulation-and-recording-in-small-nerves
#10
Charles A Lissandrello, Winthrop F Gillis, Jun Shen, Ben W Pearre, Flavia Vitale, Matteo Pasquali, Bradley J Holinski, Daniel J Chew, Alice E White, Timothy J Gardner
OBJECTIVE: The vision of bioelectronic medicine is to treat disease by modulating the signaling of visceral nerves near various end organs. In small animal models, the nerves of interest can have small diameters and limited surgical access. New high-resolution methods for building nerve interfaces are desirable. In this study, we present a novel nerve interface and demonstrate its use for stimulation and recording in small nerves. APPROACH: We design and fabricate micro-scale electrode-laden nanoclips capable of interfacing with nerves as small as 50 µm in diameter...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315267/pharmacological-modulation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-and-the-treatment-of-pain
#11
Manuel Merlos, Javier Burgueño, Enrique Portillo-Salido, Carlos Ramón Plata-Salamán, José Miguel Vela
There is a critical need for new analgesics acting through new mechanisms of action, which could increase the efficacy with respect to existing therapies and reduce their unwanted effects. Current preclinical evidence supports the modulatory role of sigma-1 receptors (σ1R) in nociception, mainly based on the pain-attenuated phenotype of σ1R knockout mice and on the antinociceptive effect exerted by σ1R antagonists on pains of different etiologies. σ1R is highly expressed in different pain areas of the CNS and the periphery (particularly dorsal root ganglia), and interacts and modulates the functionality of different receptors and ion channels ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279620/asystole-during-direct-laryngoscopy-for-vocal-fold-injection-in-a-healthy-patient
#12
Zahrah Taufique, Gregory R Dion, Milan R Amin
OBJECTIVES: This study aims (1) to present a case of asystole during direct laryngoscopy in an otherwise healthy patient at an outpatient surgery center and (2) to review literature on cardiac complications, specifically asystole and bradycardia, during direct laryngoscopy. METHODS: A 67-year-old woman with no prior cardiac history underwent induction with succinylcholine and remifentanil for direct laryngoscopy and vocal fold augmentation. During suspension laryngoscopy, the patient became asystolic, and advanced care life support measures were started...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272292/the-erector-spinae-plane-block-provides-visceral-abdominal-analgesia-in-bariatric-surgery-a-report-of-3-cases
#13
Ki Jinn Chin, Laith Malhas, Anahi Perlas
Postoperative pain after bariatric surgery can be significant and yet difficult to manage. These patients frequently have associated obstructive sleep apnea and are at risk of respiratory depression with opioid analgesia. Abdominal wall blocks such as the subcostal transversus abdominis plane block are not of significant benefit, probably in part because they provide only somatic analgesia. The ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane (ESP) block is a recently described regional anesthetic technique for providing thoracic analgesia when performed at the level of the T5 transverse process...
May 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270193/cutaneous-neurogenic-inflammation-in-the-sensitized-acupoints-induced-by-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-rats
#14
Wei He, Xiao-Yu Wang, Hong Shi, Wan-Zhu Bai, Bin Cheng, Yang-Shuai Su, Xiao-Chun Yu, Xiang-Hong Jing, Bing Zhu
BACKGROUND: In acupuncture practice, the most important step is to confirm the location of a sensitized acupoint which reflects a diagnosis and can be stimulated with a specialized needle to treat the disease. Abnormal symptoms such as hyperalgesia or allodynia at the sensitized acupoints in patients with visceral disorders are considered to be in relation with referred pain and neurogenic inflammation. Yet, limited study has investigated the cutaneous neurochemical changes of the sensitized acuponits...
