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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109972/biological-responses-to-phenylurea-herbicides-in-fish-and-amphibians-new-directions-for-characterizing-mechanisms-of-toxicity
#1
Vicki L Marlatt, Christopher J Martyniuk
Urea-based herbicides are applied in agriculture to control broadleaf and grassy weeds, acting to either inhibit photosynthesis at photosystem II (phenylureas) or to inhibit acetolactate synthase acetohydroxyacid synthase (sulfonylureas). While there are different chemical formulas for urea-based herbicides, the phenylureas are a widely used class in North America and have been detected in aquatic environments due to agricultural run-off. Here, we summarize the current state of the literature, synthesizing data on phenylureas and their biological effects in two non-target animals, fish and amphibians, with a primary focus on diuron and linuron...
January 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109053/frogs-model-man-in-vivo-thyroid-hormone-signaling-during-development
#2
REVIEW
Laurent M Sachs, Daniel R Buchholz
Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling comprises TH transport across cell membranes, metabolism by deiodinases, and molecular mechanisms of gene regulation. Proper TH signaling is essential for normal perinatal development, most notably for neurogenesis and fetal growth. Knowledge of perinatal TH endocrinology needs improvement to provide better treatments for premature infants and endocrine diseases during gestation and to counteract effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Studies in amphibians have provided major insights to understand in-vivo mechanisms of TH signaling...
January 21, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105797/a-new-species-of-genus-fejervarya-anura-dicroglossidae-from-northern-thailand
#3
Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Zhi-Yong Yuan, Nikolay A Poyarkov, Fang Yan, Somboon Kamtaeja, Robert W Murphy, Jing Che
We describe a new species of frog in the dicroglossid genus Fejervarya from Ban Monjong, Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Analysis of DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial gene 16S, advertisement calls, and morphological distinctiveness support recognition of the new species. Matrilineal genealogy suggests that the new population from Chiang Mai is a sister taxon to the South Asian clade that includes F. syhadrensis, F. granosa, and F. pierrei. The new species, Fejervarya chiangmaiensissp...
November 18, 2016: Zool Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105509/variation-in-metabolite-profiles-of-amphibian-skin-bacterial-communities-across-elevations-in-the-neotropics
#4
Daniel Medina, Myra C Hughey, Matthew H Becker, Jenifer B Walke, Thomas P Umile, Elizabeth A Burzynski, Anthony Iannetta, Kevin P C Minbiole, Lisa K Belden
Both the structure and function of host-associated microbial communities are potentially impacted by environmental conditions, just as the outcomes of many free-living species interactions are context-dependent. Many amphibian populations have declined around the globe due to the fungal skin pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), but enivronmental conditions may influence disease dynamics. For instance, in Panamá, the most severe Bd outbreaks have occurred at high elevation sites. Some amphibian species harbor bacterial skin communities that can inhibit the growth of Bd, and therefore, there is interest in understanding whether environmental context could also alter these host-associated microbial communities in a way that might ultimately impact Bd dynamics...
January 19, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104800/frequency-channel-dependent-selectivity-for-temporal-call-characteristics-in-gray-treefrogs-hyla-versicolor
#5
Michael S Reichert, Gerlinde Höbel
Sensory receptors transmit information on multiple stimulus dimensions. Much remains to be understood about how the processing of different signal characteristics is partitioned and integrated in different areas of the nervous system. Amphibian hearing involves two morphologically distinct inner-ear organs that process different components of the frequency spectrum. Many anuran signals contain two frequency peaks, each one matching the sensitivity of one of these two organs. We hypothesized that the processing of temporal characteristics of acoustic signals would differ in these two frequency channels, perhaps because of differences in the response properties of the two inner-ear organs...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102305/structure-and-membrane-interactions-of-the-homodimeric-antibiotic-peptide-homotarsinin
#6
Rodrigo M Verly, Jarbas M Resende, Eduardo F C Junior, Mariana T Q de Magalhães, Carlos F C R Guimarães, Victor H O Munhoz, Marcelo Porto Bemquerer, Fábio C L Almeida, Marcelo M Santoro, Dorila Piló-Veloso, Burkhard Bechinger
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from amphibian skin are valuable template structures to find new treatments against bacterial infections. This work describes for the first time the structure and membrane interactions of a homodimeric AMP. Homotarsinin, which was found in Phyllomedusa tarsius anurans, consists of two identical cystine-linked polypeptide chains each of 24 amino acid residues. The high-resolution structures of the monomeric and dimeric peptides were determined in aqueous buffers. The dimer exhibits a tightly packed coiled coil three-dimensional structure, keeping the hydrophobic residues screened from the aqueous environment...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095648/amphibase-a-new-genomic-resource-for-non-model-amphibian-species
#7
REVIEW
Taejoon Kwon
More than five thousand genes annotated in the recently published Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis genomes do not have a candidate orthologous counterpart in other vertebrate species. To determine whether these sequences represent genuine amphibian-specific genes or annotation errors, it is necessary to analyze them alongside sequences from other amphibian species. However, due to large genome sizes and an abundance of repeat sequences, there are limited numbers of gene sequences available from amphibian species other than Xenopus...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095616/using-xenopus-to-understand-human-disease-and-developmental-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Amy Sater, Sally A Moody
Model animals are crucial to biomedical research. Among the commonly used model animals, the amphibian, Xenopus, has had tremendous impact because of its unique experimental advantages, cost effectiveness, and close evolutionary relationship with mammals as a tetrapod. Over the past 50 years the use of Xenopus has made possible many fundamental contributions to biomedicine, and it is a cornerstone of research in cell biology, developmental biology, evolutionary biology, immunology, molecular biology, neurobiology, and physiology...
