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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907315/maternal-risk-factors-and-perinatal-characteristics-of-anorectal-malformations
#1
Anna Svenningsson, Anna Gunnarsdottir, Tomas Wester
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess maternal risk factors and perinatal characteristics of patients with anorectal malformations (ARM) in Sweden. METHODS: Population-based case-control study including all patients with ARM born in Sweden 1973-2014. Patients were identified from the Swedish National Patient Register, and data on possible maternal risk factors and perinatal characteristics were obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. The association between study variables and ARM was analyzed using conditional logistic regression...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904493/esophageal-lung-with-rare-associated-vascular-and-anorectal-malformations
#2
Ali Alsaadi, Hamdi A Alsufiani, Mohammad D Allugmani, Altaf Hussain Gora
Esophageal lung is a rare communicating bronchopulmonary foregut malformation in which the main bronchus arising from the trachea is absent. The affected lung is usually hypoplastic and aerated via an anomalous airway originating from the esophagus. Other anomalies such as esophageal atresia with tracheoesophageal fistula or VACTERL (vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomalies, and limb abnormalities) association can co-exist. The initial radiographic findings may be normal, but subsequent imaging usually shows progressive and recurrent lung collapse, probably because of recurrent aspiration through the anomalous airway and poor compliance of the affected lung during breathing...
April 2018: Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29895889/dual-therapy-with-liraglutide-and-ghrelin-promotes-brain-and-peripheral-energy-metabolism-in-the-r6-2-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#3
Ana I Duarte, Marie Sjögren, Maria S Santos, Catarina R Oliveira, Paula I Moreira, Maria Björkqvist
Neuronal loss alongside altered energy metabolism, are key features of Huntington's disease (HD) pathology. The orexigenic gut-peptide hormone ghrelin is known to stimulate appetite and affect whole body energy metabolism. Liraglutide is an efficient anti-type 2 diabetes incretin drug, with neuroprotective effects alongside anorectic properties. Combining liraglutide with the orexigenic peptide ghrelin may potentially promote brain/cognitive function in HD. The R6/2 mouse model of HD exhibits progressive central pathology, weight loss, deranged glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle atrophy and altered body composition...
June 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894766/prion-like-propagation-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-gut-brain-axis
#4
REVIEW
Ying Chen, Qianhang Shao, Yu-He Yuan, Nai-Hong Chen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive degenerative disease of the nervous system, which is characterized by movement disorders, such as static tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia in advanced patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction, such as gastric dysmotility, constipation, and anorectic dysfunction, is common non-motor symptom in the early stage of PD. The progression of PD includes the degenerative loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and aggregation of α-synuclein in the substantia nigra (SN). Interestingly, both of them are also present in the enteric nervous system (ENS) of PD patients...
June 9, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893516/stool-patterns-and-symptoms-of-disordered-anorectal-function-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#5
Paweł W Petryszyn, Leszek Paradowski
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) typically clinically manifest with symptoms like chronic diarrhea, cramps, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding. However, symptoms of abnormal anorectal function seem to be of equal importance, regardless of the presence or absence of perianal disease. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess stool patterns and the prevalence of symptoms of disordered anorectal function, particularly urgency and fecal incontinence, and their severity in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)...
June 12, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889076/anorectal-dysfunction-in-presymptomatic-mutation-carriers-and-patients-with-huntington-s-disease
#6
Jan Kobal, Kolenc Matej, Matic Koželj, Simon Podnar
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) patients often report anorectal dysfunction; however, in HD research no detailed analysis of these complaints has been published. OBJECTIVE: To report anorectal dysfunction in a systematically studied cohort of HD subjects. METHODS: In 54 HD patients (24 men) and 10 presymptomatic HD mutation carriers (2 men) and in 99 controls (44 men) a history of anal incontinence and constipation was obtained and data was compared accordingly...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888969/the-influence-of-endorectal-filling-on-rectal-cancer-staging-with-mri
#7
Rutger Stijns, Tom Wj Scheenen, Johannes Hw de Wilt, Jurgen J Fütterer, Regina Gh Beets-Tan
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of endorectal filling (EF) on rectal cancer staging. METHODS: Forty-seven patients who underwent a staging MRI of rectal cancer in the period from 2011 to 2014 were included. The MRI protocol included T2 W FSE sequences without and with EF at 3 Tesla (EF-MRI). Images were scored by 2 readers for T stage, distance of the lower pole of the tumour to the anorectal junction, distance to the mesorectal fascia (MRF), number of (suspicious) lymph nodes Agreement in T-staging was calculated using the Cohen's kappa value...
