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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345609/environmental-dna-in-subterranean-biology-range-extension-and-taxonomic-implications-for-proteus
#1
Špela Gorički, David Stanković, Aleš Snoj, Matjaž Kuntner, William R Jeffery, Peter Trontelj, Miloš Pavićević, Zlatko Grizelj, Magdalena Năpăruş-Aljančič, Gregor Aljančič
Europe's obligate cave-dwelling amphibian Proteus anguinus inhabits subterranean waters of the north-western Balkan Peninsula. Because only fragments of its habitat are accessible to humans, this endangered salamander's exact distribution has been difficult to establish. Here we introduce a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction-based environmental DNA (eDNA) approach to detect the presence of Proteus using water samples collected from karst springs, wells or caves. In a survey conducted along the southern limit of its known range, we established a likely presence of Proteus at seven new sites, extending its range to Montenegro...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343020/selenium-speciation-influences-bioaccumulation-in-limnodynastes-peronii-tadpoles
#2
C M Lanctôt, S D Melvin, T Cresswell
Despite being essential for animal health and fitness, Se has a relatively narrow range between deficiency and toxicity, and excess Se can cause a variety of adverse effects in aquatic organisms. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to contaminants during larval aquatic life stage, because they can accumulate toxic ions through various routes including skin, gills, lungs and digestive tract. Few attempts have been made to understand the tissue-specific accumulation of trace elements, including the impacts of chemical speciation in developing amphibian larvae...
March 12, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336487/phylogeny-and-expression-analysis-of-c-reactive-protein-crp-and-serum-amyloid-p-sap-like-genes-reveal-two-distinct-groups-in-fish
#3
P T Lee, S Bird, J Zou, S A M Martin
The acute phase response (APR) is an early innate immune function that is initiated by inflammatory signals, leading to the release of acute phase proteins to the bloodstream to re-establish homeostasis following microbial infection. In this study we analysed the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) whole-genome database and identified five C-reactive protein (CRP)/serum amyloid P component (SAP) like molecules namely CRP/SAP-1a, CRP/SAP-1b, CRP/SAP-1c, CRP/SAP-2 and CRP/SAP-3. These CRP/SAP genes formed two distinct sub-families, a universal group (group I) present in all vertebrates and a fish/amphibian specific group (group II)...
March 20, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336476/associations-of-water-balance-and-thermal-sensitivity-of-toads-with-macroclimatic-characteristics-of-geographical-distribution
#4
Braz Titon, Fernando Ribeiro Gomes
Interspecific variation in patterns of geographical distribution of phylogenetically related species of amphibians might be related to physiological adaptation to different climatic conditions. In this way, a comparative study of resistance to evaporative water loss, rehydration rates and sensitivity of locomotor performance to variations on hydration level and temperature was performed for five species of Bufonidae toads (Rhinella granulosa, R. jimi, R. ornata, R. schneideri and R. icterica) inhabiting different Brazilian biomes...
March 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336417/demonstrating-the-value-and-importance-of-combining-dna-barcodes-and-discriminant-morphological-characters-for-polystome-taxonomy-platyhelminthes-monogenea
#5
Laurent Héritier, Olivier Verneau, Kevin G Smith, Carina Coetzer, Louis H Du Preez
Polystomes are monogenean parasites that infest mainly semi aquatic vertebrates, such as amphibians and chelonians. Owing to the lack of discriminative morphological characters and because polystomes are considered to be strictly host- and site-specific, host identity is often used as an additional character for parasite identification. Recent genetic studies, however, show that polystomes infecting freshwater turtles in outdoor turtle enclosures and natural environments, are not strictly host-specific. Therefore, we proposed a new procedure for turtle polystome taxonomy based on the combination of Cytochrome c Oxydase I sequences and two discriminant morphological characters, namely the number of genital spines and the testis shape...
March 20, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334384/the-cancer-paradigms-of-mammalian-regeneration-can-mammals-regenerate-as-amphibians
#6
Rachel Sarig, Eldad Tzahor
Regeneration in mammals is restricted to distinct tissues and occurs mainly by expansion and maturation of resident stem cells. During regeneration, even subtle mutations in the proliferating cells may cause a detrimental effect by eliciting abnormal differentiation or malignant transformation. Indeed, cancer in mammals has been shown to arise through deregulation of stem cells maturation, which often leads to a differentiation block and cell transformation. In contrast, lower organisms such as amphibians retain a remarkable regenerative capacity in various organs, which occurs via de- and re-differentiation of mature cells...
