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Vincenzo Buono, Giorgia Galliani, Emiliano Mancini, Francesca Davoli, Chiara Mengoni, Nadia Mucci, Leonardo Vignoli
Habitat loss and fragmentation are threatening amphibians by increasing population isolation. However, artificial waterbodies created for livestockmay contrast this phenomenon by providing surrogate habitats for amphibians. Here, we performed a genetic study on an amphibian species, Lissotriton vulgaris meridionalis , in a rural area in central Italy where natural wetlands are disappearing and drinking troughs for cattle watering are widespread. Specifically, we tested a panel of microsatellite markers to identify a suitable tool for addressing conservation genetic issues of this species that is undergoing severe local decline...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
J W Brownscombe, R J Lennox, A J Danylchuk, S J Cooke
Accelerometry is growing in popularity for remotely measuring fish swimming metrics, but appropriate sampling frequencies for accurately measuring these metrics are not well studied. This research examined the influence of sampling frequency (1-25 Hz) with tri-axial accelerometer biologgers on estimates of overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), tail-beat frequency, swimming speed and metabolic rate of bonefish Albula vulpes in a swim-tunnel respirometer and free-swimming in a wetland mesocosm. In the swim tunnel, sampling frequencies of ≥ 5 Hz were sufficient to establish strong relationships between ODBA, swimming speed and metabolic rate...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
James R Holmquist, Lisamarie Windham-Myers, Norman Bliss, Stephen Crooks, James T Morris, J Patrick Megonigal, Tiffany Troxler, Donald Weller, John Callaway, Judith Drexler, Matthew C Ferner, Meagan E Gonneea, Kevin D Kroeger, Lisa Schile-Beers, Isa Woo, Kevin Buffington, Joshua Breithaupt, Brandon M Boyd, Lauren N Brown, Nicole Dix, Lyndie Hice, Benjamin P Horton, Glen M MacDonald, Ryan P Moyer, William Reay, Timothy Shaw, Erik Smith, Joseph M Smoak, Christopher Sommerfield, Karen Thorne, David Velinsky, Elizabeth Watson, Kristin Wilson Grimes, Mark Woodrey
Tidal wetlands produce long-term soil organic carbon (C) stocks. Thus for carbon accounting purposes, we need accurate and precise information on the magnitude and spatial distribution of those stocks. We assembled and analyzed an unprecedented soil core dataset, and tested three strategies for mapping carbon stocks: applying the average value from the synthesis to mapped tidal wetlands, applying models fit using empirical data and applied using soil, vegetation and salinity maps, and relying on independently generated soil carbon maps...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
K Sam, N Zabbey
The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is one of the most crude oil impacted deltas globally. The region has experienced over five decades of oil related contamination of the total environment (air, soil, water and biota). In 2011, UNEP released a seminal report on oil impact on Ogoniland environments, which up scaled demands for urgent clean up and restoration of degraded bio-resource rich environments of the Niger Delta, starting from Ogoniland. The Nigerian Government demonstrated renewed political will to remediate contaminated sites in Ogoniland with a launch of the clean-up exercise in June 2016...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
R A Bellmore, J E Compton, J R Brooks, E W Fox, R A Hill, D J Sobota, D J Thornbrugh, M H Weber
Ecological and human health impairments related to excess nitrogen (N) in streams and rivers remain widespread in the United States (U.S.) despite recent efforts to reduce N pollution. Many studies have quantified the relationship between N loads to streams in terms of N mass and N inputs to watersheds; however, N concentrations, rather than loads, are more closely related to impacts on human health and aquatic life. Additionally, concentrations, rather than loads, trigger regulatory responses. In this study, we examined how N concentrations are related to N inputs to watersheds (atmospheric deposition, synthetic fertilizer, manure applied to agricultural land, cultivated biological N fixation, and point sources), land cover characteristics, and stream network characteristics, including stream size and the extent of lakes and reservoirs...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xi Xu, Yujing Xie, Ke Qi, Zukui Luo, Xiangrong Wang
Birds are considered a good model for indicators of biodiversity response to habitat variations, as they are very sensitive to environmental change. However, continuous observations of habitat alterations from undisturbed landscapes to human-dominated ones, as well as the associated effects on bird biodiversity, are lacking. In this study, New Jiangwan Town in Shanghai, China was selected to illustrate the response of bird species, and thus biodiversity, to habitat loss and fragmentation. Land use/land cover (LULC) data and bird records from 2002 to 2013 were collected and analyzed...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Carmen Anthonj, Sophie Githinji, Thomas Kistemann
Wetlands are a source of water out of which humans derive their livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa. They are often over-utilized and expose humans to disease-causing infectious agents. This calls for an evaluation of the role of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and their effects in disease prevention and transmission in wetlands. A health risk assessment based on syndromic surveillance of self-reported abdominal complaints and fever gathered from a rural wetland in semiarid Kenya is presented with symptoms serving as proxies for real health threats in wetlands...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Juan Huang, Chong Cao, Chunni Yan, Wenzhu Guan, Jialiang Liu
Rapidly developing industry raises concerns about the environmental risks of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), but the effects of AgNPs on the performance and microbial community in the constructed wetlands remain unclear. In this study, long-term exposure of AgNPs in two VFCWs was conducted to determine the effects of AgNPs on the pollutant removal and microbial community structure. Before exposing AgNPs, the water quality of effluent was better in planted wetland (CW2), compared with unplanted wetland (CW1). After continuous exposure of 100μg/L AgNPs, the COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal of two CWs had no difference...
