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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821419/characterization-expression-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-new-tlr3-and-tlr5m-genes-cloned-from-the-spiny-eel-mastacembelus-armatus
#1
Chong Han, Qiang Li, Zhipeng Zhang, Jianrong Huang
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we identify two new TLRs from the spiny eel Mastacembelus armatus (TLR3 and membrane TLR5M). Both MaTLR3 and MaTLR5M were expressed in all tested tissues; expression was highest in liver and spleen, respectively. After infection with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, expression of both TLRs fluctuated and differed significantly from controls at several time points. The predicted three-dimensional model of the MaTLR3 and MaTLR5M proteins indicates that most sites under positive selection were located in the extracellular domains of TLRs...
August 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819055/temperature-effects-on-the-cardiorespiratory-control-of-american-bullfrog-tadpoles-based-on-a-non-invasive-methodology
#2
Leonardo S Longhini, Lucas A Zena, Glauber S F da Silva, Kênia C Bícego, Luciane H Gargaglioni
Temperature effects on cardiac autonomic tonus in amphibian larval stages have never been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (15°C, 25°C, and 30°C) on the cardiorespiratory rates and cardiac autonomic tonus of premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus To this end, a non-invasive method was developed to permit measurements of electrocardiogram (ECG) and buccal movements (fB ; surface electromyography of the buccal floor). For evaluation of autonomic regulation, intraperitoneal injections of Ringer's solution (control), atropine (cholinergic muscarinic antagonist), and sotalol (β-adrenergic antagonist) were performed...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815851/basics-of-genome-editing-technology-and-its-application-in-livestock-species
#3
REVIEW
Bjoern Petersen
In the last decade, the research community has witnessed a blooming of targeted genome editing tools and applications. Novel programmable DNA nucleases such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENs) and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 system (CRISPR/Cas9) possess long recognition sites and are capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These DNA nucleases mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing the DNA mutation rate via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site...
August 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815565/generation-of-animal-form-by-the-chordin-tolloid-bmp-gradient-100%C3%A2-years-after-d-arcy-thompson
#4
Edward M De Robertis, Yuki Moriyama, Gabriele Colozza
The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history...
August 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813170/survey-of-aquatic-turtles-on-the-savannah-river-site-south-carolina-for-prevalence-of-ranavirus
#5
Megan E Winzeler, David L Haskins, Stacey L Lance, Tracey D Tuberville
Ranaviruses have the ability to infect amphibians, fish, and reptiles, and they have caused multiple amphibian die-off events in the US and Europe. Their prevalence in amphibian populations is much more commonly studied than in chelonian populations. We examined blood samples (n=286) from eight aquatic turtle species collected during 2008-14 on the Savannah River, South Carolina, USA, as part of long-term mark-recapture efforts. Previous studies in the southeastern US found high prevalence of Ranavirus in amphibians, but we did not detect Ranavirus in any of the turtles sampled, suggesting the absence of the virus or its presence at a very low prevalence in aquatic turtles across the Savannah River site during the years tested...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812637/spatial-conservation-prioritization-of-biodiversity-spanning-the-evolutionary-continuum
#6
Silvia B Carvalho, Guillermo Velo-Antón, Pedro Tarroso, Ana Paula Portela, Mafalda Barata, Salvador Carranza, Craig Moritz, Hugh P Possingham
Accounting for evolutionary relationships between and within species is important for biodiversity conservation planning, but is rarely considered in practice. Here we introduce a novel framework to identify priority conservation areas accounting for phylogenetic and intraspecific diversity, integrating concepts from phylogeny, phylogeography, spatial statistics and spatial conservation prioritization. The framework allows planners to incorporate and combine different levels of evolutionary diversity and can be applied to any taxonomic group and to any region in the world...
April 28, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812555/phylogenetic-and-environmental-context-of-a-tournaisian-tetrapod-fauna
#7
Jennifer A Clack, Carys E Bennett, David K Carpenter, Sarah J Davies, Nicholas C Fraser, Timothy I Kearsey, John E A Marshall, David Millward, Benjamin K A Otoo, Emma J Reeves, Andrew J Ross, Marcello Ruta, Keturah Z Smithson, Timothy R Smithson, Stig A Walsh
The end-Devonian to mid-Mississippian time interval has long been known for its depauperate palaeontological record, especially for tetrapods. This interval encapsulates the time of increasing terrestriality among tetrapods, but only two Tournaisian localities previously produced tetrapod fossils. Here we describe five new Tournaisian tetrapods (Perittodus apsconditus, Koilops herma, Ossirarus kierani, Diploradus austiumensis and Aytonerpeton microps) from two localities in their environmental context...
