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L Chasmer, C Hopkinson
This study demonstrates linkages between the 1997/98 El Niño/Southern Oscillation index and a threshold shift to increased permafrost loss within a southern Taiga Plains watershed, Northwest Territories, Canada. Three-dimensional contraction of permafrost plateaus and changes in vegetation structural characteristics are determined from multi-temporal airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys in 2008, 2011 and 2015. Morphological changes in permafrost cover are compared with optical image analogues from 1970, 1977, 2000, and 2008 and time-series hydro-climate data...
October 22, 2016: Global Change Biology
Zhongbing Chen, Jan Vymazal, Peter Kuschk
Three different flow regimes were carried out in a pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland-treating sulfate rich wastewater contaminated with monochlorobenzene (MCB) and perchloroethene (PCE). The three regimes were continuous flow, 7-day cycle discontinuous flow, and 2.5-day cycle discontinuous flow. The results show that intensifying the tidal regime (2.5-day cycle) significantly enhanced MCB removal before 2 m from the inlet and increasing PCE removal efficiency at 0.5 m. The PCE dechlorination process was promoted with tidal operation, especially under the 2...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wendy Henwood, Helen Moewaka Barnes, Troy Brockbank, Waikarere Gregory, Kaio Hooper, Tim McCreanor
In Aotearoa New Zealand, Māori aspirations around land and water conflict with settler interests. As indigenous people, Māori struggle to enact agency over resources, despite Treaty (Treaty of Waitangi/Te Tiriti o Waitangi is an 1840 agreement between Maori and the crown) settlement processes returning some lands. Returns are complex since changes wrought by dispossession may be extreme, requiring multiple stakeholder engagements. Tāngonge, a heavily modified wetland, in northern Aotearoa New Zealand has been the subject of iwi (tribe or tribes) claims since the 1890s...
October 21, 2016: EcoHealth
Sonia M Hernandez, Catharine N Welch, Valerie E Peters, Erin K Lipp, Shannon Curry, Michael J Yabsley, Susan Sanchez, Andrea Presotto, Peter Gerner-Smidt, Kelley B Hise, Elizabeth Hammond, Whitney M Kistler, Marguerite Madden, April L Conway, Tiffany Kwan, John J Maurer
Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed...
2016: PloS One
David Samuel Johnson, R Scott Warren, Linda A Deegan, Thomas J Mozdzer
In saltmarsh plant communities, bottom-up pressure from nutrient enrichment is predicted to increase productivity, alter community structure, decrease biodiversity, and alter ecosystem functioning. Previous work supporting these predictions has been based largely on short-term, plot-level (e.g., 1-300 m(2) ) studies, which may miss landscape-level phenomena that drive ecosystem-level responses. We implemented an ecosystem-scale, nine-year nutrient experiment to examine how saltmarsh plants respond to simulated conditions of coastal eutrophication...
July 27, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Suymara Toledo Miranda, Antonio Teixeira de Matos, Gheila Corrêa Ferres Baptestini, Alisson Carraro Borges
In horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CWs), the main operational problem is clogging of the porous medium. In this study, the unclogging of HSSF-CWs was evaluated, at rest, by adding a nitrogen-based nutrient solution to the influent. For this, six HSSF-CWs were used, consisting of two uncultivated (CW-C), two cultivated with Tifton 85-grass (Cynodon spp.) (CW-T) and two cultivated with alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) (CW-A), which were fully clogged after being used for the treatment of swine wastewater...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Kun Zhong, Yi-Yong Luo, Zheng-Song Wu, Qiang He, Xue-Bin Hu, Qi-Wu Jie, Yan-Ting Li, Shao-Jie Wang
A vertical flow constructed wetland was combined with a biological aerated filter to develop an ecological filter, and to obtain the optimal operating parameters: The hydraulic loading was 1.55 m(3)/(m(2)·d), carbon-nitrogen ratio was 10, and gas-water ratio was 6. The experimental results demonstrated considerable removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in wastewater by the ecological filter, with average removal rates of 83...
