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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241540/lateral-hypothalamic-neurotensin-neurons-orchestrate-dual-weight-loss-behaviors-via-distinct-mechanisms
#1
Hillary L Woodworth, Bethany G Beekly, Hannah M Batchelor, Raluca Bugescu, Patricia Perez-Bonilla, Laura E Schroeder, Gina M Leinninger
The central mechanism by which neurotensin (Nts) potentiates weight loss has remained elusive. We leveraged chemogenetics to reveal that Nts-expressing neurons of the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) promote weight loss in mice by increasing volitional activity and restraining food intake. Intriguingly, these dual weight loss behaviors are mediated by distinct signaling pathways: Nts action via NtsR1 is essential for the anorectic effect of the LHA Nts circuit, but not for regulation of locomotor or drinking behavior...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240786/time-trend-analysis-2009-2016-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolated-in-italy-following-the-introduction-of-the-combined-antimicrobial-therapy
#2
Paola Stefanelli, Maria Fenicia Vescio, Maria Paola Landini, Ivano Dal Conte, Alberto Matteelli, Antonio Cristaudo, Marina Gaino, Marco Cusini, Anna Maria Barbui, Antonella Mencacci, Rosella De Nittis, Valeria Ghisetti, Elena Stroppiana, Anna Carannante
INTRODUCTION: Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) antimicrobial susceptibility trends to azithromycin, cefixime and ceftriaxone were analyzed, from 2009 to 2016, to monitor changing antimicrobial susceptibility concomitant with the change in prescribing practice in 2012 from cefixime, or ceftriaxone, to ceftriaxone plus azithromycin. Patient characteristics predictive to be infected by antibiotic resistant N. gonorrhoeae were estimated. Finally, the protocol for the treatment of gonorrhoea, in comparison with the international guidelines, was also evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239347/chronic-constipation
#3
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Alexander C Ford, Gary M Mawe, Phil G Dinning, Satish S Rao, William D Chey, Magnus Simrén, Anthony Lembo, Tonia M Young-Fadok, Lin Chang
Chronic constipation is a prevalent condition that severely impacts the quality of life of those affected. Several types of primary chronic constipation, which show substantial overlap, have been described, including normal-transit constipation, rectal evacuation disorders and slow-transit constipation. Diagnosis of primary chronic constipation involves a multistep process initiated by the exclusion of 'alarm' features (for example, unintentional weight loss or rectal bleeding) that might indicate organic diseases (such as polyps or tumours) and a therapeutic trial with first-line treatments such as dietary changes, lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter laxatives...
December 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237507/epidemiologic-analysis-of-families-with-isolated-anorectal-malformations-suggests-high-prevalence-of-autosomal-dominant-inheritance
#4
Gabriel C Dworschak, Nadine Zwink, Eberhard Schmiedeke, Kiarasch Mortazawi, Stefanie Märzheuser, Konrad Reinshagen, Johannes Leonhardt, Barbara Gómez, Patrick Volk, Anke Rißmann, Ekkehart Jenetzky, Heiko Reutter
BACKGROUND: Anorectal malformations (ARM) are rare abnormalities that occur in approximately 1 in 3000 live births with around 40% of patients presenting with isolated forms. Multiple familial cases reported, suggest underlying genetic factors that remain largely unknown. The recurrence in relatives is considered rare, however transmission rates of ARM by affected parents have never been determined before. The inheritance pattern of ARM was investigated in our database of patients with isolated ARM...
December 13, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237130/laparoscopic-appendicostomy-low-profile-balloon-button-for-antegrade-enemas-in-children
#5
David F Grabski, Yinin Hu, Sara K Rasmussen, Eugene D McGahren, Jeffrey W Gander
INTRODUCTION: The Malone appendicostomy is a continent channel used for antegrade enemas. It requires daily cannulation and is susceptible to stenosis. We use an indwelling low-profile balloon button tube inserted through the appendix into the cecum for antegrade enemas. We hypothesized that this method is effective at managing constipation or fecal incontinence and is associated with a low rate of stenosis. METHODS: Children who underwent laparoscopic appendicostomy balloon button placement at our institution from January 2011 to April 2017 were identified...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231549/-mechanism-of-acupoint-transcutaneous-electric-stimulation-on-analgesic-anesthesia-in-the-patients-undergoing-general-anesthesia-anorectal-operation
#6
Yufang Lin, Wei Yang, Yajuan Li, Yin Li, Qiuyu Tong, Wen Ma, Yijing Li, Weidong Shen
OBJECTIVE: To observe the regulatory effects of acupoint electric stimulation on the analgesic substances and the relevant indices of nerve-immunity-endocrine system in the patients undergoing general anesthesia anorectal operation. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-six patients undergoing hemorrhoids and anal fistula operation were randomized into three groups, 146 cases were included in the analysis. In the No.1 group (48 cases), the conventional intravenous general anesthesia was applied...
