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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921596/single-cocaine-exposure-does-not-alter-striatal-presynaptic-dopamine-function-in-mice-an-18-f-fdopa-pet-study
#1
D R Bonsall, M Kokkinou, M Veronese, C Coello, L A Wells, O D Howes
Cocaine is a recreational drug of abuse that binds to the dopamine transporter (DAT), preventing reuptake of dopamine into presynaptic terminals. The increased presence of synaptic dopamine results in stimulation of both pre- and postsynaptic dopamine receptors, considered an important mechanism by which cocaine elicits its reinforcing properties. However, the effects of acute cocaine administration on presynaptic dopamine function remain unclear. Non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) have revealed impaired presynaptic dopamine function in chronic cocaine users...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901694/the-role-of-cognitive-biases-in-short-term-psychodynamic-psychotherapy
#2
Ueli Kramer, Diana Ortega, Gilles Ambresin, Jean-Nicolas Despland, Yves de Roten
The concept of biased thinking - or cognitive biases - is relevant to psychotherapy research and clinical conceptualization, beyond cognitive theories. The present naturalistic study aimed to examine the changes in biased thinking over the course of a short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and to discover potential links between these changes and symptomatic improvement. This study focuses on 32 self-referred patients consulting for Adjustment Disorder according to DSM-IV-TR. The therapists were experienced psychodynamically oriented psychiatrists and psychotherapists...
September 13, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886580/a-plasma-metabonomic-analysis-on-potential-biomarker-in-pyrexia-induced-by-three-methods-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance-mass-spectrometry
#3
Ting Liu, Songhe Li, Xiumin Tian, Zhaoqin Li, Yue Cui, Fei Han, Yunli Zhao, Zhiguo Yu
Pyrexia usually is a systemic pathological process that can lead to metabolic disorders. Metabonomics as a powerful tool not only can reveal the pathological mechanisms, but also can give insight into the progression of pyrexia from another angle. Thus, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (UHPLC-FT-ICR-MS) metabonomic approach was employed for the first time to investigate the plasma biochemical characteristics of pyrexia induced by three methods and to reveal subtle metabolic changes under the condition of pyrexia so as to explore its mechanism...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881636/the-landscape-of-dna-methylation-mediated-regulation-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-breast-cancer
#4
Chunlong Zhang, Xinyu Wang, Xuecang Li, Ning Zhao, Yihan Wang, Xiaole Han, Ce Ci, Jian Zhang, Meng Li, Yan Zhang
Although systematic studies have identified a host of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are involved in breast cancer, the knowledge about the methyla-tion-mediated dysregulation of those lncRNAs remains limited. Here, we integrated multi-omics data to analyze the methylated alteration of lncRNAs in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA). We found that lncRNAs showed diverse methylation patterns on promoter regions in BRCA. LncRNAs were divided into two categories and four subcategories based on their promoter methylation patterns and expression levels be-tween tumor and normal samples...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880579/cognitive-emotion-regulation-strategies-in-chinese-adolescents-with-overweight-and-obesity
#5
Yafei Tan, Xiuhong Xin, Xiang Wang, Shuqiao Yao
BACKGROUND: The relationship between psychological factors and obesity has become a hot topic in psychosomatic research. The aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of cognitive emotion regulation (CER) strategies in Chinese adolescents with different weight status. METHODS: Using stratified random cluster sampling, 700 and 321 adolescents were defined as adolescents with overweight status and obese status, respectively. One thousand and twenty-one adolescents with normal-weight status were also selected...
September 7, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867432/use-of-administrative-data-for-comparative-effectiveness-research-in-the-treatment-of-non-prostate-genitourinary-malignancies
#6
REVIEW
Daniel C Edwards, David B Cahn, Marc C Smaldone, Alexander Kutikov
Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is imperative for objective and balanced assessment of treatment outcomes. CER that uses administrative databases (AD-CER) affords unique opportunities for large scale data analyses that potentially transcend limitations of small institutional datasets. Prostate cancer has received much attention from the AD-CER research community, whereas non-prostate genitourinary malignancies are less well-studied. The objective of this article is to review the currently available AD-CER that has been published in the non-prostate genitourinary malignancies space...
August 31, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865976/from-shaping-organelles-to-signalling-platforms-the-emerging-functions-of-plant-er-pm-contact-sites
#7
REVIEW
Emmanuelle M Bayer, Imogen Sparkes, Steffen Vanneste, Abel Rosado
The plant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) defines the biosynthetic site of lipids and proteins destined for secretion, but also contains important signal transduction and homeostasis components that regulate multiple hormonal and developmental responses. To achieve its various functions, the ER has a unique architecture, both reticulated and highly plastic, that facilitates the spatial-temporal segregation of biochemical reactions and the establishment of inter-organelle communication networks. At the cell cortex, the cortical ER (cER) anchors to and functionally couples with the PM through largely static structures known as ER-PM contact sites (EPCS)...
