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Visceral nerves

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323640/a-micro-scale-printable-nanoclip-for-electrical-stimulation-and-recording-in-small-nerves
#1
Charles A Lissandrello, Winthrop F Gillis, Jun Shen, Ben W Pearre, Flavia Vitale, Matteo Pasquali, Bradley J Holinski, Daniel J Chew, Alice E White, Timothy J Gardner
OBJECTIVE: The vision of bioelectronic medicine is to treat disease by modulating the signaling of visceral nerves near various end organs. In small animal models, the nerves of interest can have small diameters and limited surgical access. New high-resolution methods for building nerve interfaces are desirable. In this study, we present a novel nerve interface and demonstrate its use for stimulation and recording in small nerves. APPROACH: We design and fabricate micro-scale electrode-laden nanoclips capable of interfacing with nerves as small as 50 µm in diameter...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315267/pharmacological-modulation-of-the-sigma-1-receptor-and-the-treatment-of-pain
#2
Manuel Merlos, Javier Burgueño, Enrique Portillo-Salido, Carlos Ramón Plata-Salamán, José Miguel Vela
There is a critical need for new analgesics acting through new mechanisms of action, which could increase the efficacy with respect to existing therapies and reduce their unwanted effects. Current preclinical evidence supports the modulatory role of sigma-1 receptors (σ1R) in nociception, mainly based on the pain-attenuated phenotype of σ1R knockout mice and on the antinociceptive effect exerted by σ1R antagonists on pains of different etiologies. σ1R is highly expressed in different pain areas of the CNS and the periphery (particularly dorsal root ganglia), and interacts and modulates the functionality of different receptors and ion channels ...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279620/asystole-during-direct-laryngoscopy-for-vocal-fold-injection-in-a-healthy-patient
#3
Zahrah Taufique, Gregory R Dion, Milan R Amin
OBJECTIVES: This study aims (1) to present a case of asystole during direct laryngoscopy in an otherwise healthy patient at an outpatient surgery center and (2) to review literature on cardiac complications, specifically asystole and bradycardia, during direct laryngoscopy. METHODS: A 67-year-old woman with no prior cardiac history underwent induction with succinylcholine and remifentanil for direct laryngoscopy and vocal fold augmentation. During suspension laryngoscopy, the patient became asystolic, and advanced care life support measures were started...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272292/the-erector-spinae-plane-block-provides-visceral-abdominal-analgesia-in-bariatric-surgery-a-report-of-3-cases
#4
Ki Jinn Chin, Laith Malhas, Anahi Perlas
Postoperative pain after bariatric surgery can be significant and yet difficult to manage. These patients frequently have associated obstructive sleep apnea and are at risk of respiratory depression with opioid analgesia. Abdominal wall blocks such as the subcostal transversus abdominis plane block are not of significant benefit, probably in part because they provide only somatic analgesia. The ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane (ESP) block is a recently described regional anesthetic technique for providing thoracic analgesia when performed at the level of the T5 transverse process...
March 8, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270193/cutaneous-neurogenic-inflammation-in-the-sensitized-acupoints-induced-by-gastric-mucosal-injury-in-rats
#5
Wei He, Xiao-Yu Wang, Hong Shi, Wan-Zhu Bai, Bin Cheng, Yang-Shuai Su, Xiao-Chun Yu, Xiang-Hong Jing, Bing Zhu
BACKGROUND: In acupuncture practice, the most important step is to confirm the location of a sensitized acupoint which reflects a diagnosis and can be stimulated with a specialized needle to treat the disease. Abnormal symptoms such as hyperalgesia or allodynia at the sensitized acupoints in patients with visceral disorders are considered to be in relation with referred pain and neurogenic inflammation. Yet, limited study has investigated the cutaneous neurochemical changes of the sensitized acuponits...
March 7, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269263/a-wireless-system-with-stimulation-and-recording-capabilities-for-interfacing-peripheral-nerves-in-rodents
#6
P Schonle, F Michoud, N Brun, A Guex, S P Lacour, Q Wang, Q Huang
Considerable progress has been made in the last decade in implantable bioelectronic neurosystems. Yet most neural implants are used in acute and tethered experimental conditions. Here, we present a preliminary prototype of a multichannel system for simultaneous peripheral nerve stimulation and neural recording. The system comprises miniaturized electronics with a total volume of less then 1.4cm3 including a 3.7V battery which is expected to last for 94 days of standby operation or 18 hours of continuous recording and stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263869/does-aging-alter-the-molecular-substrate-of-ionotropic-neurotransmitter-receptors-in-the-rostral-ventral-lateral-medulla-a-short-communication
#7
Hitesh N Pawar, Sivasai Balivada, Michael J Kenney
Aging alters sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulation, although central mechanisms are not well understood. In young rats the rostral ventral lateral medulla (RVLM) is critically involved in central SNS regulation and RVLM neuronal activity is mediated by a balance of excitatory and inhibitory ionotropic neurotransmitters and receptors, providing the foundation for hypothesizing that with advanced age the molecular substrate of RVLM ionotropic receptors is characterized by upregulated excitatory and downregulated inhibitory receptor subunits...
