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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443279/analogs-of-the-frog-skin-antimicrobial-peptide-temporin-1tb-exhibit-a-wider-spectrum-of-activity-and-a-stronger-antibiofilm-potential-as-compared-to-the-parental-peptide
#1
Lucia Grassi, Giuseppantonio Maisetta, Giuseppe Maccari, Semih Esin, Giovanna Batoni
The frog skin-derived peptide Temporin 1Tb (TB) has gained increasing attention as novel antimicrobial agent for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant and/or biofilm-mediated infections. Nevertheless, such a peptide possesses a preferential spectrum of action against Gram-positive bacteria. In order to improve the therapeutic potential of TB, the present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of two TB analogs against medically relevant bacterial species. Of the two analogs, TB_KKG6A has been previously described in the literature, while TB_L1FK is a new analog designed by us through statistical-based computational strategies...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439781/batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-and-the-decline-and-survival-of-the-relict-leopard-frog
#2
Jef R Jaeger, Anthony W Waddle, Rebeca Rivera, D Tyler Harrison, Silas Ellison, Matthew J Forrest, Vance T Vredenburg, Frank van Breukelen
Epizootic disease caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a major driver of amphibian declines, yet many amphibians declined before the pathogen was described. The Relict Leopard Frog, Rana onca (=Lithobates onca), was nearly extinct, with the exception of populations within a few geothermal springs. Growth of Bd, however, is limited by high water temperature, and geothermal springs may have provided refuge during outbreaks of chytridiomycosis. We conducted field surveys and laboratory experiments to assess the susceptibility of R...
April 24, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439453/competition-and-feeding-ecology-in-two-sympatric-xenopus-species-anura-pipidae
#3
Solveig Vogt, F André de Villiers, Flora Ihlow, Dennis Rödder, John Measey
The widespread African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) occurs in sympatry with the IUCN Endangered Cape platanna (Xenopus gilli) throughout its entire range in the south-western Cape, South Africa. In order to investigate aspects of the interspecific competition between populations of X. laevis and X. gilli, an assessment of their niche differentiation was conducted through a comprehensive study on food composition and trophic niche structure at two study sites: the Cape of Good Hope (CoGH) and Kleinmond. A total of 399 stomach contents of X...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439068/limited-genomic-consequences-of-hybridization-between-two-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-gilli-and-x-laevis-anura-pipidae
#4
Benjamin L S Furman, Caroline M S Cauret, Graham A Colby, G John Measey, Ben J Evans
The Cape platanna, Xenopus gilli, an endangered frog, hybridizes with the African clawed frog, X. laevis, in South Africa. Estimates of the extent of gene flow between these species range from pervasive to rare. Efforts have been made in the last 30 years to minimize hybridization between these two species in the west population of X. gilli, but not the east populations. To further explore the impact of hybridization and the efforts to minimize it, we examined molecular variation in one mitochondrial and 13 nuclear genes in genetic samples collected recently (2013) and also over two decades ago (1994)...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438699/cryptic-diversity-in-amazonian-frogs-integrative-taxonomy-of-the-genus-anomaloglossus-amphibia-anura-aromobatidae-reveals-a-unique-case-of-diversification-within-the-guiana-shield
#5
Jean-Pierre Vacher, Philippe J R Kok, Miguel T Rodrigues, Jucivaldo Dias Lima, Andy Lorenzini, Quentin Martinez, Manon Fallet, Elodie A Courtois, Michel Blanc, Philippe Gaucher, Maël Dewynter, Rawien Jairam, Paul Ouboter, Christophe Thébaud, Antoine Fouquet
Lack of resolution on species boundaries and distribution can hamper inferences in many fields of biology, notably biogeography and conservation biology. This is particularly true in megadiverse and under-surveyed regions such as Amazonia, where species richness remains vastly underestimated. Recently, integrative approaches using a combination of phenotypic and molecular phylogenetics evidence have proved extremely successful in reducing knowledge gaps, especially in animal groups displaying high levels of cryptic diversity like amphibians...
April 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437549/poor-utility-of-gonadal-shielding-for-pediatric-pelvic-radiographs
#6
Mark C Lee, Jessica Lloyd, Matthew J Solomito
Plain pelvic radiographs are commonly used for a variety of pediatric orthopedic disorders. Lead shielding is typically placed over the gonads to minimize radiation exposure to these sensitive tissues. However, misplaced shielding can sabotage efforts to protect patients from excessive radiation exposure either by not covering radiosensitive tissues or by obscuring anatomic areas of interest, prompting repeat radiographic examinations. The goal of this study was to determine the incidence of misplaced shielding for pelvic radiographs obtained for pediatric orthopedic evaluation...
April 24, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437181/isolation-of-brucella-inopinata-like-bacteria-from-white-s-and-denny-s-tree-frogs
#7
Masanobu Kimura, Yumi Une, Michio Suzuki, Eun-Sil Park, Koichi Imaoka, Shigeru Morikawa
Brucella inopinata strain BO1 and B. sp. strain BO2 isolated from human patients, respectively, are genetically different from classical Brucella species. We isolated bacteria of the genus Brucella from two species of wild-caught tropical frogs kept in the facilities in Japan: White's tree frog, which inhabits Oceania, and Denny's tree frog, which inhabits Southeast Asia. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and recA gene sequences and multilocus sequence analysis showed that two isolates of Brucella spp...
