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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813074/oral-narrative-of-individuals-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#1
Giulia Ganthous, Natalia Freitas Rossi, Célia Maria Giacheti
Purpose: To investigate and compare the oral narrative of individuals with FASD and individuals with typical language development (TLD), as well as to correlate the narrative performance with the score from 4-Digit Diagnostic Code. Methods: Participants were 20 individuals with FASD, of both genders, with chronological age between 6 and 16 years, and 20 individuals with TLD, same gender and similar to the FASD group in age and socioeconomic status. The oral narrative was elicited using the book Frog, where are you? and the data were analyzed in terms of macrostructure, microstructure and global coherence level...
August 10, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809924/species-delimitation-in-frogs-from-south-american-temperate-forests-the-case-of-eupsophus-a-taxonomically-complex-genus-with-high-phenotypic-variation
#2
Claudio Correa, Dayana Vásquez, Camila Castro-Carrasco, Álvaro Zúñiga-Reinoso, Juan Carlos Ortiz, R Eduardo Palma
One of the most characteristic and abundant amphibian taxa of South American temperate forests is Eupsophus. The ten currently recognized species of the genus have been divided in two species groups, roseus and vertebralis, but most of them, eight, belong to the roseus group. Recent phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies have suggested that species diversity of the roseus group could be underestimated. An examination of the literature shows that species of the roseus group exhibit high levels of variation in their external characteristics, particularly those used as diagnostic characters, which compromises their taxonomy and hinders their field recognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807882/control-of-nucleus-positioning-in-mouse-oocytes
#3
REVIEW
Maria Almonacid, Marie-Emilie Terret, Marie-Hélène Verlhac
The position of the nucleus in a cell can instruct morphogenesis in some cases, conveying spatial and temporal information and abnormal nuclear positioning can lead to disease. In oocytes from worm, sea urchin, frog and some fish, nucleus position regulates embryo development, it marks the animal pole and in Drosophila it defines the future dorso-ventral axis of the embryo and of the adult body plan. However, in mammals, the oocyte nucleus is centrally located and does not instruct any future embryo axis. Yet an off-centre nucleus correlates with poor outcome for mouse and human oocyte development...
August 11, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806411/cross-sectional-area-of-the-femoral-vein-varies-with-leg-position-and-distance-from-the-inguinal-ligament
#4
Dorota Czyzewska, Andrzej Ustymowicz, Radoslaw Kowalewski, Anna Zurada, Jaroslaw Krejza
PURPOSE: The risk of complications associated with femoral venous catheterization could be potentially reduced if the procedure was performed at the location where the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the vessel is the largest. The diameter of the femoral vein depends on leg position as well as the distance from the inguinal ligament. We determined the CSA of the right femoral vein in three different leg positions at two distances from the inguinal ligament. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Informed consent was given by 205 healthy volunteers aged 19-39 years, mean: 23±3 years (108 women, 97 men)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803676/ranavirus-phylogenomics-signatures-of-recombination-and-inversions-among-bullfrog-ranaculture-isolates
#5
Sieara C Claytor, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Nelmarie Landrau-Giovannetti, V Gregory Chinchar, Matthew J Gray, Debra L Miller, Carla Mavian, Marco Salemi, Samantha Wisely, Thomas B Waltzek
Ranaviruses are emerging pathogens of fish, amphibians, and reptiles that threaten aquatic animal industries and wildlife worldwide. Our objective was to genetically characterize ranaviruses isolated during separate bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus die-offs that occurred eight years apart on the same North American farm. The earlier outbreak was due to a highly pathogenic strain of common midwife toad virus (CMTV) previously known only from Europe and China. The later outbreak was due to a chimeric ranavirus that displayed a novel genome arrangement and a DNA backbone typical for Frog virus 3 (FV3) strains except for interspersed fragments acquired through recombination with the CMTV isolated earlier...
