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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351077/molecular-and-morphological-characterisation-of-rhabdias-picardiae-junker-lhermitte-vallarino-et-bain-2010-nematoda-rhabdiasidae-from-delaland-s-river-frog-amietia-delalandii-dum%C3%A3-ril-et-bibron-1841-amphibia-pyxicephalidae-in-south-africa
#1
Roman Svitin, Yuriy Kuzmin, Louis du Preez
Rhabdias picardiae previously known from the Guttural Toad, Sclerophrys gutturalis (Bufonidae) is described from a new host, Delaland's River Frog, Amietia delalandii (Pyxicephalidae). The species identification is confirmed by analysis of the COI gene sequence and morphological comparison with the original description. Morphological details of apical structures in adult parasitic R. picardiae, namely, the shape and position of lips, the number and position of external labial papillae, and the buccal capsule morphology are described using light and scanning electron microscopy...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351016/patterns-of-local-community-composition-are-linked-to-large-scale-diversification-and-dispersal-of-clades
#2
John J Wiens
At any location, a group of organisms may be represented by several clades. What determines which clades will dominate local communities in terms of their species richness? Here, this relatively neglected question is addressed by analyzing 166 local assemblages of snakes distributed globally. For most regions, local assemblages are dominated by clades with higher global-scale diversification rates and more frequent dispersal into each region, and not by clades that have been present in that region longer. This result contrasts with many other studies of local richness (in other organisms), which show strong impacts of regional colonization time on overall local species richness of clades...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349894/assessment-of-the-potential-of-temporin-peptides-from-the-frog-rana-temporaria-ranidae-as-anti-diabetic-agents
#3
Vishal Musale, Bruno Casciaro, Maria Luisa Mangoni, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt, J Michael Conlon
Temporin A (FLPLIGRVLSGIL-NH2 ), temporin F (FLPLIGKVLSGIL-NH2 ), and temporin G (FFPVIGRILNGIL-NH2 ), first identified in skin secretions of the frog Rana temporaria, produced concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥1 nM, without cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 3 μM. Temporin A was the most effective. The mechanism of insulinotropic action did not involve an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. Temporins B, C, E, H, and K were either inactive or only weakly active...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349016/the-external-rotation-radiographic-technique-for-posterolateral-injury
#4
João Luiz Ellera Gomes, Matheus Rocha de Aguiar, Luiza Barbosa Horta Barbosa, Nicholas I Kennedy, Márcio B Ferrari
Posterolateral corner injuries are a severe and often unrecognized pathology. Injuries to these structures are difficult to identify using magnetic resonance images. Physical examination tests including the dial test, frog-leg test, and varus stress test can be difficult to perform. In addition it is difficult to correctly evaluate the results in a multiligament injury setting. The correct diagnosis of this pathology is essential to determine the proper treatment and improve outcomes. Furthermore, failure to recognize this pathology is associated with a high risk of failure following isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions...
December 2017: Arthroscopy Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347987/determinants-of-long-term-outcome-in-icu-survivors-results-from-the-frog-icu-study
#5
Etienne Gayat, Alain Cariou, Nicolas Deye, Antoine Vieillard-Baron, Samir Jaber, Charles Damoisel, Qin Lu, Xavier Monnet, Isabelle Rennuit, Elie Azoulay, Marc Léone, Heikel Oueslati, Bertrand Guidet, Diane Friedman, Antoine Tesnière, Romain Sonneville, Philippe Montravers, Sébastien Pili-Floury, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Jacques Duranteau, Pierre-François Laterre, Nicolas Brechot, Karine Chevreul, Morgane Michel, Bernard Cholley, Matthieu Legrand, Jean-Marie Launay, Eric Vicaut, Mervyn Singer, Matthieu Resche-Rigon, Alexandre Mebazaa
BACKGROUND: Intensive care unit (ICU) survivors have reduced long-term survival compared to the general population. Identifying parameters at ICU discharge that are associated with poor long-term outcomes may prove useful in targeting an at-risk population. The main objective of the study was to identify clinical and biological determinants of death in the year following ICU discharge. METHODS: FROG-ICU was a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study of ICU survivors followed 1 year after discharge, including 21 medical, surgical or mixed ICUs in France and Belgium...