December 5, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811886/comparison-of-photo-matching-algorithms-commonly-used-for-photographic-capture-recapture-studies
#8
Maximilian Matthé, Marco Sannolo, Kristopher Winiarski, Annemarieke Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Daniel Goedbloed, Sebastian Steinfartz, Ulrich Stachow
Photographic capture-recapture is a valuable tool for obtaining demographic information on wildlife populations due to its noninvasive nature and cost-effectiveness. Recently, several computer-aided photo-matching algorithms have been developed to more efficiently match images of unique individuals in databases with thousands of images. However, the identification accuracy of these algorithms can severely bias estimates of vital rates and population size. Therefore, it is important to understand the performance and limitations of state-of-the-art photo-matching algorithms prior to implementation in capture-recapture studies involving possibly thousands of images...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811506/an-amphibian-chemical-defense-phenotype-is-inducible-across-life-history-stages
#9
Gary M Bucciarelli, H Bradley Shaffer, David B Green, Lee B Kats
Inducible phenotypic responses to environmental variation are ubiquitous across the tree of life, but it remains an open question whether amphibian chemical defense phenotypes are inducible. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a key chemical defense trait in North American and Eurasian newts (Salamandridae). We tested if TTX can be induced by exposing populations of adult and larval California newts (Taricha torosa) to sustained stressful conditions while longitudinally quantifying TTX concentrations. Adult newts rapidly increased chemical defenses in response to simulated predator attacks and consistently maintained elevated TTX concentrations relative to wild, non-captive individuals...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809953/monitoring-health-and-reproductive-status-of-olms-proteus-anguinus-by-ultrasound
#10
Susanne Holtze, Maja Lukač, Ivan Cizelj, Frank Mutschmann, Claudia Anita Szentiks, Dušan Jelić, Robert Hermes, Frank Göritz, Stanton Braude, Thomas Bernd Hildebrandt
The olm (Proteus anguinus) is a troglomorphic, neotenous amphibian with extraordinary life expectancy and unique adaptations that deserve further investigation. A low reproductive rate and habitat decline render it threatened by extinction. Establishing captive populations for maintenance and artificial breeding may one day become crucial to the species. Longitudinal, in-vivo assessment of inner organs is invaluable to our understanding of reproductive physiology, health, and behavior. Using ultrasound, we measured heart rate and assessed health and reproductive status of 13 captive olms at Zagreb Zoo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809924/species-delimitation-in-frogs-from-south-american-temperate-forests-the-case-of-eupsophus-a-taxonomically-complex-genus-with-high-phenotypic-variation
#11
Claudio Correa, Dayana Vásquez, Camila Castro-Carrasco, Álvaro Zúñiga-Reinoso, Juan Carlos Ortiz, R Eduardo Palma
One of the most characteristic and abundant amphibian taxa of South American temperate forests is Eupsophus. The ten currently recognized species of the genus have been divided in two species groups, roseus and vertebralis, but most of them, eight, belong to the roseus group. Recent phylogeographic and phylogenetic studies have suggested that species diversity of the roseus group could be underestimated. An examination of the literature shows that species of the roseus group exhibit high levels of variation in their external characteristics, particularly those used as diagnostic characters, which compromises their taxonomy and hinders their field recognition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807398/which-latitudinal-gradients-for-genetic-diversity
#12
Paolo Gratton, Silvio Marta, Gaëlle Bocksberger, Marten Winter, Petr Keil, Emiliano Trucchi, Hjalmar Kühl
A recent global analysis of GenBank DNA sequences from amphibians and mammals indicated consistent poleward decrease of intraspecific genetic diversity in both classes. We highlight that this result was biased by not accounting for distance decay of similarity and reanalyse the datasets, revealing distinct latitudinal gradients in mammals and amphibians.
August 11, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806900/drift-selection-or-migration-processes-affecting-genetic-differentiation-and-variation-along-a-latitudinal-gradient-in-an-amphibian
#13
Maria Cortázar-Chinarro, Ella Z Lattenkamp, Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Emilien Luquet, Anssi Laurila, Jacob Höglund
BACKGROUND: Past events like fluctuations in population size and post-glacial colonization processes may influence the relative importance of genetic drift, migration and selection when determining the present day patterns of genetic variation. We disentangle how drift, selection and migration shape neutral and adaptive genetic variation in 12 moor frog populations along a 1700 km latitudinal gradient. We studied genetic differentiation and variation at a MHC exon II locus and a set of 18 microsatellites...
August 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803676/ranavirus-phylogenomics-signatures-of-recombination-and-inversions-among-bullfrog-ranaculture-isolates
#14
Sieara C Claytor, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Nelmarie Landrau-Giovannetti, V Gregory Chinchar, Matthew J Gray, Debra L Miller, Carla Mavian, Marco Salemi, Samantha Wisely, Thomas B Waltzek
Ranaviruses are emerging pathogens of fish, amphibians, and reptiles that threaten aquatic animal industries and wildlife worldwide. Our objective was to genetically characterize ranaviruses isolated during separate bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus die-offs that occurred eight years apart on the same North American farm. The earlier outbreak was due to a highly pathogenic strain of common midwife toad virus (CMTV) previously known only from Europe and China. The later outbreak was due to a chimeric ranavirus that displayed a novel genome arrangement and a DNA backbone typical for Frog virus 3 (FV3) strains except for interspersed fragments acquired through recombination with the CMTV isolated earlier...
