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Donato Giuseppe Leo, Wei Yee Leong, Tina Gambling, Andrew Long, Rebecca Murphy, Helen Jones, Daniel Christopher Perry
BACKGROUND: Perthes' disease is an idiopathic osteonecrosis of a developmental hip that is most frequent in Northern Europe. Currently, the absence of a common set of standardised outcomes makes comparisons between studies of different interventions challenging. This study aims to summarise the outcomes used in clinical research of interventions for Perthes' disease and define a set of core outcomes (COS) to ensure that the variables of primary importance are measured and reported in future research studies investigating Perthes' disease...
July 13, 2018: Trials
Rodrigo Marín-Navarrete, Aldebarán Toledo-Fernández, Luis Villalobos-Gallegos, Alejandro Pérez-López, María Elena Medina-Mora
BACKGROUND: Inhalant use disorder (IUD) is associated with deficits in executive functions (EFs). We described latent profiles of EFs and distribution of neuropsychiatric disorders and patterns of severity of use across these profiles. METHODS: Individuals with IUD were recruited at community-based residential facilities for substance use treatment in Mexico City. Latent profile analysis was conducted with the following tasks: self-ordered pointing, Stroop, Iowa gambling, Wisconsin Card Sorting and Tower of Hanoi...
July 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Jia Yuin Fam
The inclusion of "Internet gaming disorder (IGD)" in the fifth edition of Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) creates a possible line of research. Despite the fact that adolescents are vulnerable to IGD, studies had reported wide array of prevalence estimates in this population. The aim of this paper is to review the published studies on prevalence of IGD among adolescents. Relevant studies prior to March 2017 were identified through databases. A total of 16 studies met the inclusion criteria...
July 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Jose Ramón Alameda-Bailén, Pilar Salguero-Alcañiz, Ana Merchán-Clavellino, Susana Paíno-Quesada
Objective: Cannabis, like other substances, negatively affects health, inducing respiratory problems and mental and cognitive alterations. Memory and learning disorders, as well as executive dysfunctions, are also neuropsychological disorders associated to cannabis use. Recent evidence reveals that cannabis use during adolescence may disrupt the normal development of the brain. This study is aimed to analyze possible differences between early-onset and late-onset cannabis consumers. Method: We used a task based on a card game with four decks and different programs of gains/losses...
2018: PeerJ
Sean D A Abel, Sumit Dadhwal, Allan B Gamble, Sarah K Baird
Honey has been shown to have a range of therapeutic effects in humans, with anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects among those previously characterised. Here, we examine the possibility of New Zealand thyme, manuka and honeydew honeys, and their major sugar and phenolic components, reducing the development of metastatic cancer. Their activity was examined in vitro , in PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines, through measuring the compounds' effects on the metastatic characteristics of migration, invasion and adhesion...
2018: PeerJ
Sara Simblett, Ben Greer, Faith Matcham, Hannah Curtis, Ashley Polhemus, José Ferrão, Peter Gamble, Til Wykes
BACKGROUND: Remote measurement technology refers to the use of mobile health technology to track and measure change in health status in real time as part of a person's everyday life. With accurate measurement, remote measurement technology offers the opportunity to augment health care by providing personalized, precise, and preemptive interventions that support insight into patterns of health-related behavior and self-management. However, for successful implementation, users need to be engaged in its use...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Tara Elton-Marshall, Rochelle Wijesingha, Taryn Sendzik, Steven E Mock, Mark van der Maas, John McCready, Robert E Mann, Nigel E Turner
ABSTRACTOlder adults represent the highest proportion of gamblers (Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation [OLG], 2012). Unpartnered older adults may be more socially isolated and lonely (Dykstra & de Jong Gierveld, 2004), thus more likely to be at risk for problem gambling (McQuade & Gill, 2012). We examined whether gambling to socialize or from loneliness and going to the casino with friends/family mediate the relation between marital status and problem gambling. Data from a random sample of older adults at gambling venues across Southwestern Ontario indicated that gambling with family/friends and gambling due to loneliness mediated the relationship between marital status and problem gambling...