July 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229485/the-position-of-the-anal-dimple-in-newborns-and-infants-with-anorectal-malformations-and-its-correlation-with-the-normal-anal-position
#7
Jigar N Patel, Amit Kumar, Partap Singh Yadav, Rajiv Chadha, Vikram Datta, Subhasis Roy Choudhury
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The anal position index (API) defines the normal anal position as the ratio of fourchette-anal distance to fourchette-coccyx distance for females and the scrotum-anal distance to scrotum-coccyx distance for males. In this study, measurement of the API in newborns and infants with anorectal malformations (ARM), using the center of the midline anal dimple (AD) to represent the center of the proposed neoanus, was performed to assess whether or not the AD was located in a significantly abnormal position as correlated with the normal anal position...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223545/the-bowel-function-and-quality-of-life-of-hirschsprung-disease-patients-who-have-reached-18-years-of-age-or-older-the-long-term-outcomes-after-undergoing-the-transabdominal-soave-procedure
#8
Shun Onishi, Kazuhiko Nakame, Tatsuru Kaji, Masato Kawano, Tomoe Moriguchi, Koshiro Sugita, Keisuke Yano, Mioko Nomura, Koji Yamada, Waka Yamada, Ryuta Masuya, Takafumi Kawano, Seiro Machigashira, Motoi Mukai, Satoshi Ieiri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Hirschsprung disease (HD) is considered curable, but the postoperative bowel function is not always satisfactory. In this study, we evaluated the general condition, bowel function, and social performance in adults who were older than 17years of age who had undergone definitive operations in childhood. METHOD: From 1984 to 2016, 110 patients with HD underwent definitive surgery at our institute. Sixty-three patients who had undergone the transabdominal Soave procedure reached 18years of age...
December 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223119/bio-fabrication-of-silver-nanoparticles-as-an-effective-wound-healing-agent-in-the-wound-care-after-anorectal-surgery
#9
Yating Wang, Yinghong Qiao, Pei Wang, Qiang Li, Chaofeng Xia, Man Ju
Nowadays biological mediated syntheses of metal nanoparticles were utilized for various life caring applications. Our research group utilized Delonix elata leaf aqueous extract for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further the synthesized silver nanoparticles were subjected for various characterization techniques which resulted in spherically agglomerated with biological components entrapped in it and also with average particle size of 36nm were studied and reported. Later the synthesized silver nanoparticles were subjected for wound healing property by size of measured lessions and body weight which results in better wound healing property were studied and discussed...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217941/intestinal-obstruction-in-early-neonatal-period-a-3-year-review-of-admitted-cases-from-a-tertiary-hospital-in-ethiopia
#10
Mustefa Mohammed, Tadesse Amezene, Moges Tamirat
Background: Failure to pass meconium by a full-term neonate within the first 24 hours should raise a suspicion of bowel obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine pattern of presentation, diagnosis and outcome of management of intestinal obstruction in the early neonatal period in the Neonatal Care Unit of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Retrospective chart review of admitted cases from January 2011 to December 2013 was done...
July 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215475/an-effective-bundled-approach-reduces-surgical-site-infections-in-a-high-outlier-colorectal-unit
#11
Emre Gorgun, Ahmet Rencuzogullari, Volkan Ozben, Luca Stocchi, Thomas Fraser, Cigdem Benlice, Tracy Hull
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections are the most common hospital-acquired infection after colorectal surgery, increasing morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of preventive measures on colorectal surgical site infection rates in a high-volume institution that performs inherent high-risk procedures. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a high-volume, specialized colorectal surgery department...
