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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166157/rapid-diversification-and-time-explain-amphibian-richness-at-different-scales-in-the-tropical-andes-earth-s-most-biodiverse-hotspot
#1
Carl R Hutter, Shea M Lambert, John J Wiens
The Tropical Andes make up Earth's most species-rich biodiversity hotspot for both animals and plants. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying this extraordinary richness remain uncertain. Here, we examine the processes that generate high richness in the Tropical Andes relative to other regions in South America and across different elevations within the Andes, using frogs as a model system. We combine distributional data, a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny for 2,318 frog species, and phylogenetic comparative methods to test the relative importance of diversification rates and colonization times for explaining Andean diversity at different scales...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162516/structure-and-function-of-a-novel-antioxidant-peptide-from-the-skin-of-tropical-frogs
#2
Eder Barbosa, Ana Oliveira, Alexandra Plácido, Renato Socodato, Camila C Portugal, Ana Carolina Mafud, Alicia S Ombredane, Daniel C Moreira, Nuno Vale, Lucinda J Bessa, Graziella A Joanitti, Cláudia Alves, Paula Gomes, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Yvonne Primerano Mascarenhas, Mariela M Marani, João B Relvas, Manuela Pintado, José Roberto S A Leite
The amphibian skin plays an important role protecting the organism from external harmful factors such as microorganisms or UV radiation. Based on biorational strategies, many studies have investigated the cutaneous secretion of anurans as a source of bioactive molecules. By a peptidomic approach, a novel antioxidant peptide (AOP) with in vitro free radical scavenging ability was isolated from Physalaemus nattereri. The AOP, named antioxidin-I, has a molecular weight [M+H](+) = 1543.69Da and a TWYFITPYIPDK primary amino acid sequence...
November 18, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158987/lowland-extirpation-of-anuran-populations-on-a-tropical-mountain
#3
Marconi Campos-Cerqueira, T Mitchell Aide
Background: Climate change and infectious diseases threaten animal and plant species, even in natural and protected areas. To cope with these changes, species may acclimate, adapt, move or decline. Here, we test for shifts in anuran distributions in the Luquillo Mountains (LM), a tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico by comparing species distributions from historical (1931-1989)and current data (2015/2016). Methods: Historical data, which included different methodologies, were gathered through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and published literature, and the current data were collected using acoustic recorders along three elevational transects...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158976/intraspecific-variation-in-the-diet-of-the-mexican-garter-snake-thamnophis-eques
#4
Javier Manjarrez, Martha Pacheco-Tinoco, Crystian S Venegas-Barrera
The Mexican Garter Snake (Thamnophis eques) is a terrestrial-aquatic generalist that feeds on both aquatic and terrestrial prey. We describe size-related variation and sexual variation in the diet of T. eques through analysis of 262 samples of identifiable stomach contents in snakes from 23 locations on the Mexican Plateau. The snake T. eques we studied consumed mostly fish, followed in lesser amounts by leeches, earthworms, frogs, and tadpoles. Correspondence analysis suggested that the frequency of consumption of various prey items differed between the categories of age but not between sex of snakes, and the general pattern was a reduction of prey item diversity with size of snake...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157844/prevalence-of-asymptomatic-femoroacetabular-impingement-in-turkey-cross-sectional-study
#5
Gökhan Polat, Koray Şahin, Ufuk Arzu, Alper Şükrü Kendirci, Mehmet Aşık
OBJECTIVES: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is one of the causes of hip pain in young-adult patients. The purpose of our study is to determine the prevalence of radiological FAI findings in asymptomatic population in Turkey. METHODS: Trauma patients aged 18-65 years who applied to the emergency service between September 2015 and September 2016 were retrospectively evaluated for this study. After a preliminary study and power analysis, 2152 hips of the 1076 previously asymptomatic patients were evaluated radiologically with pelvis antero-posterior and frog-leg radiographs...
