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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455088/parasite-susceptibility-in-an-amphibian-host-is-modified-by-salinization-and-predators
#1
Nicholas Buss, Jessica Hua
Secondary salinization represents a global threat to freshwater ecosystems. Salts, such as NaCl, can be toxic to freshwater organisms and may also modify the outcome of species interactions (e.g. host-parasite interactions). In nature, hosts and their parasites are embedded in complex communities where they face anthropogenic and biotic (i.e. predators) stressors that influence host-parasite interactions. As human populations grow, considering how anthropogenic and natural stressors interact to shape host-parasite interactions will become increasingly important...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455004/role-of-rho-kinase-rock-in-tonic-but-not-phasic-contraction-in-the-frog-stomach-smooth-muscle
#2
Leyla Sahın, Ozge Selin Cevık, Dilan Deniz Koyuncu, Kansu Buyukafsar
AIMS: Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling has extensively been shown to take part in mammalian smooth muscle contractions in response to diverse agents yet its role in the contraction of amphibian smooth muscle has not been investigated. Therefore, we aimed to explore any role of this pathway in the contractions of frog stomach smooth. MAIN METHODS: The strips were prepared and suspended in organ baths filled with Ringer solution. Changes in the circular strips of the frog stomach muscle length were recorded isotonically with a force transducer in organ baths...
February 15, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453851/dicer-inactivation-stimulates-limb-regeneration-ability-in-xenopus-laevis
#3
Mengshi Zhang, Li Yang, Feng Yuan, Ying Chen, Gufa Lin
The ontogenetic decline of regeneration capacity in the anuran amphibian Xenopus makes it an excellent model for regeneration studies. However, the cause of the regeneration ability decline is not fully understood. MicroRNAs regulate animal development, and have been indicated in various regeneration situations. However, little is known about the role of microRNAs during limb regeneration in Xenopus. This study investigates the effect of Dicer, an enzyme responsible for microRNA maturation, on limb development and regeneration in Xenopus...
February 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453767/increasing-connectivity-between-metapopulation-ecology-and-landscape-ecology
#4
Paige E Howell, Erin Muths, Blake R Hossack, Brent H Sigafus, Richard B Chandler
Metapopulation ecology and landscape ecology aim to understand how spatial structure influences ecological processes, yet these disciplines address the problem using fundamentally different modeling approaches. Metapopulation models describe how the spatial distribution of patches affects colonization and extinction, but often do not account for the heterogeneity in the landscape between patches. Models in landscape ecology use detailed descriptions of landscape structure, but often without considering colonization and extinction dynamics...
February 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453162/the-effect-of-cadmium-exposure-on-diversity-of-intestinal-microbial-community-of-rana-chensinensis-tadpoles
#5
Danyang Mu, Jinhua Meng, Xiaoxue Bo, Minyao Wu, Hui Xiao, Hongyuan Wang
Cadmium is a natural and widely distributed toxicant, and can be commonly found in environment. Intestinal microbiota plays a very important role in maintaining its host's health. The effects of cadmium on the intestinal microbiota composition and stability of amphibians are little known. We exposed Rana chensinensis (R. chensinensis) embryos to different concentrations of cadmium (0, 112 and 448 μg Cd L -1 ) until they reached Gosner stage 38, and analyzed their microbial communities using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing...
February 13, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453063/-1-h-nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-interactive-effects-between-the-carrier-solvent-methanol-and-a-pharmaceutical-mixture-in-an-amphibian-developmental-bioassay-with-limnodynastes-peronii
#6
Steven D Melvin, Oliver A H Jones, Anthony R Carroll, Frederic D L Leusch
Organic carrier solvents are used in aquatic toxicity testing to improve chemical solubility and facilitate the exploration of dose-response relationships. Both water- and solvent-control groups are normally included in these scenarios to ensure that the solvent itself has no effect on the test organism, but this fails to consider possible interactive effects between carrier solvents and contaminants of interest. We explored this topic by exposing Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to a mixture of common water-soluble pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, metformin and valproic acid) in the presence and absence of the carrier solvent methanol, according to standard developmental bioassay methodology...
February 10, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452251/using-in-vitro-derived-enzymatic-reaction-rates-of-metabolism-to-inform-pesticide-body-burdens-in-amphibians
#7
Donna A Glinski, W Matthew Henderson, Robin J Van Meter, S Thomas Purucker
Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. To assess the potential metabolic activation of broad use pesticides in amphibians, in vitro and in vivo metabolic rate constants were derived from toad (Anaxyrus terrestris) livers in experiments measuring the depletion of atrazine (ATZ), triadimefon (TDN), and fipronil (FIP) as well as formation of their metabolites. To determine the predictability of these in vitro derived rate constants, Fowler's toads (Anaxyrus fowleri) were exposed to soil contaminated with each of the pesticides at maximum application rate...
