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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027878/are-prophylactic-antibiotic-agents-indicated-in-anorectal-surgery-for-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#1
Shaivi A Patel, Robert J Kucejko, Edward A Fazendin, Juan L Poggio
BACKGROUND: With increased survival among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), surgeons have been seeing more cases of anal dysplasia and cancer. There is, however, no data on the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in HIV-positive patients undergoing elective anorectal procedures, nor on the administration of prophylactic antibiotic agents. We reviewed a HIV-positive population that has undergone elective anorectal biopsy of areas of dysplasia observed on office anoscopy to assess the need for antibiotic prophylaxis...
October 13, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027581/unusual-case-of-coronal-complete-bladder-duplication-associated-with-rectoprostatic-fistula-to-duplicated-prostatic-urethra
#2
Jennifer Y Lam, Steven R Lopushinsky, Kyle C Kurek, Paul Beaudry
Anorectal malformations are a common congenital anomaly, while bladder duplication is rare. Bladder duplications are classified as complete or incomplete and sagittal or coronal. We present a rare case of coronal complete bladder duplication with rectoprostatic fistula to the blind ending prostatic urethra of the duplicated bladder.
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022787/does-a-missed-obstetric-anal-sphincter-injury-at-time-of-delivery-affect-short-term-functional-outcome
#3
L Ramage, C Yen, S Qiu, C Simillis, C Kontovounisios, E Tan, P Tekkis
Introduction This study aimed to ascertain whether missed obstetric anal sphincter injury at delivery had worse functional and quality of life outcomes than primary repair immediately following delivery. Materials and methods Two to one propensity matching was undertaken of patients presenting to a tertiary pelvic floor unit with ultrasound evidence of missed obstetric anal sphincter injury within 24 months of delivery with patients who underwent primary repair at the time of delivery by parity, grade of injury and time to assessment...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022390/randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-on-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-improvement-in-symptoms-and-bowel-habit-in-functional-constipation
#4
G Riezzo, A Orlando, B D'Attoma, M Linsalata, M Martulli, F Russo
Dysbiosis may contribute to constipation and its symptoms, therefore probiotic administration could improve significantly gut health and functions. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a long-lasting administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR DSM 17938) on symptoms and quality of life (QoL) score in patients with functional constipation (FC). 56 FC patients with normal colonic transit time and without anorectal disorders and pelvic floor dysfunctions completed the study. LR DSM 17938 was administered for 105 days in a randomised double-blind clinical trial (28 patients per arm)...
October 12, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021649/follow-up-urodynamics-in-patients-with-neurogenic-bladder
#5
REVIEW
Sanjay Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Neurogenic bladder patients are at long-term risk of secondary upper urinary tract damage. Symptoms are unreliable and follow-up urodynamics is the only method of ascertaining safety of bladder pressures. This review examines the recommendations, shortcomings and utilization of existing guidelines. The evidence with regard to follow-up urodynamics in different settings relevant to neurogenic bladder is evaluated and an algorithm is proposed. METHODS: A pubmed search was conducted for studies on follow-up urodynamics in patients with neurogenic bladder...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021080/substantial-increase-in-yield-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-testing-2008-2013-at-a-sydney-metropolitan-sexual-health-clinic-an-observational-study
#6
Preethi Rajagopal, Sian L Goddard, David J Templeton
Background: A substantial increase in gonorrhoea notifications in New South Wales has been observed in recent years. Methods: We assessed yield of testing and characteristics of those diagnosed with gonorrhoea from January 2008 to December 2013 at RPA Sexual Health in the inner-west of Sydney. Yield was defined as the proportion of testing occasions which were positive for gonorrhoea. Generalised estimating equations were used to calculate trends in yield over time. Results: During the 6-year study period, 6456 individuals (4308 males, 2124 females, 24 transgender individuals) were tested on 12799 occasions; this included 2441 gay and bisexual men (GBM) who were tested on 6945 occasions...
October 12, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019984/transitional-basal-cells-at-the-squamous-columnar-junction-generate-barrett-s-oesophagus
#7
Ming Jiang, Haiyan Li, Yongchun Zhang, Ying Yang, Rong Lu, Kuancan Liu, Sijie Lin, Xiaopeng Lan, Haikun Wang, Han Wu, Jian Zhu, Zhongren Zhou, Jianming Xu, Dong-Kee Lee, Lanjing Zhang, Yuan-Cho Lee, Jingsong Yuan, Julian A Abrams, Timothy C Wang, Antonia R Sepulveda, Qi Wu, Huaiyong Chen, Xin Sun, Junjun She, Xiaoxin Chen, Jianwen Que
In several organ systems, the transitional zone between different types of epithelium is a hotspot for pre-neoplastic metaplasia and malignancy, but the cells of origin for these metaplastic epithelia and subsequent malignancies remain unknown. In the case of Barrett's oesophagus, intestinal metaplasia occurs at the gastro-oesophageal junction, where stratified squamous epithelium transitions into simple columnar cells. On the basis of a number of experimental models, several alternative cell types have been proposed as the source of this metaplasia but in all cases the evidence is inconclusive: no model completely mimics Barrett's oesophagus in terms of the presence of intestinal goblet cells...