August 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802073/species-delimitation-with-gene-flow-a-methodological-comparison-and-population-genomics-approach-to-elucidate-cryptic-species-boundaries-in-malaysian-torrent-frogs
#6
Kin Onn Chan, Alana M Alexander, Lee L Grismer, Yong-Chao Su, Jesse L Grismer, Evan S H Quah, Rafe M Brown
Accurately delimiting species boundaries is a non-trivial undertaking that can have significant effects on downstream inferences. We compared the efficacy of commonly-used species delimitation methods (SDMs) and a population genomics approach based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess lineage separation in the Malaysian Torrent Frog Complex currently recognized as a single species (Amolops larutensis). First, we used morphological, mitochondrial DNA and genome-wide SNPs to identify putative species boundaries by implementing non-coalescent and coalescent-based SDMs (mPTP, iBPP, BFD*)...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801886/effects-of-3-nitro-1-2-4-triazol-5-one-on-survival-growth-and-metamorphosis-in-the-northern-leopard-frog-lithobates-pipiens
#7
David A Pillard, William S Eck, Mark S Johnson, Stephanie Packard
New explosive formulations are being developed to be less sensitive to impact and inadvertent explosion, increasing safety for the warfighter. Since testing and training make environmental releases imminent, the toxicity of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), a component of Insensitive Munitions eXplosive (IMX) formulations, was assessed in a one-generation study to the northern leopard frog (Lithobates ( = Rana) pipiens). Because NTO in water creates acidic conditions, acute studies were conducted with non-pH-adjusted NTO, while a long-term (70-d) study was conducted with neutralized NTO...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797092/studies-of-the-antitumor-mechanism-of-action-of-dermaseptin-b2-a-multifunctional-cationic-antimicrobial-peptide-reveal-a-partial-implication-of-cell-surface-glycosaminoglycans
#8
Célia Dos Santos, Sabah Hamadat, Karen Le Saux, Clara Newton, Meriem Mazouni, Loussiné Zargarian, Mickael Miro-Padovani, Patricia Zadigue, Jean Delbé, Yamina Hamma-Kourbali, Mohamed Amiche
Dermaseptin-B2 (DRS-B2) is a multifunctional cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAP) isolated from frog skin secretion. We previously reported that DRS-B2 possesses anticancer and antiangiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the antiproliferative activity of DRS-B2 on numerous tumor cell lines, its cell internalization and studies of its molecular partners as well as their influences on its structure. Confocal microscopy using ([Alexa594]-(Cys0)-DRS-B2) shows that in sensitive human tumor cells (PC3), DRS-B2 seems to accumulate rapidly at the cytoplasmic membranes and enters the cytoplasm and the nucleus, while in less sensitive tumor cells (U87MG), DRS-B2 is found packed in vesicles at the cell membrane...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795407/parasite-metacommunities-evaluating-the-roles-of-host-community-composition-and-environmental-gradients-in-structuring-symbiont-communities-within-amphibians
#9
Joseph R Mihaljevic, Bethany J Hoye, Pieter T J Johnson
1.Ecologists increasingly report the structures of metacommunities for free-living species, yet far less is known about the composition of symbiont communities through space and time. Understanding the drivers of symbiont community patterns has implications ranging from emerging infectious disease to managing host microbiomes. 2.Using symbiont communities from amphibian hosts sampled from wetlands of California, USA, we quantified the effects of spatial, habitat filtering, and host community components on symbiont occupancy and overall metacommunity structure...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794672/a-new-species-of-terrestrial-breeding-frog-amphibia-craugastoridae-pristimantis-from-high-elevations-of-the-pui-pui-protected-forest-in-central-peru
#10
Edgar Lehr, Rudolf von May