February 13, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451715/transitions-in-sex-determination-and-sex-chromosomes-across-vertebrate-species
#8
Matthew W Pennell, Judith E Mank, Catherine L Peichel
Despite the prevalence of sexual reproduction across eukaryotes, there is a remarkable diversity of sex determination mechanisms. The underlying causes of this diversity remain unclear, and it is unknown if there are convergent trends in the directionality of turnover in sex determination mechanisms. We used the recently assembled Tree of Sex database to assess patterns in the evolution of sex determination systems in the remarkably diverse vertebrate clades of teleost fish, squamate reptiles, and amphibians...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451604/record-of-predation-by-two-amphibians-rhinella-major-and-ctenophryne-geayi-by-erythrolamprus-dorsocorallinus-esqueda-natera-la-marca-ilija-fistar-2005-serpentes-dipsadidae-in-northwestern-brazil
#9
J S Araújo, F Corrêa, L J Soares, M B Souza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449565/amphibian-chytridiomycosis-outbreak-dynamics-are-linked-with-host-skin-bacterial-community-structure
#10
Kieran A Bates, Frances C Clare, Simon O'Hanlon, Jaime Bosch, Lola Brookes, Kevin Hopkins, Emilia J McLaughlin, Olivia Daniel, Trenton W J Garner, Matthew C Fisher, Xavier A Harrison
Host-associated microbes are vital for combatting infections and maintaining health. In amphibians, certain skin-associated bacteria inhibit the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), yet our understanding of host microbial ecology and its role in disease outbreaks is limited. We sampled skin-associated bacteria and Bd from Pyrenean midwife toad populations exhibiting enzootic or epizootic disease dynamics. We demonstrate that bacterial communities differ between life stages with few shared taxa, indicative of restructuring at metamorphosis...
February 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446515/long-term-monitoring-of-an-amphibian-community-after-a-climate-change-and-infectious-disease-driven-species-extirpation
#11
Jaime Bosch, Saioa Fernández-Beaskoetxea, Trenton W J Garner, Luis María Carrascal
Infectious disease and climate change are considered major threats to biodiversity and act as drivers behind the global amphibian decline. This is to a large extent based on short term studies that are designed to detect the immediate and strongest biodiversity responses to a threatening process. What few long term studies are available, although typically focussed on single species, report outcomes that often diverge significantly from the short term species responses. Here we report the results of an 18 year survey of an amphibian community exposed to both climate warming and the emergence of lethal chytridiomycosis...
February 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444943/vaccinia-virus-c9-ankyrin-repeat-f-box-protein-is-a-newly-identified-antagonist-of-the-type-i-interferon-induced-antiviral-state
#12
Ruikang Liu, Bernard Moss
Type I interferons (IFNs) induce expression of more than 300 cellular genes that provide protection against viruses and other pathogens. For survival, viruses evolved defenses to prevent the IFN response or counteract the IFN-induced antiviral state. However, because viruses and cells co-evolved, the dynamic relationship between virus and host is difficult to discern. In the present study, we demonstrated that vaccinia virus with a large deletion near the left end of the genome had a diminished ability to replicate in cells that had been pre-treated with IFNβ, suggesting that one or more of the missing 17 open reading frames (ORFs) encodes an antagonist of the IFN-induced antiviral state...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444129/long-term-habitat-changes-in-a-protected-area-implications-for-herpetofauna-habitat-management-and-restoration
#13
Chantel E Markle, Gillian Chow-Fraser, Patricia Chow-Fraser
Point Pelee National Park, located at the southern-most tip of Canada's mainland, historically supported a large number of herpetofauna species; however, despite nearly a century of protection, six snake and five amphibian species have disappeared, and remaining species-at-risk populations are thought to be in decline. We hypothesized that long-term changes in availability and distribution of critical habitat types may have contributed to the disappearance of herpetofauna. To track habitat changes we used aerial image data spanning 85 years (1931-2015) and manually digitized and classified image data using a standardized framework...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444096/invasive-african-clawed-frogs-in-california-a-reservoir-for-or-predator-against-the-chytrid-fungus
#14
Emily A Wilson, Cheryl J Briggs, Tom L Dudley
Amphibian species are experiencing population declines due to infection by the fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis), an asymptomatic carrier of Bd, has been implicated in the spread of this pathogen through global trade and established invasive populations on several continents. However, research has not explored the relationships of both life stages of this amphibian with Bd. While the post-metamorphic individuals may act as a reservoir, spreading the infection to susceptible species, the filter-feeding larvae may consume the motile Bd zoospores from the water column, potentially reducing pathogen abundance and thus the likelihood of infection...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442320/amphibian-zic-genes