October 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994873/anal-imperforation-in-adults-diagnostic-difficulties-and-therapeutic-options
#8
Houcine Maghrebi, Rachid Ksantini, Amin Makni, Helmi Slama, Meriem Jrad, Amine Daghfous, Wael Rebai, Fadhel Fteriche, Faouzi Chebbi, Mohamed Jouini, Kacem Montassar, Zoubeir Ben Safta
Anorectal malformations are congenital anomalies ranging from simple perineal fistulas to complex malformations. They are usually treated inchildhood, and exceptionally in adult. We herein report the case of a 22 years aged patient and relate the diagnosis difficulties and therapeuticoptions. She consulted for anal imperforation discovered since birth. Initially, His parents refused the surgical management. It was an analimperforation with a vestibular fistula. The patient was operated by a low approach. She had a disconnection of the recto-vestibular fistula,dissection of the anal canal and a perineal posterior transposition...
November 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993364/durable-complete-remission-with-combination-chemotherapy-and-bortezomib-in-hiv-associated-plasmablastic-lymphoma
#9
Nivedita Arora, Arjun Gupta, Navid Sadeghi
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) classically seen in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus, but can also be seen in other immunocompromised states such as transplant recipients, autoimmune diseases and the elderly. PBL is generally associated with a poor prognosis despite chemotherapy. There is evidence supporting the use of bortezomib in combination with standard chemotherapy to achieve durable responses in patients with PBL. We describe a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who presented with rectal pain and bright red blood per rectum...
October 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993257/fecobionics-integrating-anorectal-function-measurements
#10
Hans Gregersen, Klaus Krogh, Donghua Liao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991855/cancer-risk-in-2621-chinese-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Jacqueline So, Whitney Tang, Wai Keung Leung, Michael Li, Fu Hang Lo, Marc T L Wong, Alex Shun Fung Sze, Chi Man Leung, Steven Woon Choy Tsang, Edwin Hok Shing Shan, Kam Hon Chan, Belsy C Y Lam, Aric J Hui, Wai Hung Chow, Tsz Yiu Lam, Vernon Lam, Tsz Wai Lee, Harris Ho Him Lo, Ching Man Tang, Cheuk Lau Wong, Justin C Y Wu, Francis K L Chan, Joseph J Y Sung, Marcus Harbord, Siew C Ng
BACKGROUND: Studies on cancer risk in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a population-based study to determine the risk of cancer in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Using a territory-wide IBD registry in Hong Kong, we identified 2621 patients with IBD and no history of cancer from 1990 to 2016. We followed them from diagnosis until either September 2016, cancer development, proctocolectomy, or death...
October 6, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991555/a-63-year-old-woman-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-pulmonary-hypertension-with-worsening-hypoxemia
#12
Udit Chaddha, Ioan Puscas, Ashley Prosper, Sivagini Ganesh, Bassam Yaghmour
A 63-year-old woman with a history of neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF-1) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) thought to be secondary to the NF-1 presented with a few weeks of worsening dyspnea on exertion. She took no medications other than sildenafil for her pulmonary hypertension (PH). She denied tobacco, alcohol, and illicit or anorectic drug use. She had previously worked as a waitress. Her mother and her brother had NF-1 but no PH or lung disease.
October 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991086/bowel-dysfunction-related-to-spina-bifida-keep-it-simple
#13
Charlène Brochard, Benoît Peyronnet, Anne Dariel, Hélène Ménard, Andréa Manunta, Alain Ropert, Michel Neunlist, Guillaume Bouguen, Laurent Siproudhis
BACKGROUND: Although care of urological disorders in spina bifida is well established, there is yet no agreement on a standardized approach to bowel dysfunction in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess bowel dysfunction using validated instruments and the risk factors in adults with spina bifida. DESIGN: A multidisciplinary team prospectively collected patient data, focusing on anorectal and urological symptoms...
November 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988906/fluorinated-phenmetrazine-legal-highs-act-as-substrates-for-high-affinity-monoamine-transporters-of-the-slc6-family
#14
REVIEW
Felix P Mayer, Nadine V Burchardt, Ann M Decker, John S Partilla, Yang Li, Gavin McLaughlin, Pierce V Kavanagh, Walter Sandtner, Bruce E Blough, Simon D Brandt, Michael H Baumann, Harald H Sitte
A variety of new psychoactive substances (NPS) are appearing in recreational drug markets worldwide. NPS are compounds that target various receptors and transporters in the central nervous system to achieve their psychoactive effects. Chemical modifications of existing drugs can generate NPS that are not controlled by current legislation, thereby providing legal alternatives to controlled substances such as cocaine or amphetamine. Recently, 3-fluorophenmetrazine (3-FPM), a derivative of the anorectic compound phenmetrazine, appeared on the recreational drug market and adverse clinical effects have been reported...