August 31, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865143/identifying-patients-with-high-data-completeness-to-improve-validity-of-comparative-effectiveness-research-in-electronic-health-records-data
#8
Kueiyu Joshua Lin, Daniel E Singer, Robert J Glynn, Shawn N Murphy, Joyce Lii, Sebastian Schneeweiss
Electronic health records (EHR)-discontinuity, i.e., having medical information recorded outside of the study EHR system, is associated with substantial information bias in EHR-based comparative effectiveness research (CER). We aimed to develop and validate a prediction model identifying patients with high EHR-continuity to reduce this bias. Based on 183,739 patients aged ≥65 in EHRs from two US provider networks linked with Medicare claims data from 2007-2014, we quantified EHR-continuity by Mean Proportion of Encounters Captured (MPEC) by the EHR system...
September 2, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864659/a-novel-role-for-ceramide-synthase-6-in-mouse-and-human-alcoholic-steatosis
#9
Bianca Williams, Jason Correnti, Amanke Oranu, Annie Lin, Victoria Scott, Maxine Annoh, James Beck, Emma Furth, Victoria Mitchell, Can E Senkal, Lina Obeid, Rotonya M Carr
Perilipin 2 (PLIN2) is a lipid-droplet protein that is up-regulated in alcoholic steatosis and associated with hepatic accumulation of ceramides, bioactive lipids implicated in alcoholic liver disease pathogenesis. The specific role of ceramide synthetic enzymes in the regulation of PLIN2 and promotion of hepatocellular lipid accumulation is not well understood. We examined the effects of pharmacologic ceramide synthesis inhibition on hepatic PLIN2 expression, steatosis, and glucose and lipid homeostasis in mice with alcoholic steatosis and in ethanol-incubated human hepatoma VL17A cells...
September 1, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855881/regulating-anger-under-stress-via-cognitive-reappraisal-and-sadness
#10
Jun Zhan, Xiaofei Wu, Jin Fan, Jianyou Guo, Jianshe Zhou, Jun Ren, Chang Liu, Jing Luo
Previous studies have reported the failure of cognitive emotion regulation (CER), especially in regulating unpleasant emotions under stress. The underlying reason for this failure was the application of CER depends heavily on the executive function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), but this function can be impaired by stress-related neuroendocrine hormones. This observation highlights the necessity of developing self-regulatory strategies that require less top-down cognitive control. Based on traditional Chinese philosophy and medicine, which examine how different types of emotions promote or counteract one another, we have developed a novel emotion regulation strategy whereby one emotion is used to alter another...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842833/ceramide-and-its-related-neurochemical-networks-as-targets-for-some-brain-disorder-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Justyna Brodowicz, Edmund Przegaliński, Christian P Müller, Malgorzata Filip
Correlational and causal comparative research link ceramide (Cer), the precursor of complex sphingolipids, to some psychiatric (e.g., depression, schizophrenia (SZ), alcohol use disorder, and morphine antinociceptive tolerance) and neurological (e.g., Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD)) disorders. Cer generation can occur through the de novo synthesis pathway, the sphingomyelinase pathways, and the salvage pathway. The discoveries that plasma Cer concentration increase during depressive episodes in patients and that tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants functionally inhibit acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), the enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of sphingomyelin to Cer, have initiated a series of studies on the role of the ASM-Cer system in depressive disorder...
August 25, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836149/nutrient-restriction-increases-circulating-and-hepatic-ceramide-in-dairy-cows-displaying-impaired-insulin-tolerance
#12
Amanda N Davis, J L Clegg, C A Perry, J W McFadden
The progression of insulin resistance in dairy cows represents a maternal adaptation to support milk production during heightened energy demand; however, excessive adipose tissue lipolysis can develop. In diabetic non-ruminants, the mechanisms that mediate insulin resistance involve the sphingolipid ceramide. We tested the hypothesis that ceramide accumulates in dairy cows experiencing lipolysis and insulin resistance. Nine dairy cows were utilized in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. Cows were ad libitum fed, nutrient-restricted (NR), or NR with nicotinic acid (NA; 5 mg of NA/h per kg BW; delivered i...
August 23, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827060/pancreatic-stellate-cell-activation-is-regulated-by-fatty-acids-and-er-stress
#13
Yael Ben-Harosh, Mariana Anosov, Hagit Salem, Yekaterina Yatchenko, R Birk
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic pathologies are characterized by a progressive fibrosis process. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) play a crucial role in pancreatic fibrogenesis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress emerges as an important determinant of fibrotic remodeling. Overload of fatty acids (FA), typical to obesity, may lead to lipotoxic state and cellular stress. AIM: to study the effect of different lipolytic challenges on pancreatic ER stress and PSC activation. METHODS: Primary PSCs were exposed to different FAs, palmitate (pal) and oleate (ole), at pathophysiological concentrations typical to obese state, and in acute caerulein-induced stress (cer)...
