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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636789/out-of-the-dark-350-million-years-of-conservatism-and-evolution-in-diel-activity-patterns-in-vertebrates
#1
Samantha R Anderson, John J Wiens
Many animals are active only during a particular time (e.g., day vs. night), a partitioning that may have important consequences for species coexistence. An open question is the extent to which this diel activity niche is evolutionarily conserved or labile. Here, we analyze diel activity data across a phylogeny of 1914 tetrapod species. We find strong phylogenetic signal, showing that closely related species tend to share similar activity patterns. Ancestral reconstructions show that nocturnality was the most likely ancestral diel activity pattern for tetrapods and many major clades within it (e...
June 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636781/discovery-of-two-bombinin-peptides-with-antimicrobial-and-anticancer-activities-from-the-skin-secretion-of-oriental-fire-bellied-toad-bombina-orientalis
#2
Chang Zhou, Zhengming Wang, Xin Peng, Yao Liu, Yangjun Lin, Zhe Zhang, Yuling Qiu, Meihua Jin, Ran Wang, Dexin Kong
Amphibian skin secretions are known to contain numerous peptides with a large array of biological activities. Bombinins are a group of amphibian derived peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial activities that have been only identified from the ancient toad species, Bombina. In this study, we described the identification and characterization of a novel bombinin precursor which encoded a bombinin like peptide (BLP-7) and a novel bombinin H type peptide (named as Bombinin H-BO) from the skin secretion of Oriental fire-bellied toad, Bombina orientalis...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634106/biology-evolution-and-medical-importance-of-polyomaviruses-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Ugo Moens, Andi Krumbholz, Bernhard Ehlers, Roland Zell, Reimar Johne, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Chris Lauber
The family Polyomaviridae encompasses non-enveloped viruses with a circular dsDNA genome that is typically approximately 5000bp in length. Originally isolated from mammals, polyomavirus sequences have now been detected in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although it remains to be determined whether all these animals are genuine hosts. The genomes of all polyomaviruses encode at least two regulatory proteins (large and small tumour antigen) and two structural proteins (capsid proteins VP1 and VP2) whose functions have been defined...
June 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632458/aquaporins-novel-targets-for-age-related-ocular-disorders
#4
Rajkumar Patil, Haishan Wang, Najam A Sharif, Alok Mitra
Aquaporins (AQPs), a large family of membrane protein channels that facilitate transport of water and other small solutes, play important roles in physiological functions and human diseases. Up till now, 13 types of AQPs, numbered 0 through 12, have been identified in various mammalian tissues. Homologous genes for AQPs in amphibians, insects, and bacteria highlight the evolutionary conservation and, thus, the importance of these membrane channels. Many members of the AQP family are expressed in the eye. AQP1, which is a water-selective channel, is expressed in the anterior chamber (cornea, ciliary body, trabecular meshwork) and posterior chamber (retina and microvessels in choroid), controlling the fluid homeostasis in the eye...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631214/identification-of-bufadienolides-from-the-boreal-toad-anaxyrus-boreas-active-against-a-fungal-pathogen
#5
Kelly Barnhart, Megan E Forman, Thomas P Umile, Jordan Kueneman, Valerie McKenzie, Irene Salinas, Kevin P C Minbiole, Douglas C Woodhams
Amphibian granular glands provide a wide range of compounds on the skin that defend against pathogens and predators. We identified three bufadienolides-the steroid-like compounds arenobufagin, gamabufotalin, and telocinobufagin-from the boreal toad, Anaxyrus boreas, through liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Compounds were detected both after inducing skin gland secretions and in constitutive mucosal rinses from toads. We described the antimicrobial properties of each bufadienolide against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), an amphibian fungal pathogen linked with boreal toad population declines...
June 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630337/stem-caecilian-from-the-triassic-of-colorado-sheds-light-on-the-origins-of-lissamphibia
#6
Jason D Pardo, Bryan J Small, Adam K Huttenlocker
The origin of the limbless caecilians remains a lasting question in vertebrate evolution. Molecular phylogenies and morphology support that caecilians are the sister taxon of batrachians (frogs and salamanders), from which they diverged no later than the early Permian. Although recent efforts have discovered new, early members of the batrachian lineage, the record of pre-Cretaceous caecilians is limited to a single species, Eocaecilia micropodia The position of Eocaecilia within tetrapod phylogeny is controversial, as it already acquired the specialized morphology that characterizes modern caecilians by the Jurassic...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629829/morphological-variability-and-molecular-characterization-of-pomphorhynchus-zhoushanensis-sp-nov-acanthocephala-pomphorhynchidae-with-comments-on-the-systematic-status-of-pomphorhynchus-monticelli-1905
#7
Liang Li, Hui-Xia Chen, Omar M Amin, Yue Yang
Species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 commonly parasitize the digestive tract of freshwater fishes, and rarely occur in marine fishes and amphibians. In the present study, Pomphorhynchus zhoushanensis sp. nov., collected from the barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel) (Perciformes: Oplegnathidae) in the East China Sea, was described using integrated approaches, including light and scanning electron microscopy, and the sequencing and analysing of ribosomal [small ribosomal DNA (18S) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)] and mitochondrial [cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1)] target regions...