March 2, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256032/localization-of-the-5-hydroxytryptamine-4-receptor-in-equine-enteric-neurons-and-extrinsic-sensory-fibers
#8
F Giancola, A M Rambaldi, F Bianco, S Iusco, N Romagnoli, C Tagliavia, C Bombardi, P Clavenzani, R De Giorgio, R Chiocchetti
BACKGROUND: Serotonin plays a pivotal role in regulating gut motility, visceral sensitivity, and fluid secretion via specific receptors. Among these receptors, 5-HT4 exerts a prominent control on gut motor function. Although the prokinetic effect exerted by 5-HT4 agonists is well known, the cellular sites of 5-HT4 expression remain poorly understood in large mammals, e.g., horses. In this study, we evaluated the distribution of 5-HT4 in the horse intestine and in foals with enteric aganglionosis, reminiscent of human Hirschsprung's disease...
March 3, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243252/neurobiological-mechanism-of-acupuncture-for-relieving-visceral-pain-of-gastrointestinal-origin
#9
REVIEW
Fang Zhang, Luyi Wu, Jimeng Zhao, Tingting Lv, Zhihai Hu, Zhijun Weng, Shuoshuo Wang, Huangan Wu, Huirong Liu
It is currently accepted that the neural transduction pathways of gastrointestinal (GI) visceral pain include the peripheral and central pathways. Existing research on the neurological mechanism of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of GI visceral pain has primarily been concerned with the regulation of relevant transduction pathways. The generation of pain involves a series of processes, including energy transduction of stimulatory signals in the sensory nerve endings (signal transduction), subsequent conduction in primary afferent nerve fibers of dorsal root ganglia, and transmission to spinal dorsal horn neurons, the ascending transmission of sensory signals in the central nervous system, and the processing of sensory signals in the cerebral cortex...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227497/a-wireless-system-with-stimulation-and-recording-capabilities-for-interfacing-peripheral-nerves-in-rodents
#10
P Schonle, F Michoud, N Brun, A Guex, S P Lacour, Q Wang, Q Huang, P Schonle, F Michoud, N Brun, A Guex, S P Lacour, Q Wang, Q Huang, N Brun, A Guex, P Schonle, Q Huang, Q Wang, S P Lacour, F Michoud
Considerable progress has been made in the last decade in implantable bioelectronic neurosystems. Yet most neural implants are used in acute and tethered experimental conditions. Here, we present a preliminary prototype of a multichannel system for simultaneous peripheral nerve stimulation and neural recording. The system comprises miniaturized electronics with a total volume of less then 1.4cm(3) including a 3.7V battery which is expected to last for 94 days of standby operation or 18 hours of continuous recording and stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222837/use-of-the-rat-grimace-scale-to-evaluate-neuropathic-pain-in-a-model-of-cervical-radiculopathy
#11
Blythe H Philips, Christine L Weisshaar, Beth A Winkelstein
Although neck and low-back pain are common sources of neuropathic pain with high societal costs, the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain is not well-defined. Traditionally, most rodent pain studies rely on evoked reflex-based testing to measure pain. However, these testing methods do not reveal spontaneous pain, particularly early after injury. The rat grimace scale (RGS) for quantifying spontaneous pain has been validated after visceral, incisional, orthopedic, and inflammatory insults but not neuropathic pain...
February 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215570/cardiac-electrophysiology-of-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Michael Manogue, David S Hirsh, Michael Lloyd
Spinal cord injury is a clinical syndrome encountered frequently in trauma centers and is accompanied by both acute and chronic heart rhythm abnormalities. The injury is characterized by sympathetic nervous system impairment with preservation of parasympathetic output via the vagus nerve. Severe bradycardia in the form of life-threatening sinus arrest or complete heart block may be observed in the acute recovery phase. Therapy for arrhythmias in the acute phase includes atropine, intravenous chronotropes, methylxanthines for the prevention of episodic bradycardia, and pacemaker implantation in severe cases...
February 12, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177520/broad-spectrum-efficacy-with-ly2969822-an-oral-prodrug-of-metabotropic-glutamate-2-3-mglu2-3-receptor-agonist-ly2934747-in-rodent-pain-models
#13
Michael P Johnson, Mark A Muhlhauser, Eric S Nisenbaum, Rosa M A Simmons, Beth M Forster, Kelly L Knopp, Lijuan Yang, Denise Morrow, Dominic L Li, Jeffrey D Kennedy, Steven Swanson, James A Monn
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A body of evidence suggests activation of metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3 ) receptors would be an effective analgesic in chronic pain conditions. Thus, the analgesic properties of a novel mGlu2/3 receptor agonist prodrug were investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: After oral absorption, the prodrug LY2969822 rapidly converts to the brain penetrant, potent, and subtype-selective mGlu2/3 receptor agonist LY2934747. Behavioral assessments of allodynia, hyperalgesia, or nocifensive behaviors in preclinical pain models were determined after administration of LY2969822 of 0...