August 5, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819979/influence-of-a-novel-dimeric-ceramide-molecule-on-the-nanostructure-and-thermotropic-phase-behavior-of-a-stratum-corneum-model-mixture
#14
Sören Stahlberg, Adina Eichner, Stefan Sonnenberger, Andrej Kováčik, Stefan Lange, Thomas Schmitt, Bruno Demé, Thomas Hauß, Bodo Dobner, Reinhard H H Neubert, Daniel Huster
The stratum corneum (SC) is the outermost layer of the skin and is composed of a multilayered assembly of mostly ceramids (Cer), free fatty acids, cholesterol (Chol), and cholesterol sulfate (Chol-S). Because of the tight packing of these lipids, the SC features unique barrier properties defending the skin from environmental influences. Under pathological conditions, where the skin barrier function is compromised, topical application of molecules that rigidify the SC may lead to a restored barrier function...
August 29, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811322/analysis-of-sphingolipids-sterols-and-phospholipids-in-human-pathogenic-cryptococcus-strains
#15
Ashutosh Singh, Andrew MacKenzie, Geoffrey Girnun, Maurizio Del Poeta
Cryptococcus species cause invasive infections in humans. Lipids play an important role in the progression of these infections. Independent studies done by our group and others provide some detail about the functions of these lipids in Cryptococcus infections. However, pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism of these lipids are not completely understood. To thoroughly understand the physiological role of these Cryptococcus lipids, a proper structure and composition analyses of Cryptococcus lipids is demanded...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806500/doxepin-mitigates-noise-induced-neuronal-damage-in-primary-auditory-cortex-of-mice-via-suppression-of-acid-sphingomyelinase-ceramide-pathway
#16
Yu-Ting Su, Xing-Xing Meng, Xi Zhang, Yi-Bin Guo, Hai-Jun Zhang, Yao-Ping Cheng, Xiao-Ping Xie, Yao-Ming Chang, Jun-Xiang Bao
Neuronal damage in primary auditory cortex (A1) underlies complex manifestations of noise exposure, prevention of which is critical for health maintenance. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) catalyzes generation of ceramide (Cer) which if over-activated mediates neuronal disorders in various diseases. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), by restraining ASM/Cer, benefits multiple neuronal anomalies, so we aimed to elucidate the effect of TCA on noise induced hearing loss and auditory cortex derangement, unraveling mechanism involved...
August 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800942/plasma-and-ovarian-tissue-sphingolipids-profiling-in-patients-with-advanced-ovarian-cancer
#17
Paweł Knapp, Lubomir Bodnar, Agnieszka Błachnio-Zabielska, Magdalena Świderska, Adrian Chabowski
PURPOSE: The role of lipids in carcinogenesis through induction of abnormal cell lines in the human body is currently undisputable. Based on the literature, bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and are involved in the metastatic process. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of selected sphingolipids in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC, FIGO III/IV, high grade ovarian cancer). METHODS: Seventy-four patients with ovarian cancer were enrolled...
August 8, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796418/role-of-the-gm1-ganglioside-oligosaccharide-portion-in-the-trka-dependent-neurite-sprouting-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#18
Elena Chiricozzi, Diego Yuri Pomè, Margherita Maggioni, Erika Di Biase, Chiara Parravicini, Luca Palazzolo, Nicoletta Loberto, Ivano Eberini, Sandro Sonnino
GM1 ganglioside (II(3) NeuAc-Gg4 Cer) is known to promote neurite formation in neuroblastoma cells by activating TrkA-MAPK pathway. The molecular mechanism by which GM1 is involved in the neurodifferentiation process is still unknown, however, in vitro and in vivo evidences have suggested that the oligosaccharide portion of this ganglioside could be involved. Here, we report that, similarly to the entire GM1 molecule, its oligosaccharide II(3) NeuAc-Gg4, rather than its ceramide (Cer) portion is responsible for the neurodifferentiation process by augmenting neurite elongation and increasing the neurofilament protein expression in murine neuroblastoma cells, Neuro2a...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791299/differential-microrna-analyses-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-and-francisella-tularensis-exposed-hpbmcs-reveal-potential-biomarkers
#19
Regina Z Cer, J Enrique Herrera-Galeano, Kenneth G Frey, Kevin L Schully, Truong V Luu, John Pesce, Vishwesh P Mokashi, Andrea M Keane-Myers, Kimberly A Bishop-Lilly
Increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the immune response against infectious agents suggests that miRNA might be exploitable as signatures of exposure to specific infectious agents. In order to identify potential early miRNA biomarkers of bacterial infections, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) were exposed to two select agents, Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243 and Francisella tularensis SHU S4, as well as to the nonpathogenic control Escherichia coli DH5α. RNA samples were harvested at three early time points, 30, 60, and 120 minutes postexposure, then sequenced...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776129/comparative-effectiveness-research-in-pediatric-respiratory-disease-promise-and-pitfalls
#20
Kathleen J Ramos, Ranjani Somayaji, David P Nichols, Christopher H Goss
Comparative effectiveness research (CER) has become increasing central to clinical research in medicine. CER seeks to conduct clinical trials that compare different commonly used interventions in real-world settings (pragmatic clinical trials) and use a multitude of sources of evidence (including registries and cohort studies) to inform clinical decision making. CER also ensures that stakeholders (patients, families, care providers, insurers) have a voice in the research process by integrating formal stakeholder engagement as part of the research...
August 3, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
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