June 16, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629177/exnotic-should-we-be-keeping-exotic-pets
#8
Rachel A Grant, V Tamara Montrose, Alison P Wills
There has been a recent trend towards keeping non-traditional companion animals, also known as exotic pets. These pets include parrots, reptiles, amphibians and rabbits, as well as small species of rodent such as degus and guinea pigs. Many of these exotic pet species are not domesticated, and often have special requirements in captivity, which many owners do not have the facilities or knowledge to provide. Keeping animals in settings to which they are poorly adapted is a threat to their welfare. Additionally, owner satisfaction with the animal may be poor due to a misalignment of expectations, which further impacts on welfare, as it may lead to repeated rehoming or neglect...
June 19, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628994/tio2-surfaces-support-neuron-growth-during-electric-field-stimulation
#9
M Canillas, B Moreno, E Chinarro, A M Rajnicek
TiO2 is proposed here for the first time as a substrate for neural prostheses that involve electrical stimulation. Several characteristics make TiO2 an attractive material: Its electrochemical behaviour as an insulator prevents surface changes during stimulation. Hydration creates -OH groups at the surface, which aid cell adhesion by interaction with inorganic ions and macromolecules in cell membranes. Its ability to neutralize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that trigger inflammatory processes confers biocompatibility properties in dark conditions...
October 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623798/monitoring-the-ecotoxicity-of-%C3%AE-al2o3-and-ni-%C3%AE-al2o3-nanomaterials-by-means-of-a-battery-of-bioassays
#10
Gabriela Svartz, Mariana Papa, Marina Gosatti, Marianela Jordán, Analia Soldati, Paula Samter, María M Guraya, Cristina Pérez Coll, Soledad Perez Catán
The increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) to a variety of new technologies has become a matter of concern due to the potential toxicity of these materials. Many questions about the fate of NPs in the environment and the subsequent impact on ecosystems need to be answered. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ecotoxicity of two alumina-based nanoceramics, γ-Al2O3 (NC) and Ni/ γ-Al2O3 (NiNC) by means of three different standardized tests: Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), bioassay with luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox), and bioassay on amphibian larvae (Rhinella arenarum) (AMPHITOX)...
June 14, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621462/evidence-for-convergent-evolution-of-a-neocortex-like-structure-in-a-late-permian-therapsid
#11
Michael Laaß, Anders Kaestner
The special sensory, motor, and cognitive capabilities of mammals mainly depend upon the neocortex, which is the six-layered cover of the mammalian forebrain. The origin of the neocortex is still controversial and the current view is that larger brains with neocortex first evolved in late Triassic Mammaliaformes. Here, we report the earliest evidence of a structure analogous to the mammalian neocortex in a forerunner of mammals, the fossorial anomodont Kawingasaurus fossilis from the late Permian of Tanzania...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618059/cells-from-subcutaneous-tissues-contribute-to-scarless-skin-regeneration-in-xenopus-laevis-froglets
#12
Rina Otsuka-Yamaguchi, Aiko Kawasumi-Kita, Nanako Kudo, Yumi Izutsu, Koji Tamura, Hitoshi Yokoyama
BACKGROUND: Mammals cannot regenerate the dermis and other skin structures after an injury and instead form a scar. However, a Xenopus laevis froglet can regenerate scarless skin, including the dermis and secretion glands, on the limbs and trunk after skin excision. Subcutaneous tissues in the limbs and trunk consist mostly of muscles. Although subcutaneous tissues beneath a skin injury appear disorganized, the cellular contribution of these underlying tissues to skin regeneration remains unclear...