#15
Christa Merzdorf, Jennifer Forecki
Studies in Xenopus laevis have greatly contributed to understanding the roles that the Zic family of zinc finger transcription factors play as essential drivers of early development. Explant systems that are not readily available in other organisms give Xenopus embryos a unique place in these studies, facilitated by the recent sequencing of the Xenopus laevis genome. A number of upstream regulators of zic gene expression have been identified, such as inhibition of BMP signaling, as well as calcium, FGF, and canonical Wnt signaling...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430754/host-pathogen-metapopulation-dynamics-suggest-high-elevation-refugia-for-boreal-toads
#16
Brittany A Mosher, Larissa L Bailey, Erin Muths, Kathryn P Huyvaert
Emerging infectious diseases are an increasingly common threat to wildlife. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease that has been linked to amphibian declines around the world. Few studies exist that explore amphibian-Bd dynamics at the landscape scale, limiting our ability to identify which factors are associated with variation in population susceptibility and to develop effective in situ disease management. Declines of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in the Southern Rocky Mountains are largely attributed to chytridiomycosis but variation exists in local extinction of boreal toads across this metapopulation...
February 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427191/sequestered-alkaloid-defenses-in-the-dendrobatid-poison-frog-oophaga-pumilio-provide-variable-protection-from-microbial-pathogens
#17
Kyle J Hovey, Emily M Seiter, Erin E Johnson, Ralph A Saporito
Most amphibians produce their own defensive chemicals; however, poison frogs sequester their alkaloid-based defenses from dietary arthropods. Alkaloids function as a defense against predators, and certain types appear to inhibit microbial growth. Alkaloid defenses vary considerably among populations of poison frogs, reflecting geographic differences in availability of dietary arthropods. Consequently, environmentally driven differences in frog defenses may have significant implications regarding their protection against pathogens...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426121/the-impact-of-human-activities-and-lifestyles-on-the-interlinked-microbiota-and-health-of-humans-and-of-ecosystems
#18
REVIEW
Lucette Flandroy, Theofilos Poutahidis, Gabriele Berg, Gerard Clarke, Maria-Carlota Dao, Ellen Decaestecker, Eeva Furman, Tari Haahtela, Sébastien Massart, Hubert Plovier, Yolanda Sanz, Graham Rook
Plants, animals and humans, are colonized by microorganisms (microbiota) and transiently exposed to countless others. The microbiota affects the development and function of essentially all organ systems, and contributes to adaptation and evolution, while protecting against pathogenic microorganisms and toxins. Genetics and lifestyle factors, including diet, antibiotics and other drugs, and exposure to the natural environment, affect the composition of the microbiota, which influences host health through modulation of interrelated physiological systems...
February 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420865/a-novel-approach-to-wildlife-transcriptomics-provides-evidence-of-disease-mediated-differential-expression-and-changes-to-the-microbiome-of-amphibian-populations
#19
Lewis J Campbell, S Austin Hammond, Stephen J Price, Manmohan D Sharma, Trenton W J Garner, Inanc Birol, Caren C Helbing, Lena Wilfert, Amber G F Griffiths
Ranaviruses are responsible for a lethal, emerging infectious disease in amphibians and threaten their populations throughout the world. Despite this, little is known about how amphibian populations respond to ranaviral infection. In the United Kingdom, ranaviruses impact the common frog (Rana temporaria). Extensive public engagement in the study of ranaviruses in the UK has led to the formation of a unique system of field sites containing frog populations of known ranaviral disease history. Within this unique natural field system, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare the gene expression profiles of R...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29418078/a-model-based-solution-for-observational-errors-in-laboratory-studies
#20
Brian M Brost, Brittany A Mosher, Kristen A Davenport
Molecular techniques for detecting microorganisms, macroorganisms, and infectious agents are susceptible to false negative and false positive errors. If left unaddressed, these observational errors may yield misleading inference concerning occurrence, prevalence, sensitivity, specificity, and covariate relationships. Occupancy models are widely used to account for false negative errors, and more recently have even been used to address false positive errors, too. Current modeling options assume false positive errors only occur in truly negative samples, an assumption that yields biased inference concerning detection because a positive sample could be classified as such not because the target agent was successfully detected, but rather due to a false positive test result...
February 8, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
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