June 11, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888718/surgical-management-of-anorectal-foreign-bodies
#8
H Cinar, M Berkesoglu, M Derebey, E Karadeniz, C Yildirim, K Karabulut, T Kesicioglu, K Erzurumlu
Purpose: Anorectal foreign bodies (AFBs) inserted into anus constitute one of the most important problems needing surgical emergency due to its complications. We describe our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of AFBs retained in the rectosigmoid colon. Materials and Methods: Between the years 2006 and 2015, a total of 11 patients diagnosed with AFBs were admitted to an emergency room and general surgery clinics. They were diagnosed and treated in four different hospitals in four different cities in Turkey...
June 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888243/high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-new-insights-in-the-diagnostic-assessment-of-functional-anorectal-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Henriette Heinrich, Benjamin Misselwitz
Functional anorectal disorders such as faecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain, and functional defecation disorders (FDD) are highly prevalent and represent a high socioeconomic burden. Several tests of anorectal function exist in this setting; however, high-resolution anorectal manometry (HR-ARM) is a new tool that depicts pressure all along the anal canal and can assess rectoanal coordination. HR-ARM is used in the diagnosis of FI and especially FDD although data in health is still sparse, and pressure phenomena seen during simulated defecation, such as dyssynergia, are highly prevalent in health...
April 2018: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29888242/before-and-after-anorectal-surgery-which-information-is-needed-from-the-functional-laboratory
#10
REVIEW
Maria Witte, Frank Schwandner, Ernst Klar
Background: Anorectal surgery covers a wide spectrum of surgery. Diagnostic workup of anorectal disease is based on clinical examination with basic functional tests followed by more elaborate diagnostic tests. Since the incidence of anorectal disorders increases with age, more patients will present in outpatient clinics, thus underlining the relevance of this topic. Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed using the terms 'anal incontinence', 'anal and rectal surgery', 'functional diagnostics', and combinations of these terms...
April 2018: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885783/acute-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-sudanese-patients-a-study-on-301-patients-in-a-specialized-centre
#11
Nassir Alhaboob Arabi, Abdulmagid Mohammed Musaad, Fatima Abbas Habiballah Mohammed, Elsaggad Eltayeb Ahmed, Muataz Salah Eldin Abdelaziz
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding originates from a site distal to the ligament of Treitz. It can present as an acute life-threatening or chronicbleeding. It is common among older patients and those with comorbidity. The common causes are diverticular disease, angiodysplasias, neoplasms, colitis, ischaemia and anorectal disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding among Sudanese patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a period of 2 years we studied 301 patients with fresh rectal bleeding out of 5625 patients with gastrointestinal bleeding in Ibn Sina Specialized Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan, This is a cross sectional observational hospital based study...
June 6, 2018: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879763/evaluation-of-153-asymptomatic-subjects-using-the-anopress-portable-anal-manometry-device
#12
Cosimo Alex Leo, Emanuel Cavazzoni, Gregory P Thomas, Jonathan Hodgkison, Jamie Murphy, Carolynne J Vaizey
Background/Aims: The Anopress device is a new portable manometry system. The aim of this study is to formulate normative data using this new device by recording the anorectal function of asymptomatic subjects. Patient comfort was also assessed. Methods: Anorectal function was assessed in asymptomatic volunteers using the Anopress. All volunteers were examined in a standardized way in accordance with the study protocol. Normative values for the Anopress were obtained from the recorded data and patient comfort was assessed using a visual analogue scale...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879762/anorectal-manometry-in-defecatory-disorder-a-comparative-analysis-of-high-resolution-pressure-topography-and-waveform-manometry
#13
Yeong Yeh Lee, Askin Erdogan, Siegfried Yu, Annie Dewitt, Satish S C Rao
Background/Aims: Whether high-resolution anorectal pressure topography (HRPT), having better fidelity and spatio-temporal resolution is comparable to waveform manometry (WM) in the diagnosis and characterization of defecatory disorders (DD) is not known. Methods: Patients with chronic constipation (Rome III) were evaluated for DD with HRPT and WM during bearing-down "on-bed" without inflated rectal balloon and "on-commode (toilet)" with 60-mL inflated rectal balloon...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29876881/cocaine-blocks-effects-of-hunger-hormone-ghrelin-via-interaction-with-neuronal-sigma-1-receptors
#14
David Aguinaga, Mireia Medrano, Arnau Cordomí, Mireia Jiménez-Rosés, Edgar Angelats, Mireia Casanovas, Ignacio Vega-Quiroga, Enric I Canela, Milos Petrovic, Katia Gysling, Leonardo Pardo, Rafael Franco, Gemma Navarro
Despite ancient knowledge on cocaine appetite-suppressant action, the molecular basis of such fact remains unknown. Addiction/eating disorders (e.g., binge eating, anorexia, bulimia) share a central control involving reward circuits. However, we here show that the sigma-1 receptor (σ1 R) mediates cocaine anorectic effects by interacting in neurons with growth/hormone/secretagogue (ghrelin) receptors. Cocaine increases colocalization of σ1 R and GHS-R1a at the cell surface. Moreover, in transfected HEK-293T and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and in primary neuronal cultures, pretreatment with cocaine or a σ1 R agonist inhibited ghrelin-mediated signaling, in a similar manner as the GHS-R1a antagonist YIL-781...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872118/clinical-measurement-of-gastrointestinal-motility-and-function-who-when-and-which-test
#15
REVIEW
Mark R Fox, Peter J Kahrilas, Sabine Roman, C Prakash Gyawali, S Mark Scott, Satish S Rao, Jutta Keller, Michael Camilleri
Symptoms related to abnormal gastrointestinal motility and function are common. Oropharyngeal and oesophageal dysphagia, heartburn, bloating, abdominal pain and alterations in bowel habits are among the most frequent reasons for seeking medical attention from internists or general practitioners and are also common reasons for referral to gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons. However, the nonspecific nature of gastrointestinal symptoms, the absence of a definitive diagnosis on routine investigations (such as endoscopy, radiology or blood tests) and the lack of specific treatments make disease management challenging...
