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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918416/-the-methodology-and-sample-description-of-the-national-survey-on-addiction-problems-in-hungary-2015-nsaph-2015
#1
Borbala Paksi, Zsolt Demetrovics, Anna Magi, Katalin Felvinczi
This paper introduces the methods and methodological findings of the National Survey on Addiction Problems in Hungary (NSAPH 2015). Use patterns of smoking, alcohol use and other psychoactive substances were measured as well as that of certain behavioural addictions (problematic gambling - PGSI, DSM-V, eating disorders - SCOFF, problematic internet use - PIUQ, problematic on-line gaming - POGO, problematic social media use - FAS, exercise addictions - EAI-HU, work addiction - BWAS, compulsive buying - CBS)...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918267/compulsivity-in-opioid-dependence
#2
Serenella Tolomeo, Keith Matthews, J Douglas Steele, Alex Baldacchino
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between compulsivity versus impulsivity and structural MRI abnormalities in opioid dependence. METHOD: We recruited 146 participants: i) patients with a history of opioid dependence due to chronic heroin use (n=24), ii) heroin users stabilised on methadone maintenance treatment (n=48), iii) abstinent participants with a history of opioid dependence due to heroin use (n=24) and iv) healthy controls (n=50)...
September 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917302/the-global-seroprevalence-of-toxoplasma-gondii-among-wild-boars-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Ali Rostami, Seyed Mohammad Riahi, Yadollah Fakhri, Vafa Saber, Hooman Hanifehpour, Soghra Valizadeh, Majid Gholizadeh, Rokhsane Hosseini Pouya, H Ray Gamble
This systematic review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the worldwide seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii among wild boar. We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, EBSCOhost and Google Scholar databases for studies reporting T. gondii seroprevalence in wild boars between January 1995 and March 2017. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. We estimated the pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild boars using a random-effects model, and evaluated overall seroprevalence in different geographical areas...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910267/surveillance-for-certain-health-behaviors-and-conditions-among-states-and-selected-local-areas-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-united-states-2013-and-2014
#4
Sonya Gamble, Tebitha Mawokomatanda, Fang Xu, Pranesh P Chowdhury, Carol Pierannunzi, David Flegel, William Garvin, Machell Town
PROBLEM: Chronic diseases and conditions (e.g., heart diseases, stroke, arthritis, and diabetes) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. These conditions are costly to the U.S. economy, yet they are often preventable or controllable. Behavioral risk factors (e.g., excessive alcohol consumption, tobacco use, poor diet, frequent mental distress, and insufficient sleep) are linked to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Adopting positive health behaviors (e...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905166/efficacy-of-a-self-help-treatment-for-at-risk-and-pathological-gamblers
#5
Catherine Boudreault, Isabelle Giroux, Christian Jacques, Annie Goulet, Hélène Simoneau, Robert Ladouceur
Available evidence suggests that self-help treatments may reduce problem gambling severity but inconsistencies of results across clinical trials leave the extent of their benefits unclear. Moreover, no self-help treatment has yet been validated within a French Canadian setting. The current study therefore assesses the efficacy of a French language self-help treatment including three motivational telephone interviews spread over an 11-week period and a cognitive-behavioral self-help workbook. At-risk and pathological gamblers were randomly assigned to the treatment group (n = 31) or the waiting list (n = 31)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901703/development-of-a-structured-diabetes-self-management-education-program-specific-to-the-cultural-and-ethnic-population-of-new-zealand
#6
Eirean Gamble, Amber Parry-Strong, Kirsten J Coppell, Lynn McBain, Lorna J Bingham, Liz Dutton, Sera Tapu-Ta'ala, Robert B W Smith, Joe Howells, Howard Metekingi, Jeremy D Krebs
AIM: To develop and pilot a diabetes self-management education (DSME) program specific to the needs of New Zealanders with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: There were two parts in the present study. The first was the development of the program. This involved a literature review, consultation with end-user groups and drafting the content of the program. In the second part, the program was tested and modified according to feedback provided by both participants and facilitators...
September 2017: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899443/geriatric-gambling-disorder-challenges-in-clinical-assessment
#7
Mara Smith, Ana Hategan, James A Bourgeois
To the Editor: The gaming industry is growing rapidly, as is the proportion of older adults aged 65 years or older who participate in gambling (Tse et al., 2012). With casinos tailoring their venues and providing incentives to attract older adults, and with the increasing popularity of "pleasure trips" to casinos organized by retirement homes, plus active promotion of government-operated lotteries in many countries, this trend is likely to continue. Gambling disorder (GD) or "pathological" or "problem" gambling presents a public health concern in the geriatric population...