May 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Jisong Yang, Chao Zhan, Yunzhao Li, Di Zhou, Yang Yu, Junbao Yu
Increasing salinity has important impacts on biogeochemical processes in estuary wetlands, with the potential to influence the soil respiration, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and microbial population. However, it is unclear how soil respiration is related to changes in the DOC and microbial community composition with increasing salinity. In this study, soil cores were sampled from a brackish wetland in the Liaohe River estuary and treated by salinity solutions at four levels (fresh water, 3‰, 5‰, and 10‰)...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ellen Jessica Kayendeke, Frank Kansiime, Helen K French, Yazidhi Bamutaze
Papyrus wetlands are predominant in permanently inundated areas of tropical Sub Saharan Africa (SSA) and offer both provisioning and regulatory services. Although a wealth of literature exists on wetland functions, the seasonal behaviour of the papyrus mat and function in water storage has received less attention. The objective of this study was to assess the response of the papyrus root mat to changing water levels in a tropical wetland system in Eastern Uganda. We delineated seven transects through a section of a wetland system and mapped wetland bathymetry along these transects...
June 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dehua Zhao, Miao Zhang, Zhe Liu, Jing Sheng, Shuqing An
Cold-season macrophytes were configured in a system of stabilization ponds (SPs) and batch operation constructed wetlands (BCWs) to supply a carbon source for low carbon/nitrogen (C/N) effluent in spring and summer without generating secondary pollution during the decomposition process. For eutrophic water, the macrophyte configuration increased the average removal efficiency (RE) from 41.6% to 68.6% and from 70.2% to 83.7% for NO3 - -N and TN in the final BCW effluent, respectively, with the concentrations decreasing from 3...
June 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Yanan Wu, Jiakai Liu, Jiexiu Zhai, Ling Cong, Yu Wang, Wenmei Ma, Zhenming Zhang, Chunyi Li
Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) deposition which involves both dry and wet processes is an important means of controlling air pollution. To investigate the characteristics of dry and wet deposition in wetlands, PM concentrations and meteorological conditions were monitored during summer at heights of 1.5 m, 6 m and 10 m above ground level at Cuihu Wetland (Beijing, China) in order to assess the efficiency of PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic size of <2.5 μm) and PM10 (particles with an aerodynamic size of <10 μm) removal...
2018: PloS One
J A Amadi, G O Ong'amo, D O Olago, S O Oriaso, I K Nyamongo, B B A Estambale
Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) is responsible for the transmission of the devastating Plasmodium falciparum (Haemosporida: Plasmodiidae) strain of malaria in Africa. This study investigated the relationship between climate and environmental conditions and An. gambiae s.l. larvae abundance and modelled the larval distribution of this species in Baringo County, Kenya. Mosquito larvae were collected using a 350-mL dipper and a pipette once per month from December 2015 to December 2016. A random forest algorithm was used to generate vegetation cover classes...