March 15, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334022/effects-of-clothianidin-on-aquatic-communities-evaluating-the-impacts-of-lethal-and-sublethal-exposure-to-neonicotinoids
#7
Jesse C Miles, Jessica Hua, Maria S Sepulveda, Christian H Krupke, Jason T Hoverman
The widespread usage of neonicotinoid insecticides has sparked concern over their effects on non-target organisms. While research has largely focused on terrestrial systems, the low soil binding and high water solubility of neonicotinoids, paired with their extensive use on the landscape, puts aquatic environments at high risk for contamination via runoff events. We assessed the potential threat of these compounds to wetland communities using a combination of field surveys and experimental exposures including concentrations that are representative of what invertebrates experience in the field...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324024/thyroid-hormone-receptor-%C3%AE-controls-developmental-timing-and-regulates-the-rate-and-coordination-of-tissue-specific-metamorphosis-in-xenopus-tropicalis
#8
Luan Wen, Yuki Shibata, Dan Su, Liezhen Fu, Nga Luu, Yun-Bo Shi
Thyroid hormone (T3) receptor (TR) mediates the effects of T3 on organ metabolism and animal development. There are two TR genes, TRα and TRβ, in all vertebrates. During animal development, TRα expression is activated earlier than zygotic T3 synthesis and secretion into the plasma, implicating a developmental role of TRα both in the presence and absence of T3. Using T3-dependend amphibian metamorphosis as a model, we have previously proposed a dual functional model for TRs, in particular TRα, during development...
March 14, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323994/direct-regulation-of-histidine-ammonia-lyase-2-gene-by-thyroid-hormone-in-the-developing-adult-intestinal-stem-cells
#9
Nga Luu, Liezhen Fu, Kenta Fujimoto, Yun-Bo Shi
Most vertebrate organs utilize adult stem cells to maintain homeostasis and ensure proper repair when damaged. How such organ-specific stem cells are formed during vertebrate development is largely unexplored. We have been using the thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent amphibian metamorphosis to address this issue. Early studies in Xenopus laevis have shown that intestinal remodeling involves complete degeneration of the larval epithelium and de novo formation of adult stem cells through dedifferentiation of some larval epithelial cells...
February 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322291/genomic-innovations-linked-to-infection-strategies-across-emerging-pathogenic-chytrid-fungi
#10
Rhys A Farrer, An Martel, Elin Verbrugghe, Amr Abouelleil, Richard Ducatelle, Joyce E Longcore, Timothy Y James, Frank Pasmans, Matthew C Fisher, Christina A Cuomo
To understand the evolutionary pathways that lead to emerging infections of vertebrates, here we explore the genomic innovations that allow free-living chytrid fungi to adapt to and colonize amphibian hosts. Sequencing and comparing the genomes of two pathogenic species of Batrachochytrium to those of close saprophytic relatives reveals that pathogenicity is associated with remarkable expansions of protease and cell wall gene families, while divergent infection strategies are linked to radiations of lineage-specific gene families...
March 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322210/mycolactone-producing-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-in-captive-hong-kong-warty-newts-and-pathological-evidence-of-impaired-host-immune-function
#11
Wen-Ta Li, Hui-Wen Chang, Victor Fei Pang, Fun-In Wang, Chen-Hsuan Liu, Ting-Yu Chen, Jun-Cheng Guo, Takayuki Wada, Chian-Ren Jeng
A mass mortality event of captive Hong Kong warty newts Paramesotriton hongkongensis with non-granulomatous necrotic lesions occurred in Taipei Zoo, Taiwan, in 2014. Clinically, the sick newts were lethargic and often covered with water mold Saprolegnia sp. on the skin of the body trunk or extremities. Predominant pathological findings were multifocal non-granulomatous necrotic lesions in the liver, spleen, and kidneys and severe skin infection with Saprolegnia sp., with deep invasion and involvement of underlying muscles...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322209/complex-interactive-effects-of-water-mold-herbicide-and-the-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-on-pacific-treefrog-hyliola-regilla-hosts
#12
John M Romansic, James E Johnson, R Steven Wagner, Rebecca H Hill, Christopher A Gaulke, Vance T Vredenburg, Andrew R Blaustein
Infectious diseases pose a serious threat to global biodiversity. However, their ecological impacts are not independent of environmental conditions. For example, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which has contributed to population declines and extinctions in many amphibian species, interacts with several environmental factors to influence its hosts, but potential interactions with other pathogens and environmental contaminants are understudied. We examined the combined effects of Bd, a water mold (Achlya sp...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322208/prevalence-and-pathogen-load-estimates-for-the-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-are-impacted-by-its-dna-copy-number-variation
#13
Eria A Rebollar, Douglas C Woodhams, Brandon LaBumbard, Jos Kielgast, Reid N Harris
The ribosomal gene complex is a multi-copy region that is widely used for phylogenetic analyses of organisms from all 3 domains of life. In fungi, the copy number of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) is used to detect abundance of pathogens causing diseases such as chytridiomycosis in amphibians and white nose syndrome in bats. Chytridiomycosis is caused by the fungi Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), and is responsible for declines and extinctions of amphibians worldwide...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319864/enantioselective-degradation-of-alpha-cypermethrin-and-detection-of-its-metabolites-in-bullfrog-rana-catesbeiana
#14
Guojun Yao, Xu Jing, Chang Liu, Peng Wang, Xueke Liu, Yinzhu Hou, ZhiQiang Zhou, Donghui Liu
Bullfrog, as a kind of amphibians, can be easily exposed to varied pollutants in the environment for the reason of its habitats and highly permeable skin. We investigated the degradation kinetics and residues of α-cypermethrin in bullfrog by two different methods of administration for the environmental monitoring the behavior of one of the most used pesticides in the amphibians. The oral administration and water exposure of α-cypermethrin on bullfrog was studied in this work. α-Cypermethrin and its main metabolites of cis-3-(2',2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (cis-DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), which have been determined that having correlation with a number of epidemic diseases, were detected simultaneously...