November 17, 2017: Acta Orthopaedica et Traumatologica Turcica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155944/molecular-interaction-search-tool-mist-an-integrated-resource-for-mining-gene-and-protein-interaction-data
#6
Yanhui Hu, Arunachalam Vinayagam, Ankita Nand, Aram Comjean, Verena Chung, Tong Hao, Stephanie E Mohr, Norbert Perrimon
Model organism and human databases are rich with information about genetic and physical interactions. These data can be used to interpret and guide the analysis of results from new studies and develop new hypotheses. Here, we report the development of the Molecular Interaction Search Tool (MIST; http://fgrtools.hms.harvard.edu/MIST/). The MIST database integrates biological interaction data from yeast, nematode, fly, zebrafish, frog, rat and mouse model systems, as well as human. For individual or short gene lists, the MIST user interface can be used to identify interacting partners based on protein-protein and genetic interaction (GI) data from the species of interest as well as inferred interactions, known as interologs, and to view a corresponding network...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151872/evolved-pesticide-tolerance-influences-susceptibility-to-parasites-in-amphibians
#7
Jessica Hua, Vanessa P Wuerthner, Devin K Jones, Brian Mattes, Rickey D Cothran, Rick A Relyea, Jason T Hoverman
Because ecosystems throughout the globe are contaminated with pesticides, there is a need to understand how natural populations cope with pesticides and the implications for ecological interactions. From an evolutionary perspective, there is evidence that pesticide tolerance can be achieved via two mechanisms: selection for constitutive tolerance over multiple generations or by inducing tolerance within a single generation via phenotypic plasticity. While both mechanisms can allow organisms to persist in contaminated environments, they might result in different performance trade-offs including population susceptibility to parasites...
September 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150997/the-future-of-evidence-based-medicine-is-the-frog-still-boiling
#8
David J J Muckart, Manu L N G Malbrain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150984/how-the-environment-shapes-animal-signals-a-test-of-the-acoustic-adaptation-hypothesis-in-frogs
#9
Sandra Goutte, Alain Dubois, Samuel D Howard, Rafael Márquez, Jodi J L Rowley, J Maximilian Dehling, Philippe Grandcolas, Rongchuan Xiong, Frédéric Legendre
Long distance acoustic signals are widely used in animal communication systems and, in many cases, essential for reproduction. The Acoustic Adaptation Hypothesis (AAH) implies that acoustic signals should be selected for further transmission and better content integrity under the acoustic constraints of the habitat in which they are produced. In the present study, we test predictions derived from the AAH in frogs. Specifically, we focus on the difference between torrent frogs and frogs calling in less noisy habitats...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148374/pathogenic-elizabethkingia-miricola-infection-in-cultured-black-spotted-frogs-china-2016
#10
Ruixue Hu, Junfa Yuan, Yin Meng, Zhe Wang, Zemao Gu
Multiregional outbreaks of meningitis-like disease caused by Elizabethkingia miricola were confirmed in black-spotted frog farms in China in 2016. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that this amphibian E. miricola strain is closely related to human clinical isolates. Our findings indicate that E. miricola can be epizootic and may pose a threat to humans.
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146988/variations-in-nutrient-and-trace-element-composition-of-rice-in-an-organic-rice-frog-coculture-system
#11
Zhimin Sha, Qingnan Chu, Zheng Zhao, Yubo Yue, Linfang Lu, Jing Yuan, Linkui Cao
Introducing frogs into paddy fields can control pests and diseases, and organic farming can improve soil fertility and rice growth. The aim of this 2-year field study was compare the yield and elemental composition of rice between an organic farming system including frogs (ORF) and a conventional rice culture system (CR). The grain yields were almost the same in the ORF system and the CR system. The ORF significantly increased the contents of phosphorus (P), ion (Fe), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo) and selenium (Se) in rice grain at one or both years...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142093/developmental-changes-in-spinal-neuronal-properties-motor-network-configuration-and-neuromodulation-at-free-swimming-stages-of-xenopus-frog-tadpoles
#12
Stephen Paul Currie, Keith Thomas Sillar
We describe a novel preparation of the isolated brainstem and spinal cord from pro-metamorphic tadpole stages of the South African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) that permits whole cell patch-clamp recordings from neurons in the ventral spinal cord. Previous research on earlier stages of the same species has provided one of the most detailed understandings of the design and operation of a CPG circuit. Here we have addressed how development sculpts complexity from this more basic circuit. The preparation generates bouts of fictive swimming activity either spontaneously or in response to electrical stimulation of the optic tectum, allowing an investigation into how the neuronal properties, activity patterns and neuromodulation of locomotor rhythm generation change during development...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141247/connections-of-anterior-thalamic-visual-centers-in-the-leopard-frog-rana-pipiens
#13
Eric W Recktenwald, Elizabeth A Dudkin, Laura K Skorina, William M Saidel, Edward R Gruberg
The amphibian retina projects to two discrete regions of neuropil in the anterior thalamus: the neuropil of Bellonci and the corpus geniculatum. These retinorecipient areas are encompassed within a larger zone of surrounding neuropil we call the NCZ (for neuropil of Bellonci/corpus geniculatum zone). The NCZ is characterized electrophysiologically by a distinctive tonic oscillatory response to blue light; it appears to be a visual module involved in processing the stationary visual environment. Using horseradish peroxidase (HRP), we mapped the connections of the NCZ...