February 8, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126369/neonatal-bladder-inflammation-induces-long-term-visceral-pain-and-altered-responses-of-spinal-neurons-in-adult-rats
#14
Pradeep Kannampalli, Reji Babygirija, Jiang Zhang, Michael M Poe, Guanguan Li, James M Cook, Reza Shaker, Banani Banerjee, Jyoti N Sengupta
Painful events early in life have been shown to increase the incidence of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome in adulthood. However, the intrinsic mechanism is not well studied. We previously reported that neonatal bladder inflammation causes chronic visceral hypersensitivity along with molecular disruption of spinal GABAergic system in rats. The present study investigates whether these molecular changes affect the integrative function and responses of bladder-sensitive primary afferent and spinal neurons...
March 27, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105664/visceral-and-somatic-pain-modalities-reveal-nav-1-7-independent-visceral-nociceptive-pathways
#15
James R F Hockley, Rafael González-Cano, Sheridan McMurray, Miguel A Tejada-Giraldez, Cian McGuire, Antonio Torres, Anna L Wilbrey, Vincent Cibert-Goton, Francisco R Nieto, Thomas Pitcher, Charles H Knowles, José Manuel Baeyens, John N Wood, Wendy J Winchester, David C Bulmer, Cruz Miguel Cendán, Gordon McMurray
Voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1.7 is required for acute and inflammatory pain in mice and humans but its significance for visceral pain is unknown. Here we examine the role of NaV 1.7 in visceral pain processing and the development of referred hyperalgesia using a conditional nociceptor-specific NaV 1.7 knockout mouse (NaV 1.7(Nav1.8) ) and selective small-molecule NaV 1.7 antagonist PF-5198007. NaV 1.7(Nav1.8) mice showed normal nociceptive behaviours to intracolonic application of either capsaicin or mustard oil, stimuli known to evoke sustained nociceptor activity and sensitization following tissue damage, respectively...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096305/epithelial-expression-and-function-of-trypsin-3-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#16
Claire Rolland-Fourcade, Alexandre Denadai-Souza, Carla Cirillo, Cintya Lopez, Josue Obed Jaramillo, Cleo Desormeaux, Nicolas Cenac, Jean-Paul Motta, Muriel Larauche, Yvette Taché, Pieter Vanden Berghe, Michel Neunlist, Emmanuel Coron, Sylvain Kirzin, Guillaume Portier, Delphine Bonnet, Laurent Alric, Stephen Vanner, Celine Deraison, Nathalie Vergnolle
OBJECTIVES: Proteases are key mediators of pain and altered enteric neuronal signalling, although the types and sources of these important intestinal mediators are unknown. We hypothesised that intestinal epithelium is a major source of trypsin-like activity in patients with IBS and this activity signals to primary afferent and enteric nerves and induces visceral hypersensitivity. DESIGN: Trypsin-like activity was determined in tissues from patients with IBS and in supernatants of Caco-2 cells stimulated or not...
January 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079757/pathogenesis-of-abdominal-pain-in-bowel-obstruction-role-of-mechanical-stress-induced-upregulation-of-nerve-growth-factor-in-gut-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
You-Min Lin, Yu Fu, John Winston, Ravi Radhakrishnan, Sushil K Sarna, Li-Yen M Huang, Xuan-Zheng Shi
Abdominal pain is one of the major symptoms in bowel obstruction (BO); its cellular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that mechanical stress in obstruction upregulates expression of nociception mediator nerve growth factor (NGF) in gut smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and NGF sensitizes primary sensory nerve to contribute to pain in BO. Partial colon obstruction was induced with a silicon band implanted in the distal bowel of Sprague-Dawley rats. Colon-projecting sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (T13 to L2) were identified for patch-clamp and gene expression studies...
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074518/editorial-increased-expression-of-nerve-growth-factor-correlates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-impaired-gut-barrier-function-in-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-authors-reply
#18
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074514/editorial-increased-expression-of-nerve-growth-factor-correlates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-and-impaired-gut-barrier-function-in-diarrhoea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#19
EDITORIAL
S M P Bennet, H Törnblom
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059627/structural-and-functional-alterations-in-the-colonic-microbiome-of-the-rat-in-a-model-of-stress-induced-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Nicolaas H Fourie, Dan Wang, Sarah K Abey, Amy L Creekmore, Shuangsong Hong, Christiana G Martin, John W Wiley, Wendy A Henderson
Stress is known to perturb the microbiome and exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) associated symptoms. Characterizing structural and functional changes in the microbiome is necessary to understand how alterations affect the biomolecular environment of the gut in IBS. Repeated water avoidance (WA) stress was used to induce IBS-like symptoms in rats. The colon-mucosa associated microbiome was characterized in 13 stressed and control animals by 16S sequencing. In silico analysis of the functional domains of microbial communities was done by inferring metagenomic profiles from 16S data...
January 2, 2017: Gut Microbes
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