October 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983458/a-rare-association-of-anorectal-malformation-with-bladder-agenesis-bilateral-ectopic-ureter-and-left-pelviureteric-junction-obstruction
#15
Müslim Yurtçu, Alaeddin Dilsiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Urology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975535/spatiotemporal-expression-of-proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin-type-5-in-the-development-of-anorectal-malformations-in-fetal-rats
#16
Xiao Bing Tang, Li Chen, Wei Lin Wang, Zheng Wei Yuan, Yu Zuo Bai
This study examined the expression patterns of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 5 (Pcsk5) during anorectal development in normal and anorectal malformations (ARM) rat embryos, determine the possible role of Pcsk5 in the pathogenesis of ARM. An ARM rat model was developed by the administration of ethylenethiourea gestational day 10 (GD10). Embryos were harvested by surgical excision from GD13 to GD16, and the spatiotemporal expression of Pcsk5 was evaluated, using immunohistochemistry staining, Western blotting and real time RT-PCR...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970346/changes-in-the-levels-and-phosphorylation-status-of-akt-ampk-creb-and-foxo1-in-hypothalamus-of-rainbow-trout-under-conditions-of-enhanced-glucosensing-activity
#17
Cristina Otero-Rodiño, Cristina Velasco, Rosa Álvarez-Otero, Marcos A López-Patiño, Jesús M Míguez, José L Soengas
There is no available information in fish about mechanisms linking glucosensing activation and changes in the expression of brain neuropeptides controlling food intake. Therefore, we assessed in rainbow trout hypothalamus the effects of raised levels of glucose on the levels and phosphorylation status of two transcription factors, FoxO1 and CREB, possibly involved in linking those processes. Moreover, we also aimed to assess the changes in the levels and phosphorylation status of two proteins possibly involved in the modulation of these transcription factors such as Akt and AMPK...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965348/adulteration-of-proprietary-chinese-medicines-and-health-products-with-undeclared-drugs-experience-of-a-tertiary-toxicology-laboratory-in-hong-kong
#18
Chor Kwan Ching, Sammy Pak Lam Chen, Hencher Han Chih Lee, Ying Hoo Lam, Sau Wah Ng, Mo Lung Chen, Magdalene Huen Yin Tang, Suzanne Suk San Chan, Candy Wai Yan Ng, Jana Wing Lan Cheung, Tina Yee Ching Chan, Nike Kwai Cheung Lau, Yeow Kuan Chong, Tony Wing Lai Mak
AIMS: Proprietary Chinese medicines (pCMs) and health products, generally believed to be natural and safe, are gaining popularity worldwide. However, the safety of pCMs and health products has been severely compromised by the practice of adulteration. The current study aimed to examine the problem of adulteration of pCMs and health products in Hong Kong. METHODS: The present study was conducted in a tertiary referral clinical toxicology laboratory in Hong Kong. All cases involving the use of pCMs or health products, which were subsequently confirmed to contain undeclared adulterants, from 2005 to 2015 were reviewed retrospectively...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964791/gut-satiety-hormones-cholecystokinin-and-glucagon-like-peptide-17-36-amide-mediate-anorexia-induction-by-trichothecenes-t-2-toxin-ht-2-toxin-diacetoxyscirpenol-and-neosolaniol
#19
Jie Zhang, Shengli Liu, Hua Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Wenda Wu, Haibin Zhang
The food-borne trichothecene mycotoxins have been documented to cause human and animal food poisoning. Anorexia is a hallmark of the trichothecene mycotoxins-induced adverse effects. Type B trichothecenes have been previously demonstrated to elicit robust anorectic responses, and this response has been directly linked to secretion of the gut satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-17-36 amide (GLP-1). However, less is known about the anorectic effects and underlying mechanisms of the type A trichothecenes, including T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), neosolaniol (NEO)...
September 28, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951737/efficacy-and-predictors-for-biofeedback-therapeutic-outcome-in-patients-with-dyssynergic-defecation
#20
Ting Yu, Xiaoxue Shen, Miaomiao Li, Meifeng Wang, Lin Lin
AIM: To evaluate the short-term efficacy of biofeedback therapy (BFT) for dyssynergic defecation (DD) and to explore the predictors of the efficacy of BFT. METHODS: Clinical symptoms, psychological state, and quality of life of patients before and after BFT were investigated. All patients underwent lifestyle survey and anorectal physiology tests before BFT. Improvement in symptom scores was considered proof of clinical efficacy of BFT. Thirty-eight factors that could influence the efficacy of BFT were studied...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
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