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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531969/biogeographical-factors-affecting-the-distribution-of-stream-salamanders-on-the-cumberland-plateau-usa
#1
P R Gould, K K Cecala, S S Drukker, B A McKenzie, C Van de Ven
Geophysical and climate conditions play an important role in the distribution of organisms at both fine and broad scales. Headwater streams integrate changes at broad geographical scales and serve as important regions of nutrient processing and support high biodiversity. Stream salamanders are important members of headwater aquatic communities as both predators and prey. Combined with their biphasic life histories and physiological requirements, stream amphibians may serve as indicators for headwater stream conditions...
May 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531839/genotoxic-and-mutagenic-effects-of-atrazine-atanor-50-sc-on-dendropsophus-minutus-peters-1872-anura-hylidae-developmental-larval-stages
#2
Macks Wendhell Gonçalves, Calebe Bertolino Marins de Campos, Vinícius Guerra Batista, Aparecido Divino da Cruz, Paulo de Marco Junior, Rogério Pereira Bastos, Daniela de Melo E Silva
The potential mutagenic and genotoxic effects of the herbicide atrazine were investigated in different developmental stages of Dendropsophus minutus tadpoles. These animals were exposed to 4 nominal concentrations of atrazine (2.25, 4.5, 9, and 18 mg/L) and 40 mg/L of Cyclophosphamide as a positive control, for 96 h. Negative controls were also added to the experiment. The tadpoles were divided into three groups according to Gosner's developmental stages, namely GS 25-33 as premetamorphic, GS 36-39 as prometamorphic, and GS 42-43 as metamorphic climax...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526750/pdgf-controls-contact-inhibition-of-locomotion-by-regulating-n-cadherin-during-neural-crest-migration
#3
Isabel Bahm, Elias H Barriga, Antonina Frolov, Eric Theveneau, Paul Frankel, Roberto Mayor
A fundamental property of neural crest (NC) migration is Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL), a process by which cells change their direction of migration upon cell contact. CIL has been proven to be essential for NC migration in amphibian and zebrafish by controlling cell polarity in a cell contact dependent manner. Cell contact during CIL requires the participation of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, which starts to be expressed by NC cells as a consequence of the switch between E- and N-cadherins during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525875/toxic-effects-of-nh4-n-on-embryonic-development-of-bufo-gargarizans-and-rana-chensinensis
#4
Hongzhang Deng, Lihong Chai, Pingping Luo, Meimei Zhou, Daniel Nover, Xiaohong Zhao
Although nitrogen fertilizer is commonly used worldwide, little information is currently available about NH4(+)-N toxicity on amphibians. This study determined the acute and chronic toxic effects of NH4(+)-N on two native Chinese amphibian species (Bufo gargarizans and Rana chensinensis), and compared the negative sensitivity of different embryos to NH4(+)-N. Static renewal aqueous exposures were performed using B. gargarizans and R. chensinensis embryos at Gosner stage 2 over 96 h. In terms of 96 h-LC50, B...
April 3, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508201/heterochronies-in-the-cranial-development-of-asian-tree-frogs-amphibia-anura-rhacophoridae-with-different-life-histories
#5
A B Vassilieva
The development of bony skull was studied in four species of Asian tree frogs (Rhacophoridae) with different life histories: biphasic development with free larval stage and direct development. In biphasic rhacophorids the sequence of the appearance of cranial bones generally followed the generalized pattern of craniogenesis, which was described for most studied anurans. In contrast, direct-developing species displayed some heterochronies in the formation of skull bones, namely, the accelerated formation of the anlagen of jaw and suspensorium bones...
March 2017: Doklady Biological Sciences: Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Biological Sciences Sections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506539/description-of-a-new-soft-tick-species-acari-argasidae-ornithodoros-associated-with-stream-breeding-frogs-anura-cycloramphidae-cycloramphus-in-brazil
#6
Sebastián Muñoz-Leal, Luís Felipe Toledo, José M Venzal, Arlei Marcili, Thiago F Martins, Igor C L Acosta, Adriano Pinter, Marcelo B Labruna
In this study, we present a morphological description of immature and adult specimens of Ornithodoros saraivai n. sp., a tick associated with the frog Cycloramphus boraceiensis (Cycloramphidae) at São Sebastião island, located in the São Paulo state seaboard, Brazil. While larvae of O. saraivai are ecologically related to Ornithodoros faccinii, another soft tick associated with cycloramphids, the combination of 7 sternal pairs, 16 dorsal pairs, a pyriform dorsal plate and a partially toothed hypostome constitute unique characters of the O...