July 13, 2018: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Juliette Tobias-Webb, Rebecca L Griggs, Nataly Kaufman, Luke Clark
Experimental studies examining the relationship between alcohol use and gambling have focused predominantly on alcohol's influence on gambling behavior. There has been little consideration of the reverse pathway: whether gambling influences subsequent alcohol use. Two experiments examined whether gambling and gambling outcomes (i.e. profits during a gambling session) influenced subsequent alcohol consumption. Experiment 1 (n = 53) used an ad libitum consumption test, in which participants could request beverages during a 30 min window...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Jawad M Khalifeh, Zohny Zohny, Paul Gamble, Matthew MacEwan, Wilson Z Ray
Pseudarthrosis is an exceedingly common, costly, and morbid complication in the treatment of long bone fractures and after spinal fusion surgery. Electrical bone growth stimulation (EBGS) presents a unique approach to accelerate healing and promote fusion success rates. Over the past three decades, increased experience and widespread use of EBGS devices has led to significant improvements in stimulation paradigms and clinical outcomes. In this article, we comprehensively review the literature and examine the history, scientific evidence, available technology, and clinical applications for EBGS...
January 30, 2018: IEEE Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
N Courtier, S Gaze, J Armes, A Smith, L Radley, J Armytage, M Simmonds, A Johnson, T Gambling, J Hopkinson
Background: Fatigue is rated as the most distressing side effect of radiotherapy treatment for curable breast cancer. About four in ten women treated experience fatigue, which can last for years after treatment. The impact of this debilitating tiredness is loss of independence and impaired physical and mental function. Our study will take a behavioural intervention with demonstrated effect in treating fatigue in a mixed group of chemotherapy patients and adapt it for women undergoing radiotherapy for early breast cancer...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Chris Barkus, Jacqueline-Marie N Ferland, Wendy K Adams, Grant C Churchill, Philip J Cowen, David M Bannerman, Robert D Rogers, Catharine A Winstanley, Trevor Sharp
BACKGROUND: Deficits in impulse control feature in many psychiatric conditions including bipolar disorder, suicidality and addictions. Lithium lowers impulsivity in clinical populations and decreases pathological gambling in experimental medicine studies, but suffers from adverse effects, poor compliance and a low therapeutic index. AIMS: Recently we identified that the neuroprotective agent ebselen, which is reportedly safe in humans, inhibited inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), a candidate lithium mechanism...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Concetta De Pasquale, Carmela Dinaro, Federica Sciacca
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to investigate the prevalence of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) among Italian university students and (b) to explore the associations between the former and dissociative phenomena. The sample included 221 college students, 93 males and 128 females, aged between 18 and 25 ( M  = 21.56; SD = 1.42). They were asked to state their favourite games choice and were administered a demographic questionnaire, the APA symptom checklist based on the diagnostic criteria of IGD in the DSM-5, the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale Short Form (IGD9-SF) and the Italian version of dissociative experience scale for adolescents and young adults...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Catherine Anne Grandy, Jennifer R Donnan, Justin T Peddle, Kristen Romme, Satpyul Kim, John-Michael Gamble
Objective: To identify and describe clinical drug data sources that have the potential to serve as a repository of information for developing drug knowledge translation products. Methods: Two reviewers independently screened citations from PubMed and Embase, websites from the web search engine Google, and references from selected journals. Publicly licensed or non-proprietary data sources containing clinical drug information accessible in a machine-readable format were eligible...
July 3, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Per Binde, Ulla Romild
This study investigated the negative influence of gambling advertising, that is, gambling more often or for more money than intended. We analyzed data from wave four of the Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs), in which the self-perceived negative influence of gambling advertising was measured by responses to three survey questions. Few gamblers reported having been negatively influenced by gambling advertising. Among those who reported such influence, problem gamblers were overrepresented. Those who had set limits for their gambling reported a negative influence from advertising more often than others, which likely was caused by a perception that advertising is detrimental to efforts to cut down on excessive gambling...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Anne Black, Tamsin McGlinchey, Maureen Gambles, John Ellershaw, Catriona Rachel Mayland
BACKGROUND: There is limited understanding of the 'lived experience' of palliative care patient within the acute care setting. Failing to engage with and understand the views of patients and those close to them, has fundamental consequences for future health delivery. Understanding 'patient experience' can enable care providers to ensure services are responsive and adaptive to individual patient need. METHODS: The aim of this study was to explore the 'lived experience' of a group of patients with palliative care needs who had recently been in-patients in one acute hospital trust in the north-west of England...