January 17, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095428/linking-ecology-and-epidemiology-to-understand-predictors-of-multi-host-responses-to-an-emerging-pathogen-the-amphibian-chytrid-fungus
#9
Stephanie S Gervasi, Patrick R Stephens, Jessica Hua, Catherine L Searle, Gisselle Yang Xie, Jenny Urbina, Deanna H Olson, Betsy A Bancroft, Virginia Weis, John I Hammond, Rick A Relyea, Andrew R Blaustein
Variation in host responses to pathogens can have cascading effects on populations and communities when some individuals or groups of individuals display disproportionate vulnerability to infection or differ in their competence to transmit infection. The fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been detected in almost 700 different amphibian species and is implicated in numerous global amphibian population declines. Identifying key hosts in the amphibian-Bd system-those who are at greatest risk or who pose the greatest risk for others-is challenging due in part to many extrinsic environmental factors driving spatiotemporal Bd distribution and context-dependent host responses to Bd in the wild...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094607/detection-of-the-amphibian-chytrid-fungus-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-museum-specimens-of-andean-aquatic-birds-implications-for-pathogen-dispersal
#10
Patricia A Burrowes, Ignacio De la Riva
The occurrence of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the feet of live waterfowl has been documented, but the potential role of birds as dispersers has not been studied. We report the presence of B. dendrobatidis in the feet of preserved aquatic birds in the Bolivian high Andes during the time of drastic amphibian declines in the country. We sampled 48 aquatic birds from the Bolivian Andes that were preserved in museum collections. Birds were sampled for the presence of B. dendrobatidis DNA by swabbing, taking small pieces of tissue from toe webbing, or both...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092623/ultrasonography-a-method-used-for-pregnancy-imaging-of-the-fire-salamander-salamandra-salamandra
#11
A Najbar, Z Kiełbowicz, J Szymczak, M Ogielska
Ultrasound imaging has more frequently been used in veterinary medicine of amphibians and reptiles. In this study, we have verified the usefulness of ultrasound imaging in pregnancy determination of the fire salamander Salamandra salamandra. We have also undertaken to estimate the number of larvae and their developmental stage directly in the oviducts. Three gravid females from Lower Silesia (southern Poland) were examined. Due to the small size of the scanned animals, and the particular arrangement of embryos in the oviducts and ultrasound beams dispersal, the method proved to be inaccurate...
December 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091884/pre-mining-trace-element-and-radiation-exposure-to-biota-from-a-breccia-pipe-uranium-mine-in-the-grand-canyon-arizona-usa-watershed
#12
Jo Ellen Hinck, Danielle Cleveland, William G Brumbaugh, Greg Linder, Julia Lankton
The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This study characterizes the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathology in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081430/amphibian-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles-and-adult-frogs-mount-distinct-interferon-responses-to-the-frog-virus-3-ranavirus
#13
Emily S Wendel, Amulya Yaparla, Daphne V Koubourli, Leon Grayfer
Infections of amphibians by Frog Virus 3 (FV3) and other ranavirus genus members are significantly contributing to the amphibian declines, yet much remains unknown regarding amphibian antiviral immunity. Notably, amphibians represent an important step in the evolution of antiviral interferon (IFN) cytokines as they are amongst the first vertebrates to possess both type I and type III IFNs. Accordingly, we examined the roles of type I and III IFNs in the skin of FV3-challenged amphibian Xenopus laevis) tadpoles and adult frogs...