January 18, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345026/male-male-aggression-is-unlikely-to-stabilize-a-poison-frog-polymorphism
#6
Yusan Yang, Matthew B Dugas, Houston J Sudekum, Sean Murphy, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki
Phenotypic polymorphism is common in animals, and the maintenance of multiple phenotypes in a population requires forces that act against homogenizing drift and selection. Male-male competition can contribute to the stability of a polymorphism when males compete primarily with males of the same phenotype. In and around a contact zone between red and blue lineages of the poison frog Oophaga pumilio, we used simulated territorial intrusions to test the non-exclusive predictions that males would direct more aggression toward males of (i) their own phenotype and/or (ii) the phenotype that is most common in their population...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341894/protective-effects-of-antioxidin-rl-from-odorrana-livida-against-ultraviolet-b-irradiated-skin-photoaging
#7
Di Qin, Wen-Hui Lee, Zhiqin Gao, Weifen Zhang, Meiyu Peng, Tongyi Sun, Yuanyuan Gao
The unavoidable daily exposure of the skin to ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is proven to have deleterious effects. The action mechanism of antioxidin-RL, an antioxidant peptide purified from skin secretions of frog Odorrana livida with amino acid sequence of AMRLTYNRPCIYAT, is well characterized by NMR titration and mutation based on ABTS+ scavenging activities. In order to explore the protective effects of antioxidin-RL against UVB-irradiated skin photoaging, cell uptake assay was used to detect the location of antioxidin-RL molecules serving various biological functions in the cells...
January 13, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340784/a-new-flesh-fly-species-diptera-sarcophagidae-parasitic-on-leptodactylid-frogs
#8
Pablo Ricardo Mulieri, Eduardo Federico Schaefer, Marta Inés Duré, Cynthya Elizabeth González
Here we describe a new species of sarcophagid fly reared from larvae found feeding on three species of leptodactylid frogs collected in subtropical Corrientes Province in northeastern Argentina. Our species description is based on adult male and female external morphology and genitalia. Adult males and females of the new species were associated with certainty because all specimens studied were reared from single clutches of larvae on each of three infested frogs. Thus, adult males and females reared from each clutch were siblings that emerged almost simultaneously...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340060/assessment-of-antimicrobial-and-wound-healing-effects-of-brevinin-2ta-against-the-bacterium-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-dermally-wounded-rats
#9
Siqin Liu, Qilin Long, Yang Xu, Jun Wang, Zhongwei Xu, Lei Wang, Mei Zhou, Yuxin Wu, Tianbao Chen, Chris Shaw
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are regarded as promising alternatives for antibiotics due to their inherent capacity to prevent microbial drug resistance. Amphibians are rich source of bioactive molecules, which provide numerous AMPs with various structures as drug candidates. Here, we isolated and identified a novel AMP Brevinin-2Ta (B-2Ta) from the skin secretion of the European frog, Pelophylax kl. esculentus. In vitro studies revealed that it showed broad antimicrobial activities against S. aureus, E. coli and C...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339184/a-novel-stress-hormone-response-gene-in-tadpoles-of-xenopus-tropicalis
#10
Katelin A Schneider, Leena H Shewade, Nicolas Buisine, Laurent M Sachs, Daniel R Buchholz
Previous work identified a transcribed locus, Str. 34945, induced by the frog stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) in Xenopus tropicalis tails. Because thyroid hormone had no influence on its expression, Str. 34945 was dubbed the first "CORT-only" gene known from tadpoles. Here, we examine the genomic annotation for this transcript, hormone specificity, time course of induction, tissue distribution, and developmental expression profile. The location of Str. 34945 on the X. tropicalis genome lies between the genes ush1g (Usher syndrome 1G) and fads6 (fatty acid desaturase 6)...