June 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617644/a-parent-offspring-trade-off-limits-the-evolution-of-an-ontogenetic-niche-shift
#13
Hanna Ten Brink, André M de Roos
Many free-living animal species, including the majority of fish, insects, and amphibians, change their food and habitat during their life. Even though these ontogenetic changes in niche are common, it is not well understood which ecological conditions have favored the evolution of these shifts. Using an adaptive dynamics approach, we show that it is evolutionarily advantageous to switch to an alternative food source in the course of ontogeny when this results in a higher intake rate for the switching consumers...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617640/microhabitat-and-climatic-niche-change-explain-patterns-of-diversification-among-frog-families
#14
Daniel S Moen, John J Wiens
A major goal of ecology and evolutionary biology is to explain patterns of species richness among clades. Differences in rates of net diversification (speciation minus extinction over time) may often explain these patterns, but the factors that drive variation in diversification rates remain uncertain. Three important candidates are climatic niche position (e.g., whether clades are primarily temperate or tropical), rates of climatic niche change among species within clades, and microhabitat (e.g., aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal)...
July 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616244/macrophages-and-fibroblasts-during-inflammation-and-tissue-repair-in-models-of-organ-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Anthony L Mescher
This review provides a concise summary of the changing phenotypes of macrophages and fibroblastic cells during the local inflammatory response, the onset of tissue repair, and the resolution of inflammation which follow injury to an organ. Both cell populations respond directly to damage and present coordinated sequences of activation states which determine the reparative outcome, ranging from true regeneration of the organ to fibrosis and variable functional deficits. Recent work with mammalian models of organ regeneration, including regeneration of full-thickness skin, hair follicles, ear punch tissues, and digit tips, is summarized and the roles of local immune cells in these systems are discussed...
April 2017: Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616069/population-genetic-and-field-ecological-analyses-return-similar-estimates-of-dispersal-over-space-and-time-in-an-endangered-amphibian
#16
Ian J Wang, H Bradley Shaffer
The explosive growth of empirical population genetics has seen a proliferation of analytical methods leading to a steady increase in our ability to accurately measure key population parameters, including genetic isolation, effective population size, and gene flow, in natural systems. Assuming they yield similar results, population genetic methods offer an attractive complement to, or replacement of, traditional field-ecological studies. However, empirical assessments of the concordance between direct field-ecological and indirect population genetic studies of the same populations are uncommon in the literature...
July 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615642/skin-sloughing-in-susceptible-and-resistant-amphibians-regulates-infection-with-a-fungal-pathogen
#17
Michel E B Ohmer, Rebecca L Cramp, Catherine J M Russo, Craig R White, Craig E Franklin
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been implicated in amphibian population declines globally. Given that Bd infection is limited to the skin in post-metamorphic amphibians, routine skin sloughing may regulate infection. Skin sloughing has been shown to reduce the number of cultivatable microbes on amphibian skin, and Bd infection increases skin sloughing rates at high loads. However, it is unclear whether species specific differences in skin sloughing patterns could regulate Bd population growth on the skin, and influence subsequent infection dynamics...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614424/effects-of-roads-on-the-vertebrates-diversity-of-the-indigenous-territory-paresi-and-its-surrounding
#18
T R Brum, M Santos-Filho, G R Canale, A R A Ignácio
Roadkill impact is still underestimated due to the lack of knowledge of its intensity and effect on animal populations. To assess differences between animal roadkills on roads in distinct landscapes, this study recorded meso- and megavertebrate roadkills along 50 km during a year in two highways in the transitional area of Amazonia/Cerrado in Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso: MT-358 and MT-235, the latter crossing the Paresi Indigenous Land. We assessed roadkill rates and points with higher rates of roadkills, recording the most impacted species, seasonal effects, biomass loss, activity period of species, and traffic volume...
June 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612963/the-effectiveness-of-surrogate-taxa-to-conserve-freshwater-biodiversity
#19
David R Stewart, Zachary E Underwood, Frank J Rahel, Annika W Walters
Establishing protected areas has long been an effective conservation strategy, and is often based on more readily surveyed species. The potential of any freshwater taxa to be a surrogate of other aquatic groups has not been fully explored. We compiled occurrence data on 72 species of freshwater fish, amphibians, mussels, and aquatic reptiles for the Great Plains, Wyoming. We used hierarchical Bayesian multi-species mixture models and MaxEnt models to describe species distributions, and program Zonation to identify conservation priority areas for each aquatic group...
June 14, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611079/elevated-camp-improves-signal-to-noise-ratio-in-amphibian-rod-photoreceptors
#20
Luba A Astakhova, Darya A Nikolaeva, Tamara V Fedotkina, Victor I Govardovskii, Michael L Firsov
The absolute sensitivity of vertebrate retinas is set by a background noise, called dark noise, which originates from several different cell types and is generated by different molecular mechanisms. The major share of dark noise is produced by photoreceptors and consists of two components, discrete and continuous. Discrete noise is generated by spontaneous thermal activations of visual pigment. These events are undistinguishable from real single-photon responses (SPRs) and might be considered an equivalent of the signal...
June 13, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
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