October 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
S N Sruthi, M S Shyleshchandran, Sunil Paul Mathew, E V Ramasamy
The presence and distribution of a few organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the paddy fields of the Kuttanad agroecosystem (KAE) was examined in the present study. Kuttanad forms a part of the Vembanad wetland system which is a Ramsar site of international importance in the state of Kerala. This study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report on the occurrence of OCP residues in KAE. Pesticide residue analysis was done with gas chromatograph (GC-ECD). Twenty-one soil samples were collected for the multiresidual analysis of OCPs...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Monica N Ramsey, Lisa A Maher, Danielle A Macdonald, Arlene Rosen
'Neolithization' pathway refers to the development of adaptations that characterized subsequent Neolithic life, sedentary occupations, and agriculture. In the Levant, the origins of these human behaviors are widely argued to have emerged during the Early Epipaleolithic (ca. 23 ka cal BP). Consequently, there has been a pre-occupation with identifying and modeling the dietary shift to cereal and grains during this period, which is considered to have been a key development that facilitated increasing sedentism and, eventually, agriculture...
2016: PloS One
Charlotte A Jørgensen, Henning S Jensen, Sara Egemose
Measures such as stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands and buffer strips along streams are used to reduce diffuse phosphorus (P) loading to surface waters. These systems often retain particulate P well, whereas retention of dissolved P is less efficient and might require addition of P adsorbents. In this study, we screened waterwork ochre sludge (WWS) originating from groundwater treatment and ochre sludge from ochre precipitation basins along streams for their applicability as P adsorbents at ambient P concentrations...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Technology
Dorota Mirosław-Świątek, Robert Michałowski, Sylwia Szporak-Wasilewska, Stefan Ignar, Mateusz Grygoruk
In our study, we analyzed the combined standard uncertainty of water table slope assessment done using differential global positioning system (DGPS)-based measurements of water table elevation and distances between measurement locations. We compared and discussed uncertainties in water table slope assessments done in various hypothetical environments of lowland floodplains (water table slopes typically ranged from 1.25 · 10(-4) to 1 · 10(-3)). Our analyses referred to elevation measurements done with the static GPS and DGPS real-time kinematic (RTK) approaches, which are currently among the most frequently used elevation measurement techniques worldwide...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Christopher E Cattau, Robert J Fletcher, Brian E Reichert, Wiley M Kitchens
Identifying impacts of non-native species on native populations is central to conservation and ecology. While effects of non-native predators on native prey populations have recently received much attention, impacts of introduced prey on native predator populations are less understood. Non-native prey can influence predator behavior and demography through direct and indirect pathways, yet quantitative assessments of the relative impacts of multiple, potentially counteracting, effects on native predator population growth remain scarce...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Scott M Weir, David E Scott, Christopher J Salice, Stacey L Lance
Chemical contamination is often suggested as an important contributing factor to amphibian population declines, but direct links are rarely reported. Population modeling provides a quantitative method to integrate toxicity data with demographic data to understand the long-term effects of contaminants on population persistence. In this study we use laboratory-derived embryo and larval toxicity data for two anuran species to investigate the potential for toxicity to contribute to population declines. We use the southern toad (Anaxyrus terrestris) and the southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus) as model species to investigate copper (Cu) toxicity...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Helen R Sofaer, Susan K Skagen, Joseph J Barsugli, Benjamin S Rashford, Gordon C Reese, Jennifer A Hoeting, Andrew W Wood, Barry R Noon
Climate change poses major challenges for conservation and management because it alters the area, quality, and spatial distribution of habitat for natural populations. To assess species' vulnerability to climate change and target ongoing conservation investments, researchers and managers often consider the effects of projected changes in climate and land use on future habitat availability and quality and the uncertainty associated with these projections. Here, we draw on tools from hydrology and climate science to project the impact of climate change on the density of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the USA, a critical area for breeding waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