July 6, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Xiuli Chen, Robb B Rutledge, Harriet R Brown, Raymond J Dolan, Sven Bestmann, Joseph M Galea
Motor decision-making is an essential component of everyday life which requires weighing potential rewards and punishments against the probability of successfully executing an action. To achieve this, humans rely on two key mechanisms; a flexible, instrumental, value-dependent process and a hardwired, Pavlovian, value-independent process. In economic decision-making, age-related decline in risk taking is explained by reduced Pavlovian biases that promote action toward reward. Although healthy ageing has also been associated with decreased risk-taking in motor decision-making, it is currently unknown whether this is a result of changes in Pavlovian biases, instrumental processes or a combination of both...
July 6, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Ty W Lostutter, Matthew Enkema, Frank Schwebel, Jessica M Cronce, Lisa A Garberson, Bobby Ou, Melissa A Lewis, Mary E Larimer
Today's college students have grown up with legalized gambling and access to a variety of gambling venues. Compared to the general adult population, rates of disordered gambling among college students are nearly double. Previous research suggests that the desire to win money is a strong motivator to gamble (Neighbors et al. in J Gambl Stud 18:361-370, 2002a); however, there is a dearth of literature on attitudes towards money in relation to gambling behavior. The current study evaluated the association between the four subscales of the Money Attitude Scale (Yamauchi and Templer in J Pers Assess 46:522-528, 1982) and four gambling outcomes (frequency, quantity, consequences and problem severity) in a sample of college students (ages 18-25; N = 2534) using hurdle negative binomial regression model analyses...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Robert Michael Cronin, Tilicia L Mayo-Gamble, Sarah-Jo Stimpson, Sherif M Badawy, Lori E Crosby, Jeannie Byrd, Emmanuel J Volanakis, Adetola A Kassim, Jean L Raphael, Velma M Murry, Michael R DeBaun
Background: Evidence-based guidelines for sickle cell disease (SCD) health maintenance and management have been developed for primary health care providers, but not for individuals with SCD. To improve the quality of care delivered to individuals with SCD and their caregivers, the main purposes of this study were to: (1) understand the desire for patient-centered guidelines among the SCD community; and (2) adapt guideline material to be patient-centered using community-engagement strategies involving health care providers, community -based organizations, and individuals with the disease...
2018: BMC Hematology
Cora von Hammerstein, Ruben Miranda, Henri-Jean Aubin, Lucia Romo, Yasser Khazaal, Amine Benyamina, Amandine Luquiens
: Despite the major health consequences of problem gambling, such as suicide, over-indebtedness, delinquency, or family problems, there is currently no approved drug available for the treatment of problem gambling. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs) has been demonstrated repeatedly. However, some people seem resistant to conventional CBT alone. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman with a gambling disorder, who relapsed, despite a CBT-based intervention, and who then received a combined therapy aiming to enhance self-control: a mindfulness-based therapy and cognitive training targeting inhibition...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
J Caillon, M Grall-Bronnec, B Perrot, J Leboucher, Y Donnio, L Romo, G Challet-Bouju
To prevent risks associated with online gambling, many jurisdictions propose self-exclusion strategies as a part of a responsible gambling policy. To protect online gamblers, French law provides for a 7-day temporary non-reducible and voluntary self-exclusion measure that applies only to select websites. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this self-exclusion measure for at-risk online gamblers. It was an experimental randomized controlled trial targeted at risk prevention. The main outcomes were the money wagered and time spent gambling assessed 15 days (short-term) and 2 months (medium-term) after the implementation of the self-exclusion measure...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
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