August 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801228/identification-of-the-first-cathelicidin-gene-from-skin-of-chinese-giant-salamanders-andrias-davidianus-with-its-potent-antimicrobial-activity
#15
Hui Yang, Baoyue Lu, Dandan Zhou, Lin Zhao, Weijia Song, Lixin Wang
Cathelicidins, as effector molecules, play important roles against infections and represent a crucial component of the innate immune system in vertebrates. They are widely studied in mammals, but little is known in amphibians. In the present study, we report the identification and characterization of a novel cathelicidin from Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus, which is the first study in Caudata amphibian. The cDNA sequence encodes a predicted 148-amino-acid polypeptide, which composed of a 20-residue signal peptide, a 94-residue conserved cathelin domain and a 34-residue mature peptide...
August 9, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795407/parasite-metacommunities-evaluating-the-roles-of-host-community-composition-and-environmental-gradients-in-structuring-symbiont-communities-within-amphibians
#16
Joseph R Mihaljevic, Bethany J Hoye, Pieter T J Johnson
1.Ecologists increasingly report the structures of metacommunities for free-living species, yet far less is known about the composition of symbiont communities through space and time. Understanding the drivers of symbiont community patterns has implications ranging from emerging infectious disease to managing host microbiomes. 2.Using symbiont communities from amphibian hosts sampled from wetlands of California, USA, we quantified the effects of spatial, habitat filtering, and host community components on symbiont occupancy and overall metacommunity structure...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794275/did-true-frogs-dispersify
#17
Kin Onn Chan, Rafe M Brown
The interplay between range expansion and concomitant diversification is of fundamental interest to evolutionary biologists, particularly when linked to intercontinental dispersal and/or large scale extinctions. The evolutionary history of true frogs has been characterized by circumglobal range expansion. As a lineage that survived the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event (EOEE), the group provides an ideal system to test the prediction that range expansion triggers increased net diversification. We constructed the most densely sampled, time-calibrated phylogeny to date in order to: (i) characterize tempo and patterns of diversification; (ii) assess the impact of the EOEE; and (iii) test the hypothesis that range expansion was followed by increased net diversification...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790317/different-effects-of-accelerated-development-and-enhanced-growth-on-oxidative-stress-and-telomere-shortening-in-amphibian-larvae
#18
Pablo Burraco, Carmen Díaz-Paniagua, Ivan Gomez-Mestre
Organisms react to environmental changes through plastic responses that often involve physiological alterations with the potential to modify life-history traits and fitness. Environmentally induced shifts in growth and development in species with complex life cycles determine the timing of transitions between subsequent life stages, as well as body condition at transformation, which greatly determine survival at later stages. Here we show that spadefoot toad larvae surviving pond drying and predators experienced marked alterations in growth and development, and in their fat reserves, oxidative stress, and relative telomere length...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782045/nodal-activin-pathway-is-a-conserved-neural-induction-signal-in-chordates
#19
Yann Le Petillon, Guillaume Luxardi, Pierluigi Scerbo, Marie Cibois, Anthony Leon, Lucie Subirana, Manuel Irimia, Laurent Kodjabachian, Hector Escriva, Stephanie Bertrand
Neural induction is the process through which pluripotent cells are committed to a neural fate. This first step of Central Nervous System formation is triggered by the "Spemann organizer" in amphibians and by homologous embryonic regions in other vertebrates. Studies in classical vertebrate models have produced contrasting views about the molecular nature of neural inducers and no unifying scheme could be drawn. Moreover, how this process evolved in the chordate lineage remains an unresolved issue. In this work, by using graft and micromanipulation experiments, we definitively establish that the dorsal blastopore lip of the cephalochordate amphioxus is homologous to the vertebrate organizer and is able to trigger the formation of neural tissues in a host embryo...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774941/transmission-of-mycobacterium-xenopi-to-a-pet-albino-ferret-mustela-putorius-furo-from-a-domestic-aquarium
#20
Natasha Davendralingam, Indran Davagnanam, Mark Frederick Stidworthy, Vicki Baldrey, Laureen Michele Peters, Nadene Stapleton
A three-year-old ferret presented with a three-month history of rapid clinical deterioration necessitating euthanasia shortly after initial veterinary assessment. Postmortem PCR testing confirmed Mycobacterium xenopi which is most commonly identified in amphibians, reptiles and aquatic life. Infection of a captive-bred domestic ferret is highly unusual. A collaborative effort involving medical doctors, clinical veterinarians and veterinary pathologists investigated the potential sources of human-animal, animal-animal and environmental-animal M xenopi transmission...
August 3, 2017: Veterinary Record
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