May 10, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504275/transcriptomic-and-macroevolutionary-evidence-for-phenotypic-uncoupling-between-frog-life-history-phases
#7
Katharina C Wollenberg Valero, Joan Garcia-Porta, Ariel Rodríguez, Mónica Arias, Abhijeet Shah, Roger Daniel Randrianiaina, Jason L Brown, Frank Glaw, Felix Amat, Sven Künzel, Dirk Metzler, Raphael D Isokpehi, Miguel Vences
Anuran amphibians undergo major morphological transitions during development, but the contribution of their markedly different life-history phases to macroevolution has rarely been analysed. Here we generate testable predictions for coupling versus uncoupling of phenotypic evolution of tadpole and adult life-history phases, and for the underlying expression of genes related to morphological feature formation. We test these predictions by combining evidence from gene expression in two distantly related frogs, Xenopus laevis and Mantidactylus betsileanus, with patterns of morphological evolution in the entire radiation of Madagascan mantellid frogs...
May 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503370/cave-features-seasonality-and-subterranean-distribution-of-non-obligate-cave-dwellers
#8
Enrico Lunghi, Raoul Manenti, Gentile Francesco Ficetola
Seasonality impacts species distributions through changes of the environmental conditions that affect the presence of individuals at a given place. Although the dynamics of cave microclimates are well known, only a few studies have evaluated the effects of such dynamics on non-strictly cave species. Here we assessed if species exploiting subterranean environments show changes in habitat occupation related to seasonal variation of cave microclimates. We surveyed 16 caves in central Italy every month for one year...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502661/an-adenosine-receptor-for-olfaction-in-fish
#9
Noriko Wakisaka, Nobuhiko Miyasaka, Tetsuya Koide, Miwa Masuda, Towako Hiraki-Kajiyama, Yoshihiro Yoshihara
Nucleotides released from food sources into environmental water are supposed to act as feeding cues for many fish species. However, it remains unknown how fish can sensitively detect those nucleotides. Here we discover a novel olfactory mechanism for ATP sensing in zebrafish. Upon entering into the nostril, ATP is efficiently converted into adenosine through enzymatic reactions of two ecto-nucleotidases expressed in the olfactory epithelium. Adenosine subsequently activates a small population of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a novel adenosine receptor A2c that is unique to fishes and amphibians...
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502615/reduce-reuse-recycle-developmental-signals-in-spinal-cord-regeneration
#10
REVIEW
Marcos Julian Cardozo, Karolina S Mysiak, Thomas Becker, Catherina G Becker
Anamniotes, fishes and amphibians, have the capacity to regenerate spinal cord tissue after injury, generating new neurons that mature and integrate into the spinal circuitry. Elucidating the molecular signals that promote this regeneration is a fundamental question in regeneration research. Model systems, such as salamanders and larval and adult zebrafish are used to analyse successful regeneration. This shows that many developmental signals, such as Notch, Hedgehog (Hh), Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP), Wnt, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF), Retinoic Acid (RA) and neurotransmitters are redeployed during regeneration and activate resident spinal progenitor cells...
May 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500032/senescence-gives-insights-into-the-morphogenetic-evolution-of-anamniotes
#11
Éric Villiard, Jean-François Denis, Faranak Sadat Hashemi, Sebastian Igelmann, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Stéphane Roy
Senescence represents a mechanism to avoid undesired cell proliferation that plays a role in tumor suppression, wound healing and embryonic development. In order to gain insight on the evolution of senescence, we looked at its presence in developing axolotls (urodele amphibians) and in zebrafish (teleost fish), which are both anamniotes. Our data indicate that cellular senescence is present in various developing structures in axolotls (pronephros, olfactory epithelium of nerve fascicles, lateral organs, gums) and in zebrafish (epithelium of the yolk sac and in the lower part of the gut)...
May 12, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499702/prespermatogenesis-and-early-spermatogenesis-in-frogs
#12
Katarzyna Haczkiewicz, Beata Rozenblut-Kościsty, Maria Ogielska
Spermatogenesis in frogs was for the first time divided into two phases: prespermatogenesis, when gonocytes proliferate in developing tadpole testes, and active spermatogenesis when spermatogonial stem cells (i.e. descendants of gonocytes), either self-renew or enter into meiotic cycles within cysts formed by Sertoli cells. We argue that amphibian larval gonocytes are homologues to mammalian gonocytes, whereas spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) in adult frogs are homologous to mammalian single spermatogonia (As)...
March 12, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498523/effects-of-chemical-management-for-invasive-plants-on-the-performance-of-lithobates-pipiens-tadpoles
#13
Amanda N Curtis, M Gabriela Bidart
Invasive plants impact amphibians by altering habitat, species interactions, and by releasing potentially toxic secondary chemicals. Despite being costly and having the potential for impacts to non-target wildlife, chemical management is commonly used to control invasive plants. Prior research has indicated that individual effects of invasive plants or herbicides can be harmful to aquatic organisms; however, information is lacking on the combined effect of these factors on amphibians. A laboratory experiment was performed to assess the impact of leachates of the invasive plants Eurasian watermilfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) and European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica), the herbicide Renovate® 3 (triclopyr), and combined effects of each plant leachate and the herbicide on the growth, morphology and survival of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles...