January 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212617/diagnostic-role-of-anal-sphincter-relaxation-integral-in-high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-for-hirschsprung-disease-in-infants
#12
Jia-Feng Wu, Cheng-Hsun Lu, Chia-Hsiang Yang, I-Jung Tsai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible diagnostic role of anal sphincter relaxation integral (ASRI) in high-resolution anorectal manometry (HRAM) for Hirschsprung disease. STUDY DESIGN: We performed conventional anorectal manometry (ARM) in 24 infants (8 with Hirschsprung disease and 16 without Hirschsprung disease) and HRAM in another 21 infants (9 with Hirschsprung disease and 12 without Hirschsprung disease) before and after October 2014. All infants underwent rectal suction biopsy for confirmation of Hirschsprung disease...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207721/anorectal-melanoma-an-unusual-cause-of-rectal-bleeding
#13
Uma Kumar, Udita Singhal
Anorectum is a rare site for primary melanoma. It is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. The diagnosis is often delayed due to non-specific signs and symptoms. Clinically, it is often misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids. The cytological diagnosis can be challenging especially when melanin pigment is sparse or absent. Herein, we present a rare case of anorectal melanoma which was initially misdiagnosed as hemorrhoids. A final correct diagnosis was made on cytology when later on the patient developed inguinal metastasis...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207625/stanniocalcin2-acts-as-an-anorectic-factor-through-activation-of-stat3-pathway
#14
Yang Jiao, Jiejie Zhao, Guojun Shi, Xing Liu, Xuelian Xiong, Xiaoying Li, Huijie Zhang, Qinyun Ma, Yan Lu
The regulation of food intake and body weight has been hotly investigated. In the present study, we show that stanniocalcin2 (STC2), a cytokine ubiquitously expressed and especially upregulated in many types of human cancers, has a regulatory role in food intake and weight loss. Systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with recombinant STC2 protein resulted in decreased food intake and body weight, whereas energy expenditure was not affected. Similarly, STC2 treatment also induced anorexia in hyperphagic leptin-deficient mice, leading to a significant reduction in body weight and improvement of blood glucose levels...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205700/perineal-lipoma-with-anorectal-malformation-report-of-two-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Naoki Hashizume, Kimio Asagiri, Suguru Fukahori, Naoko Komatsuzaki, Minoru Yagi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205150/a-pragmatic-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-stapled-haemorrhoidopexy-with-traditional-excisional-surgery-for-haemorrhoidal-disease-the-ethos-study
#16
Angus Jm Watson, Jonathan Cook, Jemma Hudson, Mary Kilonzo, Jessica Wood, Hanne Bruhn, Steven Brown, Brian Buckley, Finlay Curran, David Jayne, Malcolm Loudon, Ramesh Rajagopal, Alison McDonald, John Norrie
BACKGROUND: Haemorrhoids are a benign anorectal condition and are highly prevalent in the UK population. Treatments involve clinic-based procedures and surgery. The surgical procedures available include stapled haemorrhoidopexy (SH) and traditional haemorrhoidectomy (TH), and over 25,000 operations are performed for haemorrhoids annually in the UK. The disease is therefore important both to patients and to health service commissioners. Debate remains as to which of these surgical procedures is the most clinically effective and cost-effective...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203997/perianal-paget-s-disease-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-current-diagnosis-and-management
#17
Chintamani Godbole, Jyoti Mehta, Bijoy Methil, Reshma Palep, Prajesh Bhuta
Paget's disease is an intraepithelial adenocarcinoma arising from the apocrine gland component of the skin. Paget's disease is most common in the breast but extra mammary disease is also seen. Perianal Paget's disease is a rare form of extramammary disease with few cases reported in literature. It can be primary-arising from the skin or secondary-cutaneous metastases of anorectal or genitourinary malignancy. We hereby wish to report a case of perianal Paget's disease that presented as an eczematous lesion and was diagnosed incidentally on biopsy...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198537/healthcare-utilization-and-comorbidities-associated-with-anorectal-malformations-in-the-united-states
#18
Karlo Kovacic, Sravan R Matta, Katja Kovacic, Casey Calkins, Ke Yan, Manu R Sood
OBJECTIVE: To determine nationwide prevalence and healthcare utilization in children with anorectal malformations and associated anomalies over a 6-year period. STUDY DESIGN: We used the Kids' Inpatient Database for the years 2006, 2009, and 2012 for data collection. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes were used to identify patients with anorectal malformations and associated anomalies. RESULTS: A total of 2396 children <2 years of age with anorectal malformations were identified using weighted analysis; 54...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184917/surgical-approach-to-anorectal-melanoma-with-pet-ct-staging-a-case-report
#19
Nilufer Bulut, Sevinc Dagıstanlı, Burcak Yılmaz, O Faruk Atay
Rectal hemorrhage should be evaluated within a wide spectrum ranging from benign diseases to a malignant process. Especially, the melanomas of rectum are detected at an advanced stage when diagnosed since the present symptoms of rectal melanomas are similar. The question of what will be the surgical approach with MR, CT, and PET-CT imaging methods performed after histopathological diagnosis still conserves its topicality. PET-CT is a good imaging method for determination of distant metastasis and lymphatic involvement...
October 2017: Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179287/interest-of-anorectal-manometry-during-long-term-follow-up-of-patients-operated-on-for-hirschsprung-s-disease
#20
Viet Q Tran, Tania Mahler, Patrick Bontems, Dinh Q Truong, Annie Robert, Philippe Goyens, Henri Steyaert
Background/Aims: Although many advances in the management of Hirschsprung's disease have recently been achieved, postoperative outcomes of these patients remain difficult in a non-negligible number of cases. Therefore, this study aims at investigating characteristics of anorectal manometry and its relationship with postoperative outcomes during long-term follow-up in Hirschsprung patients. Methods: Patients over 4 years of age operated on for Hirschsprung's disease were interviewed to complete detailed questionnaires on bowel function...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
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