September 13, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899233/differences-in-utility-elicitation-methods-in-cardiovascular-disease-a-systematic-review
#8
Marissa Blieden, Shravanthi R Gandra, Lung-I Cheng, Anna Szatkowski, Peter P Toth
AIMS: Utility values inform estimates of the cost-effectiveness of treatment for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but values can vary depending on the method used. The aim of this systematic literature review (SLR) was to explore how methods of elicitation impact utility values for CVD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified English-language articles in Embase, MEDLINE, and the grey literature published between September 1992 and August 2015 using keywords for 'utilities' and 'stroke,' 'heart failure,' 'myocardial infarction,' or 'angina...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894886/adolescent-gambling-in-greater-athens-area-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Dimitris C Anagnostopoulos, Helen Lazaratou, Mina P Paleologou, Lily E Peppou, Marina Economou, Melpomeni Malliori, George N Papadimitriou, Charalampos Papageorgiou
PURPOSE: Problem gambling in adolescents has recently emerged as a pressing public health concern. In this context and in light of the pervasive financial crisis in Greece, the present study aimed to explore adolescents' gambling involvement in Athens region to estimate the prevalence of its problematic form and to identify its risk/protective factors. METHODS: A total of 2141 students were recruited from a representative sample of 51 schools located in greater Athens area...
September 11, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894106/heightened-aversion-to-risk-and-loss-in-depressed-patients-with-a-suicide-attempt-history
#10
Kwangyeol Baek, JaeHyung Kwon, Jeong-Ho Chae, Yong An Chung, Jerald D Kralik, Jung-Ah Min, HyuJung Huh, Kyung Mook Choi, Kuk-In Jang, Na-Bin Lee, Sunyoung Kim, Bradley S Peterson, Jaeseung Jeong
Suicide attempters have been found to be impaired in decision-making; however, their specific biases in evaluating uncertain outcomes remain unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that suicidal behavior is associated with heightened aversion to risk and loss, which might produce negative predictions about uncertain future events. Forty-five depressed patients with a suicide attempt history, 47 nonsuicidal depressed patients, and 75 healthy controls participated in monetary decision-making tasks assessing risk and loss aversion...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893875/duration-of-antiresorptive-activity-of-zoledronate-in-postmenopausal-women-with-osteopenia-a-randomized-controlled-multidose-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Andrew Grey, Mark J Bolland, Anne Horne, Borislav Mihov, Greg Gamble, Ian R Reid
BACKGROUND: Intravenous zoledronate 5 mg annually reduces fracture risk, and 5 mg every 2 years prevents bone loss, but the optimal dosing regimens for these indications are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a 3-year open-label extension of a 2-year randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Late postmenopausal women with osteopenia were assigned to receive a single baseline dose of 1 mg, 2.5 mg or 5 mg of zoledronate or placebo. The primary outcome was change in spine bone mineral density (BMD)...
September 11, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893663/reward-related-decision-making-and-long-term-weight-loss-maintenance
#12
Timo Brockmeyer, Joe J Simon, Alexandra Becker, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: Heightened sensitivity towards reward and insensitivity towards disadvantageous consequences may constitute a driving factor underlying unrestricted food intake and consequent weight gain in people with overweight and obesity. Therefore, the present study applied a behavioral economics approach to investigate the potential contribution of poor reward-related decision making to unsuccessful long-term weight loss maintenance (i.e. weight cycling). Based on previous research, it was expected that successful long-term weight loss maintainers would show a better performance in a gambling task than their less successful counterparts...
September 8, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893336/problematic-internet-use-in-gamblers-impact-on-clinical-and-cognitive-measures
#13
Samuel R Chamberlain, Sarah A Redden, Eric Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVE: Gambling is a commonplace phenomenon, existing along a continuum from occasional gambling to functionally impairing gambling disorder. The internet may act as a conduit for some gambling behaviors. The impact of problematic internet use on clinical and cognitive features relevant to gambling has received little research attention. METHODS: A total of 206 adults aged 18-30 years who gamble at least five times per year were recruited from the general community and undertook detailed clinical and cognitive assessments...