June 21, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
A David McGuire, Hélène Genet, Zhou Lyu, Neal Pastick, Sarah Stackpoole, Richard Birdsey, David D'Amore, Yujie He, T Scott Rupp, Robert Striegl, Bruce K Wylie, Xiaoping Zhou, Qianlai Zhuang, Zhiliang Zhu
We summarize the results of a recent interagency assessment of land carbon dynamics in Alaska, in which carbon dynamics were estimated for all major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems for the historical period (1950-2009) and a projection period (2010-2099). Between 1950 and 2009, upland and wetland (i.e., terrestrial) ecosystems of the State gained 0.4 Tg C yr-1 (0.1% of net primary production, NPP), resulting in a cumulative greenhouse gas radiative forcing of 1.68 x 10-3 W m-2 . The change in carbon storage is spatially variable with the region of the Northwest Boreal Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) losing carbon because of fire disturbance...
June 20, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Magollo Laurence, Joshua K Kibet, Silas M Ngari
The primary degradation of benzene derivatives in aquatic environments occurs via microbial and chemical processes. This study investigated the kinetic degradation of o-ethyltoluene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in the wetland of Lake Naivasha. Sediment samples were collected from 6:00 AM to 6:00 PM at intervals of 3 h during the dry season of December 2017. The sediment samples were air dried, ground into powder, followed by soxhlet extraction in a binary mixture of methanol and hexane in the ratio of 1:1. The extract was analyzed using gas chromatograph with mass selective detector...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shunwen Bai, Xinyue Zhao, Dawei Wang, Xuedong Zhang, Nanqi Ren
Environmental impacts of biological wastewater treatment technologies (BWTTs) can be evaluated by life cycle assessment (LCA). However, very few efforts have been made to expand the ranges of results acceptance and promote stakeholders to participate in the results analysis. To facilitate the evaluation reaching more wide and deep understanding, this study proposed to employ multiple weighting methods and the Conjoint Analysis. To investigate the feasibility, an illustrative case of a bioaugmented constructed wetland was carried out...
June 14, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Gui Feng Gao, Peng Fei Li, Zhi Jun Shen, Ying Ying Qin, Xi Min Zhang, Kabir Ghoto, Xue Yi Zhu, Hai Lei Zheng
Mangroves are critical in global carbon budget while vulnerable to exotic plant invasion. Spartina alterniflora, one of typical salt marsh plant grows forcefully along the coast of China, has invaded the native mangrove habitats in Zhangjiang Estuary. However, the effects of S. alterniflora invasion on soil carbon gases (CH4 and CO2 ) emission from mangroves are not fully understood. Accordingly, we conducted a field experiment to investigate the soil CH4 and CO2 emission during growing seasons in 2016 and 2017 at four adjacent wetlands, namely bare mudflat (Mud), Kandelia obovata (KO), Avicennia marina (AM) and S...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Etienne Fluet-Chouinard, Simon Funge-Smith, Peter B McIntyre
Consumption of wild-caught freshwater fish is concentrated in low-income countries, where it makes a critical contribution to food security and livelihoods. Underestimation of inland harvests in official statistics has long been suspected due to unmonitored subsistence fisheries. To overcome the lack of data from extensive small-scale harvests, we used household consumption surveys to estimate freshwater fish catches in 42 low- and middle-income countries between 1997 and 2014. After accounting for trade and aquaculture, these countries collectively consumed 3...
June 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ting Jia, Xi Huang, Gediminas Valkiūnas, Minghai Yang, Changming Zheng, Tianchun Pu, Yanyun Zhang, Lu Dong, Xun Suo, Chenglin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Malaria parasites and related haemosporidian parasites are widespread and may cause severe diseases in birds. These pathogens should be considered in projects aiming breeding of birds for purposes of sustained ex situ conservation. Cranes are the 'flagship species' for health assessment of wetland ecosystems, and the majority of species are endangered. Malaria parasites and other haemosporidians have been reported in cranes, but the host-parasite relationships remain insufficiently understood...
June 18, 2018: Malaria Journal
Zhaoling Li, Hasi Bagan, Yoshiki Yamagata
Land use has changed dramatically in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region because of rapid economic growth and human disturbances. However, little information is available about the medium- and long-term land use changes in this region. The effects of ecological recovery policies have also been evaluated rarely. In this study, we employed the self-organizing map neural network method to identify the land cover changes in Inner Mongolia between 2000 and 2014. MOD13Q1, Landsat, and DMSP/OLS night-time light data were used as the data resources...
September 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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