May 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435254/daphnia-magna-and-xenopus-laevis-as-in-vivo-models-to-probe-toxicity-and-uptake-of-quantum-dots-functionalized-with-gh625
#8
Emilia Galdiero, Annarita Falanga, Antonietta Siciliano, Valeria Maselli, Marco Guida, Rosa Carotenuto, Margherita Tussellino, Lucia Lombardi, Giovanna Benvenuto, Stefania Galdiero
The use of quantum dots (QDs) for nanomedicine is hampered by their potential toxicologic effects and difficulties with delivery into the cell interior. We accomplished an in vivo study exploiting Daphnia magna and Xenopus laevis to evaluate both toxicity and uptake of QDs coated with the membranotropic peptide gH625 derived from the glycoprotein H of herpes simplex virus and widely used for drug delivery studies. We evaluated and compared the effects of QDs and gH625-QDs on the survival, uptake, induction of several responsive pathways and genotoxicity in D...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434226/in-situ-microprobe-single-cell-capillary-electrophoresis-mass-spectrometry-metabolic-reorganization-in-single-differentiating-cells-in-the-live-vertebrate-x-laevis-embryo
#9
Rosemary M Onjiko, Erika P Portero, Sally A Moody, Peter Nemes
Knowledge of single-cell metabolism would provide a powerful window to cell activity changes as cells differentiate to all the tissues of the vertebrate embryo. However, single-cell mass spectrometry technologies have not yet been made compatible with complex three-dimensional changes and rapidly decreasing cell sizes during early development of the embryo. Here, we bridge this technological gap by integrating capillary microsampling, microscale metabolite extraction, and capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) to enable direct metabolic metabolic analysis of identified cells in the live frog embryo (Xenopus laevis)...
April 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432565/parapharyngodon-hugoi-n-sp-a-new-nematode-oxyuroidea-pharyngodonidae-of-the-tree-frog-trachycephalus-typhonius-linnaeus-from-the-brazilian-pantanal-including-a-key-to-the-congeners-from-amphibians-of-the-american-continent
#10
Felipe B Pereira, Karla M Campião, José L Luque, Luiz E R Tavares
A new nematode Parapharyngodon hugoi n. sp. (Oxyuroidea: Pharyngodonidae) is described parasitising the large intestine of the tree frog Trachycephalus typhonius (Linnaeus) (Anura: Hylidae) from the wetlands of Pantanal, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The new species exhibits a unique structure of the posterior cloacal lip in males, which is supported by a rigid V-shaped structure. Parapharyngodon hylidae parasitic in hylid frogs, including T. typhonius, from Mexico, is the most similar congener to P...
April 21, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432181/dual-nature-of-pseudouridylation-in-u2-snrna-pus1p-dependent-and-pus1p-independent-activities-in-yeasts-and-higher-eukaryotes
#11
Svetlana Deryusheva, Joseph G Gall
The pseudouridine at position 43 in vertebrate U2 snRNA is one of the most conserved posttranscriptional modifications of spliceosomal snRNAs; the equivalent position is pseudouridylated in U2 snRNAs in different phyla including fungi, insects, and worms. Pseudouridine synthase Pus1p acts alone on U2 snRNA to form this pseudouridine in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mouse. Furthermore, in S. cerevisiae Pus1p is the only pseudouridine synthase for this position. Using an in vivo yeast cell system we tested enzymatic activity of Pus1p from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the frog Xenopus tropicalis...
April 21, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431762/effects-of-a-common-insecticide-on-wetland-communities-with-varying-quality-of-leaf-litter-inputs
#12
A B Stoler, B M Mattes, W D Hintz, D K Jones, L Lind, M S Schuler, R A Relyea
Chemical contamination of aquatic systems often co-occurs with dramatic changes in surrounding terrestrial vegetation. Plant leaf litter serves as a crucial resource input to many freshwater systems, and changes in litter species composition can alter the attributes of freshwater communities. However, little is known how variation in litter inputs interacts with chemical contaminants. We investigated the ecological effects resulting from changes in tree leaf litter inputs to freshwater communities, and how those changes might interact with the timing of insecticide contamination...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429369/variation-in-brain-anatomy-in-frogs-and-its-possible-bearing-on-their-locomotor-ecology
#13
Adriana S Manzano, Anthony Herrel, Anne-Claire Fabre, Virginia Abdala
Despite the long-standing interest in the evolution of the brain, relatively little is known about variation in brain anatomy in frogs. Yet, frogs are ecologically diverse and, as such, variation in brain anatomy linked to differences in lifestyle or locomotor behavior can be expected. Here we present a comparative morphological study focusing on the macro- and micro-anatomy of the six regions of the brain and its choroid plexus: the olfactory bulbs, the telencephalon, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the rhombencephalon, and the cerebellum...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429172/a-new-species-of-haematoloechus-looss-1899-digenea-plagiorchioidea-haematoloechidae-a-parasite-of-rana-psilonota-webb-and-r-zweifeli-hillis-frost-webb-anura-ranidae-in-mexico
#14
Virginia León-Règagnon, Ángeles R Romero-Mayén
During an inventory of the helminths of amphibians in Mexico, specimens of an undescribed species of Haematoloechus Looss, 1899 (Digenea: Haematoloechidae) were collected from the lungs of frogs of the "tarahumarae" group in western México. Haematoloechus longicollum n. sp. differs from other known species of Haematoloechus by the combination of the following characters: body elongate and slender in the preovarian region and broad and blunt in the postovarian region, ovary separated from the ventral sucker more than twice the ovary length, oral sucker to pharynx length ratio 1:0...