January 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337419/evolution-of-resistance-to-chytridiomycosis-is-associated-with-a-robust-early-immune-response
#11
Laura F Grogan, Scott D Cashins, Lee F Skerratt, Lee Berger, Michael S McFadden, Peter Harlow, David A Hunter, Ben C Scheele, Jason Mulvenna
Potentiating the evolution of immunity is a promising strategy for addressing biodiversity diseases. Assisted selection for infection resistance may enable the recovery and persistence of amphibians threatened by chytridiomycosis; a devastating fungal skin disease threatening hundreds of species globally. However, knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the natural evolution of immunity to chytridiomycosis is limited. Understanding the mechanisms of such resistance may help speed assisted-selection. Using a transcriptomics approach we examined gene expression responses of endangered alpine tree frogs (Litoria verreauxii alpina) to subclinical infection, comparing two long-exposed populations with a naïve population...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336000/the-origin-and-ecological-function-of-an-ion-inducing-anti-predator-behavior-in-lithobates-tadpoles
#12
Cayla E Austin, Raymond E March, Naomi L Stock, Dennis L Murray
In aquatic environments, chemical cues are believed to be associated with prey response to predation risk, yet few basic cue compositions are known despite the pronounced ecological and evolutionary significance of such cues. Previous work indicated that negatively-charged ions of m/z 501 are possibly a kairomone that induces anti-predator responses in amphibian tadpoles. However, work described here confirms that this specific ion species m/z 501.2886 is produced by injured tadpoles, exhibits increased spectral intensity with higher tadpole biomass, and is not produced by starved predators...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333991/evaluation-of-a-portable-gas-chromatograph-with-photoionization-detector-under-variations-of-voc-concentration-temperature-and-relative-humidity
#13
Jhy-Charm Soo, Eun Gyung Lee, Ryan F LeBouf, Michael L Kashon, William Chisholm, Martin Harper
The objective of this present study was to evaluate the performance of a portable gas chromatograph ─ photoionization detector (GC-PID), under various test conditions to determine if it could be used in occupational settings. A mixture of seven volatile organic compounds (VOCs) - acetone, ethylbenzene, methyl isobutyl ketone, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, and o-xylene - was selected because its components are commonly present in paint manufacturing industries. A full-factorial combination of four concentration levels (exposure scenarios) of VOC mixtures, three different temperatures (25˚C, 30˚C, and 35˚C), and three relative humidities (RHs; 25%, 50%, and 75%) was conducted in a full- size controlled environmental chamber...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331521/increased-transcript-levels-and-kinetic-function-of-pyruvate-kinase-during-severe-dehydration-in-aestivating-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis
#14
Neal J Dawson, Yulia Biggar, Amal I Malik, Kenneth B Storey
The African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, can withstand extremely arid conditions through aestivation, resulting in dehydration and urea accumulation. Aestivating X. laevis reduce their metabolic rate, and rely on anaerobic glycolysis to meet reduced ATP demands. The present study investigated how severe dehydration affected the transcript levels, kinetic profile, and phosphorylation state of the key glycolytic enzyme pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver and skeletal muscle of X. laevis. Compared to control frogs, severely dehydrated frogs showed an increase in the transcript abundance of both liver and muscle isoforms of PK...
