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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087695/novel-interconnections-in-lipid-metabolism-revealed-by-overexpression-of-sphingomyelin-synthase-1
#1
Gergana M Deevska, Patrick P Dotson, Alexander A Karakashian, Giorgis Isaac, Mark Wrona, Samuel B Kelly, Alfred H Merrill, Mariana N Nikolova-Karakashian
This study investigates the consequences of elevating sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) activity, which generates the main mammalian sphingolipid, sphingomyelin. HepG2 cells stably transfected with SMS1 (HepG2-SMS1), exhibit elevated enzyme activity in vitro and increased sphingomyelin content (mainly C22:0- and C24:0-sphingomyelin), but lower hexosylceramide (Hex-Cer) levels. HepG2-SMS1 cells have less triacylglycerols than controls but similar diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, triacylglycerol secretion, and mitochondrial function...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077289/vitamin-d3-protects-against-a%C3%AE-peptide-cytotoxicity-in-differentiated-human-neuroblastoma-sh-sy5y-cells-a-role-for-s1p1-p38mapk-atf4-axis
#2
Federica Pierucci, Mercedes Garcia-Gil, Alessia Frati, Francesca Bini, Maria Martinesi, Eleonora Vannini, Marco Mainardi, Federico Luzzati, Paolo Peretto, Matteo Caleo, Elisabetta Meacci
Besides its classical function of bone metabolism regulation, 1A,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), acts on a variety of tissues including the nervous system, where the hormone plays an important role as neuroprotective, antiproliferating and differentiating agent. Sphingolipids are bioactive lipids that play critical and complex roles in regulating cell fate. In the present paper we have investigated whether sphingolipids are involved in the protective action of 1,25(OH)2D3. We have found that 1,25(OH)2D3 prevents amyloid-β peptide (Aβ(1-42)) cytotoxicity both in differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and in vivo...
January 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072987/-a-pilot-clinical-study-of-immediate-provisionalization-with-a-chairside-computer-aided-design-and-computer-aided-manufacture-monolithic-crown-for-single-tooth-immediate-implant-placement
#3
J H Tian, P Di, Y Lin, Y Zhang, D H Wei, H Y Cui
Objective: To evaluate the primary clinical outcomes of immediate provisionalization with a monolithic crown utilizing a novel chairside computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) workflow for single tooth immediate implant placement. Methods: This pilot study was a prospective within-subjects design. Thirteen consecutive patients were included and diagnosed with untreatable single incisor or premolar with fine general and local anatomical conditions. The trial was conducted at Department of Implantology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, Beijing, between January 2016 and June 2016...
January 9, 2017: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040541/cognitive-emotion-regulation-modulates-the-balance-of-competing-influences-on-ventral-striatal-aversive-prediction-error-signals
#4
Satja Mulej Bratec, Xiyao Xie, Yijun Wang, Leonhard Schilbach, Claus Zimmer, Afra M Wohlschläger, Valentin Riedl, Christian Sorg
Cognitive emotion regulation (CER) is a critical human ability to face aversive emotional stimuli in a flexible way, via recruitment of specific prefrontal brain circuits. Animal research reveals a central role of ventral striatum in emotional behavior, for both aversive conditioning, with striatum signaling aversive prediction errors (aPE), and for integrating competing influences of distinct striatal inputs from regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, hippocampus and ventral tegmental area (VTA)...
December 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039285/patients-views-of-consent-in-clinical-trials-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-impact-of-trial-design
#5
Neal W Dickert, Kristopher A Hendershot, Candace D Speight, Alexandra E Fehr
OBJECTIVE: Seeking prospective informed consent is difficult in clinical trials for emergent conditions such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Prior data suggest that enrolment decisions of patients are often poorly informed in AMI trials but that patients prefer to be asked permission before enrolment. It is unknown whether this is true across trial designs or in comparative effectiveness research (CER) with approved treatments. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with 30 patients with AMI...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035926/pleiotropic-effect-of-human-apoe4-on-cerebral-ceramide-and-saturated-fatty-acid-levels
#6
Sandra den Hoedt, Carola I F Janssen, Guiseppe Astarita, Daniele Piomelli, Frank P J Leijten, Simone M Crivelli, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Helga E de Vries, Jochen Walter, Pilar Martinez-Martinez, Eric J G Sijbrands, Amanda J Kiliaan, Monique T Mulder
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is known for its role in lipid trafficking and the ɛ4 allele is a risk factor for late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, aberrant ceramide and fatty acid (FA) levels have been implicated in AD. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific effects of human ApoE4 (hE4) on cerebral ceramide and FA content during chow or a high fat/high cholesterol (HFHC) diet. METHODS: Cerebral ceramide and FA profiles were determined by LC-MSMS in 15-month-old female wild-type (WT), ApoE-knockout (E0), and hE4-knockin mice fed chow or a HFHC diet for 3 months...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035360/hepatic-inflammatory-cytokine-production-can-be-regulated-by-modulating-sphingomyelinase-and-ceramide-synthase-6
#7
Min Hee Kim, Hee Kyung Ahn, Eun-Ji Lee, Su-Jeong Kim, Ye-Ryung Kim, Joo-Won Park, Woo-Jae Park
Chronic inflammation is associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and diabetic complications, and palmitate has been nominated as a candidate for the molecular link between these disorders. Recently, a crucial role of ceramide in inflammation and metabolic diseases has been reported. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether ceramide formation is involved in palmitate‑induced hepatic inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Ceramide can be generated either by the de novo pathway or by sphingomyelin degradation, and six different ceramide synthases (CerS) determine the specific acyl chain length of ceramide in mammals...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027757/free-breathing-dynamic-liver-examination-using-a-radial-3d-t1-weighted-gradient-echo-sequence-with-moderate-undersampling-for-patients-with-limited-breath-holding-capacity
#8
Benjamin Kaltenbach, Andrei Roman, Christoph Polkowski, Tatjana Gruber-Rouh, Ralf W Bauer, Renate Hammerstingl, Thomas J Vogl, Stephan Zangos
PURPOSE: To compare free-breathing radial VIBE with moderate undersampling (us-radial-VIBE) with a standard breathhold T1-weighted volumetric interpolated sequence (3D GRE VIBE) in patients unable to suspend respiration during dynamic liver examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 23 consecutive patients underwent dynamic liver MR examination using the free-breathing us-radial-VIBE sequence as part of their oncologic follow-up. All patients were eligible for the free-breathing protocol due to severe respiratory artifacts at the planning or precontrast sequences...