January 9, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080996/mitigating-amphibian-chytridiomycoses-in-nature
#14
REVIEW
Trenton W J Garner, Benedikt R Schmidt, An Martel, Frank Pasmans, Erin Muths, Andrew A Cunningham, Che Weldon, Matthew C Fisher, Jaime Bosch
Amphibians across the planet face the threat of population decline and extirpation caused by the disease chytridiomycosis. Despite consensus that the fungal pathogens responsible for the disease are conservation issues, strategies to mitigate their impacts in the natural world are, at best, nascent. Reducing risk associated with the movement of amphibians, non-amphibian vectors and other sources of infection remains the first line of defence and a primary objective when mitigating the threat of disease in wildlife...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080989/overview-of-chytrid-emergence-and-impacts-on-amphibians
#15
REVIEW
Karen R Lips
Chytridiomycosis is an emerging infectious disease of amphibians that affects over 700 species on all continents where amphibians occur. The amphibian-chytridiomycosis system is complex, and the response of any amphibian species to chytrid depends on many aspects of the ecology and evolutionary history of the amphibian, the genotype and phenotype of the fungus, and how the biological and physical environment can mediate that interaction. Impacts of chytridiomycosis on amphibians are varied; some species have been driven extinct, populations of others have declined severely, whereas still others have not obviously declined...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080980/climate-forcing-of-an-emerging-pathogenic-fungus-across-a-montane-multi-host-community
#16
Frances C Clare, Julia B Halder, Olivia Daniel, Jon Bielby, Mikhail A Semenov, Thibaut Jombart, Adeline Loyau, Dirk S Schmeller, Andrew A Cunningham, Marcus Rowcliffe, Trenton W J Garner, Jaime Bosch, Matthew C Fisher
Changes in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines and extirpations as a consequence of this infection...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080918/high-prevalence-of-intestinal-adenocarcinoma-in-a-captive-population-of-amazon-milk-frog-trachycephalus-resinifictrix
#17
Javier López, Alberto R Barbón, Juliet Smithyman, Matt Goetz, Rachel E Marschang, Akbar Dastjerdi, Mark F Stidworthy
:  A series of eight cases of intestinal adenocarcinoma in Amazon milk frog (Trachycephalus resinifictrix) is described. All cases presented with signs of inappetence and weight loss, and evidence of large intestinal distention on gross postmortem, with six of the eight cases showing a grossly visible large intestinal mass. Histologic examination identified the mass as an intestinal adenocarcinoma in all cases. No specific etiologic agent could be identified. This is the first report of neoplasia in the Amazon milk frog, and the first reported series of amphibian gastrointestinal neoplasia...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074844/no-signs-of-inbreeding-despite-long-term-isolation-and-habitat-fragmentation-in-the-critically-endangered-montseny-brook-newt-calotriton-arnoldi
#18
E Valbuena-Ureña, A Soler-Membrives, S Steinfartz, P Orozco-terWengel, S Carranza
Endemic species with restricted geographic ranges potentially suffer the highest risk of extinction. If these species are further fragmented into genetically isolated subpopulations, the risk of extinction is elevated. Habitat fragmentation is generally considered to have negative effects on species survival, despite some evidence for neutral or even positive effects. Typically, non-negative effects are ignored by conservation biology. The Montseny brook newt (Calotriton arnoldi) has one of the smallest distribution ranges of any European amphibian (8 km(2)) and is considered critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature...
January 11, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074838/the-effect-of-brumation-on-memory-retention
#19
Anna Wilkinson, Anne Hloch, Julia Mueller-Paul, Ludwig Huber
Long-term torpor is an adaptive strategy that allows animals to survive harsh winter conditions. However, the impact that prolonged torpor has on cognitive function is poorly understood. Hibernation causes reduced synaptic activity and experiments with mammals reveal that this can have adverse effects on memories formed prior to hibernation. The impact of brumation, the winter dormancy that is observed in ectotherms, on memory remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether an amphibian, the fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), was able to retain learned spatial information after a period of brumation...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073389/the-distribution-of-echinostome-parasites-in-ponds-and-implications-for-larval-anuran-survival
#20
John A Marino, Manja P Holland, Earl E Werner
Parasites can influence host population dynamics, community composition and evolution. Prediction of these effects, however, requires an understanding of the influence of ecological context on parasite distributions and the consequences of infection for host fitness. We address these issues with an amphibian - trematode (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) host-parasite system. We initially performed a field survey of trematode infection in first (snail) and second (larval green frog, Rana clamitans) intermediate hosts over 5 years across a landscape of 23 ponds in southeastern Michigan...
January 11, 2017: Parasitology
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