November 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141097/fighting-an-uphill-battle-the-recovery-of-frogs-in-australia-s-wet-tropics
#14
Donald T McKnight, Ross A Alford, Conrad J Hoskin, Lin Schwarzkopf, Sasha E Greenspan, Kyall R Zenger, Deborah S Bower
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138448/antimicrobial-peptides-in-frog-poisons-constitute-a-molecular-toxin-delivery-system-against-predators
#15
Constantijn Raaymakers, Elin Verbrugghe, Sophie Hernot, Tom Hellebuyck, Cecilia Betti, Cindy Peleman, Myriam Claeys, Wim Bert, Vicky Caveliers, Steven Ballet, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Kim Roelants
Animals using toxic peptides and proteins for predation or defense typically depend on specialized morphological structures, like fangs, spines, or a stinger, for effective intoxication. Here we show that amphibian poisons instead incorporate their own molecular system for toxin delivery to attacking predators. Skin-secreted peptides, generally considered part of the amphibian immune system, permeabilize oral epithelial tissue and enable fast access of cosecreted toxins to the predator's bloodstream and organs...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138413/oscillators-that-sync-and-swarm
#16
Kevin P O'Keeffe, Hyunsuk Hong, Steven H Strogatz
Synchronization occurs in many natural and technological systems, from cardiac pacemaker cells to coupled lasers. In the synchronized state, the individual cells or lasers coordinate the timing of their oscillations, but they do not move through space. A complementary form of self-organization occurs among swarming insects, flocking birds, or schooling fish; now the individuals move through space, but without conspicuously altering their internal states. Here we explore systems in which both synchronization and swarming occur together...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134157/overland-movement-in-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-laevis-empirical-dispersal-data-from-within-their-native-range
#17
F André De Villiers, John Measey
Dispersal forms are an important component of the ecology of many animals, and reach particular importance for predicting ranges of invasive species. African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) move overland between water bodies, but all empirical studies are from invasive populations with none from their native southern Africa. Here we report on incidents of overland movement found through a capture-recapture study carried out over a three year period in Overstrand, South Africa. The maximum distance moved was 2...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134152/the-role-of-mef2-transcription-factors-in-dehydration-and-anoxia-survival-in-rana-sylvatica-skeletal-muscle
#18
Myriam P Hoyeck, Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) can endure freezing of up to 65% of total body water during winter. When frozen, wood frogs enter a dormant state characterized by a cessation of vital functions (i.e., no heartbeat, blood circulation, breathing, brain activity, or movement). Wood frogs utilize various behavioural and biochemical adaptations to survive extreme freezing and component anoxia and dehydration stresses, including a global suppression of metabolic functions and gene expression. The stress-responsive myocyte enhancer factor-2 (MEF2) transcription factor family regulates the selective expression of genes involved in glucose transport, protein quality control, and phosphagen homeostasis...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134107/correction-to-the-role-of-climatic-and-geological-events-in-generating-diversity-in-ethiopian-grass-frogs-genus-ptychadena
#19
Megan L Smith, Brice P Noonan, Timothy J Colston
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1098/rsos.170021.].
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134001/a-new-species-of-the-genus-rana-from-henan-central-china-anura-ranidae
#20
Haipeng Zhao, Junxiao Yang, Chunping Wang, Pipeng Li, Robert W Murphy, Jing Che, Zhiyong Yuan
A new species of brown frog Rana luanchuanensis Zhao & Yuan, sp. n. is described from Luanchuan County, western Henan, central China. The mitochondrial genealogy suggests that the new species is the sister taxon to the clade including R. amurensis and R. coreana, and is separated by uncorrected pairwise distances more than 12.5%. Morphologically, this new species differs from its congeners by a suite of characters. Analyses of partial sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) resolve the new species as a single matriline...
2017: ZooKeys
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