April 20, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428844/stable-isotope-analyses-a-method-to-distinguish-intensively-farmed-from-wild-frogs
#15
Carolin Dittrich, Ulrich Struck, Mark-Oliver Rödel
Consumption of frog legs is increasing worldwide, with potentially dramatic effects for ecosystems. More and more functioning frog farms are reported to exist. However, due to the lack of reliable methods to distinguish farmed from wild-caught individuals, the origin of frogs in the international trade is often uncertain. Here, we present a new methodological approach to this problem. We investigated the isotopic composition of legally traded frog legs from suppliers in Vietnam and Indonesia. Muscle and bone tissue samples were examined for δ(15)N, δ(13)C, and δ(18)O stable isotope compositions, to elucidate the conditions under which the frogs grew up...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426400/morphological-description-of-cosmocerca-sp-nematoda-cosmocerdidae-from-the-mascarene-grass-frog-ptychadena-cf-mascareniensis-amphibia-ptychadenidae-a-light-and-scanning-electron-microscopic-studies
#16
Rewaida Abdel-Gaber, Fathy Abdel-Ghaffar, Reem Kamel, Sherein Maher, Nashwa El Deeb, Saleh Al Quraishy, Heinz Mehlhorn
The Mascarene grass frog Ptychadena cf. mascareniensis is a species of frog with a vast area of distribution in Africa. A total of 300 frog specimens were collected from different localities at El-Giza province, Egypt; then dissected and examined for the presence of parasitic infection. Only eighty six (28.66%) specimens were found to be naturally infected with nematode parasite. Seasonally, the prevalence of infection was reached its maximum value of 74.66% during summer and minimum values of 26.66% (20/75), 13...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425744/once-a-frog-lover-always-a-frog-lover-infants-goal-generalization-is-influenced-by-the-nature-of-accompanying-speech
#17
Alia Martin, Catharyn C Shelton, Jessica A Sommerville
The ability to interpret choices as enduring preferences that generalize beyond the immediate situation gives adults a powerful means of predicting and explaining others' behavior. How do infants come to recognize that current choices can be driven by generalizable preferences? Although infants can encode others' actions in terms of goals (Woodward, 1998), there is evidence that 10-month-olds still fail to generalize goal information presented in one environment to an event sequence occurring in a new environment (Sommerville & Crane, 2009)...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425422/mass-mortality-of-eastern-box-turtles-with-upper-respiratory-disease-following-atypical-cold-weather
#18
Mickey Agha, Steven J Price, A Justin Nowakowski, Ben Augustine, Brian D Todd
Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper respiratory disease...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424669/inferring-microbial-interactions-in-the-gut-of-the-hong-kong-whipping-frog-polypedates-megacephalus-and-a-validation-using-probiotics
#19
Francis Cheng-Hsuan Weng, Grace Tzun-Wen Shaw, Chieh-Yin Weng, Yi-Ju Yang, Daryi Wang
The concerted activity of intestinal microbes is crucial to the health and development of their host organisms. Investigation of microbial interactions in the gut should deepen our understanding of how these micro-ecosystems function. Due to advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies, various bioinformatic strategies have been proposed to investigate these microbial interactions. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal microbial community and difficulties in monitoring their interactions, at present there is a gap between the theory and biological application...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423338/an-amphibian-host-defense-peptide-is-virucidal-for-human-h1-hemagglutinin-bearing-influenza-viruses
#20
David J Holthausen, Song Hee Lee, Vineeth Tv Kumar, Nicole M Bouvier, Florian Krammer, Ali H Ellebedy, Jens Wrammert, Anice C Lowen, Sanil George, Madhavan Radhakrishna Pillai, Joshy Jacob
Although vaccines confer protection against influenza A viruses, antiviral treatment becomes the first line of defense during pandemics because there is insufficient time to produce vaccines. Current antiviral drugs are susceptible to drug resistance, and developing new antivirals is essential. We studied host defense peptides from the skin of the South Indian frog and demonstrated that one of these, which we named "urumin," is virucidal for H1 hemagglutinin-bearing human influenza A viruses. This peptide specifically targeted the conserved stalk region of H1 hemagglutinin and was effective against drug-resistant H1 influenza viruses...
April 18, 2017: Immunity
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