May 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495510/in%C3%A2-vitro-characterization-of-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-il-26-in-regulating-inflammatory-factors
#14
Xingyang Qiu, Mengyuan Lv, Xiaoyu Jian, Di Chen, Hong Zhou, Anying Zhang, Xinyan Wang
Interleukin 26 (IL-26) gene has been identified in human, amphibian and teleost but not in rodents. It is well accepted that IL-26 was a crucial member of IL-10 family which acts as a pro-inflammatory cytokine in human. However, the role of IL-26 in regulating inflammation in lower vertebrates including teleost has not been defined yet. In the present study, grass carp IL-26 (gcIL-26) coding sequence was isolated and identified. Its chromosomal synteny was also analyzed, showing that gcIL-26 gene is flanked by IL-22 and IFN-γ genes with the same transcriptional orientation as seen in human, amphibian and zebrafish...
May 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494706/ranid-herpesvirus-3-and-proliferative-dermatitis-in-free-ranging-wild-common-frogs-rana-temporaria
#15
F C Origgi, B R Schmidt, P Lohmann, P Otten, E Akdesir, V Gaschen, L Aguilar-Bultet, T Wahli, U Sattler, M H Stoffel
Amphibian pathogens are of current interest as contributors to the global decline of amphibians. However, compared with chytrid fungi and ranaviruses, herpesviruses have received relatively little attention. Two ranid herpesviruses have been described: namely, Ranid herpesvirus 1 (RHV1) and Ranid herpesvirus 2 (RHV2). This article describes the discovery and partial characterization of a novel virus tentatively named Ranid herpesvirus 3 (RHV3), a candidate member of the genus Batrachovirus in the family Alloherpesviridae...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493499/length-mass-allometries-in-amphibians
#16
L Santini, A Benítez-López, G F Ficetola, M A J Huijbregts
Body mass is rarely recorded in amphibians, and other body measurements (e.g. Snout to vent length, SVL) are generally collected instead. However length measurements, when used as proxies of body mass in comparative analyses, are problematic if different taxa and morphotypes are included. We developed allometric relationships to derive body mass from SVL measurements. We fitted Phylogenetic Generalized Least Square models for frogs (Anura) and salamanders (Caudata) and for several families separately. We tested whether allometric relationships differed between species with different habitat preferences and between morphs in salamanders...
May 11, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492180/batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-is-present-in-poland-and-associated-with-reduced-fitness-in-wild-populations-of-pelophylax-lessonae
#17
Krzysztof Kolenda, Anna Najbar, Maria Ogielska, Vojtech Balá
The fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a pathogen associated with global declines of amphibians. We used qPCR to detect Bd in 255 samples from 10 Polish populations of 8 species. We found Bd infection in 3 species (Bombina variegata, Pelophylax lessonae, P. esculentus). The infection intensity in P. lessonae reached a maximum of 58400 genomic equivalents of zoospores (GE), and the 2 most heavily infected individuals died. Previous observations of the populations that included infected individuals showed reduced body size, failure to reproduce, and mortalities of adults...
May 11, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492179/virulence-variation-among-strains-of-the-emerging-infectious-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-bd-in-multiple-amphibian-host-species
#18
Trang D Dang, Catherine L Searle, Andrew R Blaustein
Emerging infectious diseases have been documented in numerous plant and animal populations. The infectious disease amphibian chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is associated with global amphibian population declines. While much Bd-amphibian research has centered on response variation in hosts, a paucity of information exists on how variation in the pathogen, such as strain differences, affects infection dynamics. To examine how different Bd strains may differentially impact multiple hosts, we conducted laboratory experiments to measure 2 infection outcomes, viz...
May 11, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488783/light-adaptation-and-the-evolution-of-vertebrate-photoreceptors
#19
Ala Morshedian, Gordon L Fain
The earliest vertebrates were agnathans-fish-like organisms without jaws, which first appeared near the end of the Cambrian radiation. One group of agnathans became cyclostomes, which include lamprey and hagfish. Other agnathans gave rise to jawed vertebrates or gnathostomes, the group including all other existing vertebrate species. Because cyclostomes diverged from other vertebrates 500 million years ago, it may be possible to infer some of the properties of the retina of early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487741/regeneration-and-regrowth-potentials-of-digit-tips-in-amphibians-and-mammals
#20
REVIEW
Yohan Choi, Fanwei Meng, Charles S Cox, Kevin P Lally, Johnny Huard, Yong Li
Tissue regeneration and repair have received much attention in the medical field over the years. The study of amphibians, such as newts and salamanders, has uncovered many of the processes that occur in these animals during full-limb/digit regeneration, a process that is highly limited in mammals. Understanding these processes in amphibians could shed light on how to develop and improve this process in mammals. Amputation injuries in mammals usually result in the formation of scar tissue with limited regrowth of the limb/digit; however, it has been observed that the very tips of digits (fingers and toes) can partially regrow in humans and mice under certain conditions...
2017: International Journal of Cell Biology
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