We describe a new species of Pristimantis from upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings, Región Junín, central Peru. The description of the new species is based on 34 specimens found at elevations between 3400 and 3936 m a.s.l. Pristimantis attenboroughisp. n. is characterized by a snout-vent length of 14.6-19.2 mm in adult males (n = 21), 19.2-23.0 mm in adult females (n = 10), and is compared morphologically and genetically with other taxonomically and biogeographically relevant species of Pristimantis...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794275/did-true-frogs-dispersify
#11
Kin Onn Chan, Rafe M Brown
The interplay between range expansion and concomitant diversification is of fundamental interest to evolutionary biologists, particularly when linked to intercontinental dispersal and/or large scale extinctions. The evolutionary history of true frogs has been characterized by circumglobal range expansion. As a lineage that survived the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event (EOEE), the group provides an ideal system to test the prediction that range expansion triggers increased net diversification. We constructed the most densely sampled, time-calibrated phylogeny to date in order to: (i) characterize tempo and patterns of diversification; (ii) assess the impact of the EOEE; and (iii) test the hypothesis that range expansion was followed by increased net diversification...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794185/id-genes-are-essential-for-early-heart-formation
#12
Thomas J Cunningham, Michael S Yu, Wesley L McKeithan, Sean Spiering, Florent Carrette, Chun-Teng Huang, Paul J Bushway, Matthew Tierney, Sonia Albini, Mauro Giacca, Miguel Mano, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Alessandra Sacco, Pilar Ruiz-Lozano, Jean-Francois Riou, Muriel Umbhauer, Gregg Duester, Mark Mercola, Alexandre R Colas
Deciphering the fundamental mechanisms controlling cardiac specification is critical for our understanding of how heart formation is initiated during embryonic development and for applying stem cell biology to regenerative medicine and disease modeling. Using systematic and unbiased functional screening approaches, we discovered that the Id family of helix-loop-helix proteins is both necessary and sufficient to direct cardiac mesoderm formation in frog embryos and human embryonic stem cells. Mechanistically, Id proteins specify cardiac cell fate by repressing two inhibitors of cardiogenic mesoderm formation-Tcf3 and Foxa2-and activating inducers Evx1, Grrp1, and Mesp1...
August 9, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792049/a-synthetic-dodecanolide-library-for-the-identification-of-putative-semiochemicals-emitted-by-mantellid-frogs
#13
Pardha Saradhi Peram, Miguel Vences, Stefan Schulz
Aliphatic macrolides are used by various organisms as semiochemicals or pheromones, e.g. by the endemic Madagascan frog family Mantellinae. Volatile, methyl-branched aliphatic macrolides occur in various species, but their identification by MS is difficult, while isolation is not possible due to the low amounts produced. Therefore, we synthesized a library of methyl-branched 11-dodecanolides to identify unknown macrolides secreted by Gephyromantis moseri, a mantelline frog restricted to the rainforest and characterized by largely terrestrial habitats...
August 9, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791673/comprehensive-analyses-of-hox-gene-expression-in-xenopus-laevis-embryos-and-adult-tissues
#14
Mariko Kondo, Takayoshi Yamamoto, Shuji Takahashi, Masanori Taira
From whole genome sequencing of an allotetraploid frog, Xenopus laevis, two homeologous sets (L and S) of four Hox clusters A through D (HoxA.L/S, HoxB.L/S, HoxC.L/S, and HoxD.L/S) and 13 paralogous groups (PGs) with 76 genes were identified, allowing us to carry out the first comprehensive analyses of hox gene expression in vertebrates. Expression of all hox genes during development and in adult tissues was analyzed by RNA-sequencing. The expression levels of most hox genes were similar between homeologs, but in some pairs, large differences were observed and several of these were confirmed by RT-PCR and whole mount in situ hybridization experiments...