March 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317844/subtle-effects-of-environmental-stress-observed-in-the-early-life-stages-of-the-common-frog-rana-temporaria
#15
Rebecca Strong, Francis L Martin, Kevin C Jones, Richard F Shore, Crispin J Halsall
Worldwide amphibian populations are declining due to habitat loss, disease and pollution. Vulnerability to environmental contaminants such as pesticides will be dependent on the species, the sensitivity of the ontogenic life stage and hence the timing of exposure and the exposure pathway. Herein we investigated the biochemical tissue 'fingerprint' in spawn and early-stage tadpoles of the Common frog, Rana temporaria, using attenuated total reflection-Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy with the objective of observing differences in the biochemical constituents of the respective amphibian tissues due to varying water quality in urban and agricultural ponds...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317110/atlantic-frugivory-a-plant-frugivore-interaction-dataset-for-the-atlantic-forest
#16
Carolina Bello, Mauro Galetti, Denise Montan, Marco A Pizo, Tatiane C Mariguela, Laurence Culot, Felipe Bufalo, Fabio Labecca, Felipe Pedrosa, Rafaela Constantini, Carine Emer, Wesley R Silva, Fernanda R da Silva, Otso Ovaskainen, Pedro Jordano
The dataset provided here includes 8320 frugivory interactions (records of pairwise interactions between plant and frugivore species) reported for the Atlantic Forest. The dataset includes interactions between 331 vertebrate species (232 birds, 90 mammals, five fishes, one amphibian and three reptiles) and 788 plant species. We also present information on traits directly related to the frugivory process (endozoochory), such as the size of fruits and seeds and the body mass and gape size of frugivores. Data were extracted from 166 published and unpublished sources spanning from 1961 to 2016...
March 19, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317105/the-benefits-of-coinfection-trematodes-alter-disease-outcomes-associated-with-virus-infection
#17
Vanessa P Wuerthner, Jessica Hua, Jason T Hoverman
1.Coinfections are increasingly recognized as important drivers of disease dynamics. Consequently, greater emphasis has been placed on integrating principles from community ecology with disease ecology to understand within-host interactions among parasites. Using larval amphibians and two amphibian parasites (ranaviruses and the trematode Echinoparyphium sp.), we examined the influence of coinfection on disease outcomes. 2.Our first objective was to examine how priority effects (the timing and sequence of parasite exposure) influence infection and disease outcomes in the laboratory...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316428/first-report-of-seuratascaris-numidica-seurat-1917-nematoda-ascarididae-and-other-helminths-from-amphibians-of-west-bengal-india
#18
Sujan K Sou, Charles R Bursey
Studies on nematode parasites from anuran hosts from Eastern India, particularly West Bengal, are rare. To our knowledge, there is a report of larvae of Monhysterides sp. (a fish parasite) from cysts within the body cavity and musculature of Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus and Euphlyctis hexadactylus as well as descriptions of Aplectana duttaphryni from D. melanostictus, Aplectana dubrajpuri from H. tigerinus, Cosmocerca microhylae from Microhyla rubra and Rhabdias bulbicauda from D. melanostictus...
March 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316121/foxd4-is-essential-for-establishing-neural-cell-fate-and-for-neuronal-differentiation
#19
Jonathan H Sherman, Beverly A Karpinski, Matthew S Fralish, Justin M Cappuzzo, Devinder S Dhindsa, Arielle G Thal, Sally A Moody, Anthony S LaMantia, Thomas M Maynard
Many molecular factors required for later stages of neuronal differentiation have been identified; however, much less is known about the early events that regulate the initial establishment of the neuroectoderm. We have used an in vitro embryonic stem cell differentiation model to investigate early events of neuronal differentiation, and to define the role of mouse Foxd4, an orthologue of a forkhead-family transcription factor central to Xenopus neural plate/neuroectodermal precursor development. We found that Foxd4 is a necessary regulator of the transition from pluripotent ES cell to neuroectodermal stem cell, and its expression is necessary for neuronal differentiation...
March 18, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303189/islands-within-an-island-population-genetic-structure-of-the-endemic-sardinian-newt-euproctus-platycephalus
#20
Sarah E Ball, Stefano Bovero, Giuseppe Sotgiu, Giulia Tessa, Claudio Angelini, Jon Bielby, Christopher Durrant, Marco Favelli, Enrico Gazzaniga, Trenton W J Garner
The identification of historic and contemporary barriers to dispersal is central to the conservation of endangered amphibians, but may be hindered by their complex life history and elusive nature. The complementary information generated by mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers generates a valuable tool in elucidating population structure and the impact of habitat fragmentation. We applied this approach to the study of an endangered montane newt, Euproctus platycephalus. Endemic to the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, it is threatened by anthropogenic activity, disease, and climate change...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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