June 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871700/duration-taken-for-the-anal-sphincter-pressures-to-stabilize-prior-to-anorectal-manometry
#16
Dakshitha Praneeth Wickramasinghe, Umesh Jayarajah, Dharmabandhu Nandadeva Samarasekera
OBJECTIVES: Anorectal manometry (ARM) is an integral part of evaluating the anal sphincter function. The current recommendation of waiting for 5 min (lead-in-time) prior to beginning the recording has no evidence. A prolonged procedure may reduce patient compliance. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 100 consecutive patients who underwent 3-dimensional ARM at a single center. Their pressure studies were analyzed in consecutive 10-s segments, beginning from the time of insertion of the probe into the anal canal...
June 5, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869694/laparoscopic-assisted-divided-colostomy-for-anorectal-malformation-case-series-a-description-of-technique-clinical-outcomes-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
Saurabh Saxena, Mitchell Gibbons, Kaveer Chatoorgoon, Gustavo A Villalona
OBJECTIVE: To present a case series of pediatric patients who underwent a laparoscopic-assisted divided colostomy for anorectal malformations, describe our technique, and provide a review of the literature on laparoscopic-assisted colostomy in pediatric patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of six patients born with anorectal malformations, who received a laparoscopic-assisted colostomy from 2012 to 2016 at Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866502/uniting-gdf15-and-gfral-therapeutic-opportunities-in-obesity-and-beyond
#18
REVIEW
Shannon E Mullican, Shamina M Rangwala
Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) is a circulating protein that has been implicated in multiple biological processes, including energy homeostasis, body weight regulation, and cachexia driven by cancer and chronic disease. The potential to target GDF15 in the treatment of energy-intake disorders, including obesity and anorexia, is an area of intense investigation, but has been limited by the lack of an identified receptor, signaling mechanism, and target tissue. GDNF family receptor α-like (GFRAL) was recently identified as the neuronal brainstem receptor responsible for mediating the anorectic actions of GDF15...
June 1, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858669/extended-pelvic-resection-for-rectal-and-anal-canal-tumors-is-a-significant-risk-factor-for-perineal-wound-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Ken Imaizumi, Yuji Nishizawa, Koji Ikeda, Yuichiro Tsukada, Takeshi Sasaki, Masaaki Ito
PURPOSE: Perineal wound infection (PWI) rates are high after abdominoperineal resection (APR) and total pelvic exenteration (TPE). This study identified risk factors for PWI after surgery for anorectal tumors and examined the relationship between the surgical excision volume with the PWI degree. METHODS: A retrospective review involving 135 patients who underwent surgical excision of anorectal tumors was performed. Superficial PWI included cellulitis and superficial dehiscence; deep PWI included major dehiscence, perineal abscess, and presacral abscess...
June 1, 2018: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851787/rectal-inclusion-cyst-as-a-complication-of-stapled-hemorrhoidopexy-a-case-report
#20
Liancheng Liu, Yuru Zhang, Hongyan Duan, Yue Su, Fang Xiong, Shan Jia
RATIONALE: Stapled hemorrhoidopexy is gaining popularity for prolapsing hemorrhoids. However, like any other operation, there is always the potential risk of complications. Rectal inclusion cysts are rare complications that results from the potential space in the staple line. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 49-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of anorectal pain and fever complaints after stapled hemorrhoidopexy. The endoanal ultrasonography showed unclear fluid containing a cystic lesion circuit to the rectum at the staple line...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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