He Wang, Yongfeng Jia
The bioavailability of heavy metals strongly depends on their speciation in the environment. Adsorption (ADS) and coprecipitation (CPT) on amorphous metal hydroxides are important processes, controlling the fates of heavy metals in an aqueous environment. This work studied the bioavailability of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Pb adsorbed on and/or coprecipitated with amorphous iron and iron/aluminum mixed hydroxides to the wetland plant Phragmites australis. After a 13-day treatment, there was an apparent uptake of the heavy metals by the plant, and the amount of metal bioaccumulation was measurably different for different association forms (ADS vs...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jeffrey P Stephens, Aaron B Stoler, Jason P Sckrabulis, Aaron J Fetzer, Keith A Berven, Scott D Tiegs, Thomas R Raffel
According to ecological stoichiometry (ES), the growth of a consumer with abundant resources should increase as body and resource stoichiometry become more similar. However, for organisms with complex life cycles involving distinct changes in biology, nutrient demands might change in response to ontogenetic changes in body stoichiometry. Tadpole growth and development has been found to be largely nitrogen (N) limited, as predicted for organisms developing N-rich tissues like muscle. However, tadpole metamorphosis includes periods of rapid development of phosphorus (P)-rich bones in preparation for a terrestrial lifestyle...
October 17, 2016: Oecologia
Juan Chen, Chao Wang, Zhi-Jun Shen, Gui-Feng Gao, Hai-Lei Zheng
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants, particularly in mangrove wetlands. However, little is known about the long-term effect of mangrove plants on PBDE removal from contaminated sediments. A 12-month microcosm experiment was conducted to understand the effect of two mangrove species, namely Avicennia marina (Am) and Aegiceras corniculatum (Ac), on PBDE removal from the sediments spiked with 2000ngg(-1) dry weight of BDE-47, and to explore the microbial mechanism responsible for the planting-induced effects on BDE-47 removal...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jingyi Dong, Xiaoteng Lu, Chen Shao, Jie Huang, Khaled A S Al-Rasheid
The morphology and morphogenesis of a new saline soil hypotrich, Lamtostyla salina n. sp., collected from Longfeng Wetland in Daqing, north China, were studied based on live observations and protargol stained specimens. The new species is characterized as follows: body very flexible but not contractile, lanceolate with anterior end broadly rounded, widest at about 1/3 of body length, posterior end narrowly rounded; cortical granules colourless and scattered; amphisiellid median cirral row ends ahead of mid-body, composed of 5-13 cirri; 4-20 frontoventral cirri arranged in 2-4 rows; three frontal, one buccal and 2-6 transverse cirri; usually one left and one right marginal row, composed of 17-51 and 20-51 cirri respectively; usually two dorsal kineties; two macronuclear nodules and two micronuclei...
September 20, 2016: European Journal of Protistology
Chinh Dang Van, Galayanee Doungchawee, Sutas Suttiprapa, Yuji Arimatsu, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Banchob Sripa
Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is an important foodborne trematodiasis in Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. Interestingly, the opisthorchiasis endemic region overlaps with an area of leptospirosis emergence. Here we report an association between opisthorchiasis and leptospirosis in Thailand. Of 280 sera collected from villagers living around the Lawa wetland complex in Khon Kaen province, 199 (71%) were seropositive for leptospirosis by immunochromatography. Individuals with O. viverrini infection had a significantly higher rate of leptospirosis than those without (P=0...
October 13, 2016: Parasitology International
M Fossey, A N Rousseau
The effects of wetlands on stream flows are well established, namely mitigating flow regimes through water storage and slow water release. However, their effectiveness in reducing flood peaks and sustaining low flows is mainly driven by climate conditions and wetland type with respect to their connectivity to the hydrographic network (i.e. isolated or riparian wetlands). While some studies have demonstrated these hydrological functions/services, few of them have focused on the benefits to the hydrological regimes and their evolution under climate change (CC) and, thus, some gaps persist...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
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