March 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269263/a-wireless-system-with-stimulation-and-recording-capabilities-for-interfacing-peripheral-nerves-in-rodents
#15
P Schonle, F Michoud, N Brun, A Guex, S P Lacour, Q Wang, Q Huang
Considerable progress has been made in the last decade in implantable bioelectronic neurosystems. Yet most neural implants are used in acute and tethered experimental conditions. Here, we present a preliminary prototype of a multichannel system for simultaneous peripheral nerve stimulation and neural recording. The system comprises miniaturized electronics with a total volume of less then 1.4cm3 including a 3.7V battery which is expected to last for 94 days of standby operation or 18 hours of continuous recording and stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263869/does-aging-alter-the-molecular-substrate-of-ionotropic-neurotransmitter-receptors-in-the-rostral-ventral-lateral-medulla-a-short-communication
#16
Hitesh N Pawar, Sivasai Balivada, Michael J Kenney
Aging alters sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation, although central mechanisms are not well understood. In young rats the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM) is critically involved in central SNS regulation and RVLM neuronal activity is mediated by a balance of excitatory and inhibitory ionotropic neurotransmitters and receptors, providing the foundation for hypothesizing that with advanced age the molecular substrate of RVLM ionotropic receptors is characterized by upregulated excitatory and downregulated inhibitory receptor subunits...
May 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256032/localization-of-the-5-hydroxytryptamine-4-receptor-in-equine-enteric-neurons-and-extrinsic-sensory-fibers
#17
F Giancola, A M Rambaldi, F Bianco, S Iusco, N Romagnoli, C Tagliavia, C Bombardi, P Clavenzani, R De Giorgio, R Chiocchetti
BACKGROUND: Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating gut motility, visceral sensitivity, and fluid secretion via specific receptors. Among these receptors, 5-HT4 exerts a prominent control on gut motor function. Although the prokinetic effect exerted by 5-HT4 agonists is well known, the cellular sites of 5-HT4 expression remain poorly understood in large mammals, e.g., horses. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of 5-HT4 in the horse intestine and in foals with enteric aganglionosis, reminiscent of human Hirschsprung's disease...
March 3, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243252/neurobiological-mechanism-of-acupuncture-for-relieving-visceral-pain-of-gastrointestinal-origin
#18
REVIEW
Fang Zhang, Luyi Wu, Jimeng Zhao, Tingting Lv, Zhihai Hu, Zhijun Weng, Shuoshuo Wang, Huangan Wu, Huirong Liu
It is currently accepted that the neural transduction pathways of gastrointestinal (GI) visceral pain include the peripheral and central pathways. Existing research on the neurological mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of GI visceral pain has primarily been concerned with the regulation of relevant transduction pathways. The generation of pain involves a series of processes, including energy transduction of stimulatory signals in the sensory nerve endings (signal transduction), subsequent conduction in primary afferent nerve fibers of dorsal root ganglia, and transmission to spinal dorsal horn neurons, the ascending transmission of sensory signals in the central nervous system, and the processing of sensory signals in the cerebral cortex...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227497/a-wireless-system-with-stimulation-and-recording-capabilities-for-interfacing-peripheral-nerves-in-rodents
#19
P Schonle, F Michoud, N Brun, A Guex, S P Lacour, Q Wang, Q Huang, P Schonle, F Michoud, N Brun, A Guex, S P Lacour, Q Wang, Q Huang, N Brun, A Guex, P Schonle, Q Huang, Q Wang, S P Lacour, F Michoud
Considerable progress has been made in the last decade in implantable bioelectronic neurosystems. Yet most neural implants are used in acute and tethered experimental conditions. Here, we present a preliminary prototype of a multichannel system for simultaneous peripheral nerve stimulation and neural recording. The system comprises miniaturized electronics with a total volume of less then 1.4cm(3) including a 3.7V battery which is expected to last for 94 days of standby operation or 18 hours of continuous recording and stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222837/use-of-the-rat-grimace-scale-to-evaluate-neuropathic-pain-in-a-model-of-cervical-radiculopathy
#20
Blythe H Philips, Christine L Weisshaar, Beth A Winkelstein
Although neck and low-back pain are common sources of neuropathic pain with high societal costs, the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is not well-defined. Traditionally, most rodent pain studies rely on evoked reflex-based testing to measure pain. However, these testing methods do not reveal spontaneous pain, particularly early after injury. The rat grimace scale (RGS) for quantifying spontaneous pain has been validated after visceral, incisional, orthopedic, and inflammatory insults but not neuropathic pain...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
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