August 9, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791133/identifying-hybridization-and-admixture-using-snps-application-of-the-dartseq-platform-in-phylogeographic-research-on-vertebrates
#15
Jane Melville, Margaret L Haines, Katja Boysen, Luke Hodkinson, Andrzej Kilian, Katie L Smith Date, Dominique A Potvin, Kirsten M Parris
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are increasingly being used to generate multi-locus data for phylogeographic and evolutionary genetics research. We detail the applicability of a restriction enzyme-mediated genome complexity reduction approach with subsequent NGS (DArTseq) in vertebrate study systems at different evolutionary and geographical scales. We present two case studies using SNP data from the DArTseq molecular marker platform. First, we used DArTseq in a large phylogeographic study of the agamid lizard Ctenophorus caudicinctus, including 91 individuals and spanning the geographical range of this species across arid Australia...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780153/the-catholic-taste-of-broad-tapeworms-multiple-routes-to-human-infection
#16
Andrea Waeschenbach, Jan Brabec, Tomáš Scholz, D Timothy J Littlewood, Roman Kuchta
Broad tapeworms (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea) are the principal agents of widespread food-borne cestodosis. Diphyllobothriosis and diplogonoporosis, caused by members of the genera Diphyllobothrium, Diplogonoporus and Adenocephalus, are the most common fish cestodoses with an estimated 20million people infected worldwide, and has seen recent (re)emergences in Europe due to the increasing popularity of eating raw or undercooked fish. Sparganosis is a debilitating and potentially lethal disease caused by the larvae of the genus Spirometra, which occurs throughout much of the (sub)tropics and is caused by the consumption of raw snakes and frogs, and drinking water contaminated by infected copepods...
August 3, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777439/combining-cytotoxicity-assessment-and-xenopus-laevis-phenotypic-abnormality-assay-as-a-predictor-of-nanomaterial-safety
#17
Karamallah Al-Yousuf, Carl A Webster, Grant N Wheeler, Francesca Baldelli Bombelli, Victoria Sherwood
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, has been used as an efficient pre-clinical screening tool to predict drug safety during the early stages of the drug discovery process. X. laevis is a relatively inexpensive model that can be used in whole organism high-throughput assays whilst maintaining a high degree of homology to the higher vertebrate models often used in scientific research. Despite an ever-increasing volume of biomedical nanoparticles (NPs) in development, their unique physico-chemical properties challenge the use of standard toxicology assays...
August 4, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769692/the-advertisement-call-and-comments-on-the-distribution-of-eleutherodactylus-bilineatus-bokermann-1975-an-endemic-frog-of-bahia-state-brazil-amphibia-anura
#18
Iuri Ribeiro Dias, Caio Vinicius de Mira-Mendes, Carlos Augusto Souza-Costa, Flora Acuña Juncá, Mirco Solé
Advertisement calls can be used to aid solving taxonomic problems and understanding the evolution of certain groups. In this study, the advertisement call of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus is described. It is composed by two different notes with a total duration of 0.529-4.241 seconds and dominant frequency of 1.72-3.45 kHz. Additionally, new data is provided on the geographical distribution of Eleutherodactylus bilineatus and the most inland record for this species.
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768472/phenotypic-integration-mediated-by-hormones-associations-among-digit-ratios-body-size-and-testosterone-during-tadpole-development
#19
Leandro Lofeu, Renata Brandt, Tiana Kohlsdorf
BACKGROUND: Developmental associations often explain phenotypic integration. The intersected hormonal regulation of ontogenetic processes fosters predictions of steroid-mediated phenotypic integration among sexually dimorphic traits, a statement defied by associations between classical dimorphism predictors (e.g. body size) and traits that apparently lack sex-specific functions (e.g. ratios between the lengths of Digits II and IV - 2D:4D). Developmental bases of female-biased 2D:4D have been identified, but these remain unclear for taxa presenting male-biased 2D:4D (e...
August 2, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765332/n1-src-kinase-is-required-for-primary-neurogenesis-in-xenopus-tropicalis
#20
Philip A Lewis, Isobel C Bradley, Alastair R Pizzey, Harry V Isaacs, Gareth J O Evans
The presence of the neuronal-specific N1-Src splice variant of the C-Src tyrosine kinase is conserved through vertebrate evolution, suggesting an important role in complex nervous systems. Alternative splicing involving a N1-Src specific microexon leads to a five or six amino acid insertion into the SH3 domain of Src. A prevailing model suggests that N1-Src regulates neuronal differentiation via cytoskeletal dynamics in the growth cone. Here we have investigated the role of n1-src in the early development of the amphibian Xenopus tropicalis, and find that n1-src expression is regulated in embryogenesis, with highest levels detected during the phases of primary and secondary neurogenesis...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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