September 12, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891116/measuring-treatment-outcomes-in-gambling-disorders-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Dylan Pickering, Brittany Keen, Gavin Entwistle, Alex Blaszczynski
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Considerable variation of outcome variables used to measure recovery in the gambling treatment literature has precluded effective cross-study evaluations and hindered the development of best-practice treatment methodologies. The aim of this systematic review was to describe current diffuse concepts of recovery in the gambling field by mapping the range of outcomes and measurement strategies used to evaluate treatments, and to identify more commonly accepted indices of recovery...
August 5, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890860/why-do-young-adults-gamble-online-a-qualitative-study-of-motivations-to-transition-from-social-casino-games-to-online-gambling
#15
Hyoun S Kim, Michael J A Wohl, Rina Gupta, Jeffrey L Derevensky
The present research examined the mechanisms of initiating online gambling among young adults. Of particular interest was whether social casino gaming was noted as part of young adults' experience with online gambling. This is because there is growing concern that social casino gaming may be a 'gateway' to online gambling. Three focus groups (N = 21) were conducted with young adult online gamblers from two large Canadian Universities. Participants noted the role of peer influence as well as incentives (e...
2017: Asian journal of gambling issues and public health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889923/social-risky-decision-making-reveals-gender-differences-in-the-tpj-a-hyperscanning-study-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#16
Mingming Zhang, Tao Liu, Matthew Pelowski, Huibin Jia, Dongchuan Yu
Previous neuroscience studies have investigated neural correlates of risky decision-making in a single-brain frame during pseudo social (predominantly non face-to-face) contexts. To fully understand the risky decision-making behavior in more natural social interactions, the present study employed a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) hyperscanning technique to simultaneously measure pairs of participants' fronto-temporal activations in a face-to-face gambling card-game. The intra-brain results revealed that both those who identified as males and as females showed higher activations in their mPFC and in the inferior parts of the frontopolar area, as well as in the tempo-parietal junction (TPJ) in cases involving higher versus lower risk...
September 7, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889755/the-dangers-of-conflating-gambling-related-harm-with-disordered-gambling
#17
Matthew Browne, Matthew J Rockloff
In their critical review of the prevention paradox (PP) applied to gambling-related harm, Delfabbro and King (2017) raise a number of concerns regarding specific assumptions, methods, and findings as well as the general conceptual approach. Besides discussing the PP, the review also considers the merits of considering a "continuum of harm," as opposed to the more traditional categorical approach to classifying problem gamblers. Their critique is carefully modulated and balanced, and starts a useful dialogue in the context of a public health approach to gambling...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887899/the-anterior-insula-bidirectionally-modulates-cost-benefit-decision-making-on-a-rodent-gambling-task
#18
M L Daniel, P J Cocker, J Lacoste, A C Mar, J L Houeto, A Belin-Rauscent, D Belin
Deficits in cost-benefit decision making, as assessed in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), are commonly observed in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction. There is considerable variation in the maximisation of rewards on such tasks, both in the general population and in rodent models, suggesting individual differences in decision making may represent a key endophenotype for vulnerability to neuropsychiatric disorders. Increasing evidence suggests that the insular cortex, which is involved in interoception and emotional processes in humans, may be a key neural locus in the control of decision making processes...
September 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886591/predictors-of-early-dropout-in-treatment-for-gambling-disorder-the-role-of-personality-disorders-and-clinical-syndromes
#19
G Maniaci, C La Cascia, F Picone, A Lipari, C Cannizzaro, D La Barbera
Several treatment options for gambling disorder (GD) have been tested in recent years; however dropout levels still remain high. This study aims to evaluate whether the presence of psychiatric comorbidities predicts treatment outcome according to Millon's evolutionary theory, following a six-month therapy for GD. The role of severity, duration of the disorder, typology of gambling (mainly online or offline) and pharmacological treatment were also analysed. The recruitment included 194 pathological gamblers (PGs) to be compared with 78 healthy controls (HCs)...
August 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885953/expanding-the-understanding-of-risk-behavior-associated-with-homelessness-among-veterans
#20
Taylor Harris, Sara Kintzle, Suzanne Wenzel, Carl Andrew Castro
INTRODUCTION: To advance large-scale efforts to end veteran homelessness, an understanding of factors that contribute to housing insecurity is necessary. Common risk behaviors (e.g., substance use and risky sexual practices) are associated with lengthier experiences of homelessness among the general homeless population, but less understood among homeless veterans. Additionally, whether emerging risk behaviors among veterans (e.g., sensation seeking and aggression) are associated with lengthy homeless experiences is unknown...
September 2017: Military Medicine
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