January 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324790/frog-size-on-continental-islands-of-the-coast-of-rio-de-janeiro-and-the-generality-of-the-island-rule
#15
Raoni Rebouças, Hélio Ricardo da Silva, Mirco Solé
Island Rule postulated that individuals on islands tend to dwarfism when individuals from mainland populations are large and to gigantism when mainland populations present small individuals. There has been much discussion about this rule, but only few studies were carried out aiming to reveal this pattern for anurans. Our study focused on measuring the size of individuals on islands and to find a possible pattern of size modification for insular anurans. Individuals were collected on continental islands, measured and compared to mainland populations...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320479/paternal-chromosome-loss-and-metabolic-crisis-contribute-to-hybrid-inviability-in-xenopus
#16
Romain Gibeaux, Rachael Acker, Maiko Kitaoka, Georgios Georgiou, Ila van Kruijsbergen, Breanna Ford, Edward M Marcotte, Daniel K Nomura, Taejoon Kwon, Gert Jan C Veenstra, Rebecca Heald
Hybridization of eggs and sperm from closely related species can give rise to genetic diversity, or can lead to embryo inviability owing to incompatibility. Although central to evolution, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying post-zygotic barriers that drive reproductive isolation and speciation remain largely unknown. Species of the African clawed frog Xenopus provide an ideal system to study hybridization and genome evolution. Xenopus laevis is an allotetraploid with 36 chromosomes that arose through interspecific hybridization of diploid progenitors, whereas Xenopus tropicalis is a diploid with 20 chromosomes that diverged from a common ancestor approximately 48 million years ago...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317688/precontractile-optical-response-during-excitation-contraction-in-human-muscle-revealed-by-non-invasive-high-speed-spatiotemporal-nir-measurement
#17
Markus Lindkvist, Gabriel Granåsen, Christer Grönlund
During muscle contraction the excitation-contraction process mediates the neural input and mechanical output. Proper muscle function and body locomotion depends on the status of the elements in the same process. However, non-invasive and in-vivo methods to study this are not available. Here we show the existence of an optical response occurring during the excitation-contraction process in human biceps brachii muscle. We developed a non-invasive instrument from a photodiode array and light emitting diodes to detect spatially propagating (~5 m/s) and precontractile (~6 ms onset) optical signals closely related to the action potential during electrostimulation...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314190/comparing-the-effects-of-atrazine-and-an-environmentally-relevant-mixture-on-estrogen-responsive-gene-expression-in-the-northern-leopard-frog-and-the-fathead-minnow
#18
Jonathan M Ali, Lindsey A Knight, Del L D'Souza, Alan S Kolok
In Nebraska, fish are exposed to herbicides in agricultural runoff. Study objectives were to determine 1) if fathead minnows and northern leopard frogs exposed to atrazine experience alterations in gene expression, and 2) whether these changes are elicited by a simulated herbicide mixture. Following a 7-day exposure to atrazine female minnows were defeminized, while male frogs were feminized. The mixture did not elicit statistically significant effects in either species. This article is protected by copyright...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313598/expressions-of-il-6-tnf-%C3%AE-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-in-the-skin-of-chinese-brown-frog-rana-dybowskii
#19
Liqin Xi, Chen Wang, Pengyu Chen, Qi Yang, Ruiqi Hu, Haolin Zhang, Qiang Weng, Meiyu Xu
The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediates a wide range of inflammatory and immune responses. Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) has a myriad of pro-inflammatory effects on the skin. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a transcriptional factor that regulates a battery of genes that are critical to immune system. In this study, we investigated the localizations and expression levels of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB in the skin of Rana dybowskii during the breeding period and pre-hibernation. Histologically, the skin of Rana dybowskii consisted of epidermis and dermis...
October 19, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313469/reptiles-and-amphibians-as-potential-reservoir-hosts-of-chikungunya-virus
#20
Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Airn E Hartwig, Richard A Bowen
Chikungunya virus is an emerging arbovirus of significant human-health concern. Little is known about its sylvatic cycle, including whether ectothermic vertebrates are permissive to infection. In this study, individuals from ten species of reptiles and amphibians were inoculated with chikungunya virus and samples of blood were tested to characterize viremia and seroconversion. Viremia was not detected in cane toads, house geckos, or American alligators, but most of the green iguanas, red-eared sliders, ball and Burmese pythons, leopard frogs, Texas toads, and garter snakes developed viremia...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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