January 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027558/cognitive-evoked-potentials-p300-after-radiation-exposure
#9
K M Loganovsky, K V Kuts
OBJECTIVE: The study was aimed at evaluating features of brain information processes and cognitive functioning in the remote period after irradiation due to the Chornobyl accident by using cognitive evoked potentials P300. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 128 people, 112 male Chornobyl clean up workers in 1986-1987 with the records of radiation doses available in Clinical and Epidemiological Registry (CER) of State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» (NRCRM) (study group) and 16 unexposed persons due to the Chornobyl disaster (control group)...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027557/pathological-personality-development-after-the-chornobyl-disaster-and-the-anti-terrorist-operation
#10
K M Loganovsky, M V Gresko
: Objective of the study was to determine pathological changes of the personality of the clean up workers (liquida tors) of the Chornobyl accident and the participants in the anti terrorist operation (ATO) in Eastern Ukraine and radiation threat perception assessment.Design, object and methods. The cross sectional and retrospective assessments of the clean up workers of the Chornobyl accident (n = 185), evacuees from the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (n = 112) from the randomized sample of individuals who are registered in the Clinical and epidemiological registry (CER) of the State Institution «National Research Center for Radiation Medicine of National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine» [NRCRM] and partici pants of the ATO in Eastern Ukraine (n = 62) who underwent treatment and rehabilitation in the Department of Radiation Psychoneurology of the NRCRM Clinic have been done...
December 2016: Problemy Radiat︠s︡iĭnoï Medyt︠s︡yny Ta Radiobiolohiï
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025409/a-case-of-acute-autonomic-and-sensory-neuropathy-aasn-with-antibody-against-a-mixture-of-galactocerebroside-and-phospholipids
#11
Teruyuki Ishikura, Kazushiro Takata, Makoto Kinoshita, Kei Fukada, Jinichi Sawada, Takanori Hazama
A 62-year-old woman presented with paresthesia of limbs, gait disturbance, urinary retention and constipation following upper respiratory infection. Neurological examination revealed gait disturbance due to loss of position sense in her extremities with intact muscle power, and autonomic failure represented by orthostatic hypotension, constipation and autonomic bladder. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed normal cell counts with elevated protein levels. Nerve conduction study showed sensory nerve impairment with almost normal motor nerve conduction in her upper and lower extremities...
December 23, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008587/neutral-ceramidase-secreted-via-exosome-protects-against-palmitate-induced-apoptosis-in-ins-1-cells
#12
S Tang, F Luo, Y M Feng, X Wei, H Miao, Y B Lu, Y Tang, D F Ding, J F Jin, Q Zhu
Aims: To investigate the effects of neutral ceramidase (NCDase) packaged in exosomes that are secreted from β-cells on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced β-cells apoptosis and its role in regulation of sphingolipid-mediated signaling pathway. Methods: HPLC and Western blotting were performed to determine NCDase activity and expression. Annexin V-fluorescein-isothiocyanate/propidium iodide flow cytometry was used to assess apoptosis. Electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was used for ceramide (Cer), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and sphingosine (SPH) determination...
December 22, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999983/can-lymphovascular-invasion-be-predicted-by-preoperative-multiphasic-dynamic-ct-in-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer
#13
Zelan Ma, Changhong Liang, Yanqi Huang, Lan He, Cuishan Liang, Xin Chen, Xiaomei Huang, Yabing Xiong, Zaiyi Liu
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether multiphasic dynamic CT can preoperatively predict lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). METHODS: 278 patients with AGC who underwent preoperative multiphasic dynamic CT were retrospectively recruited. Tumour CT attenuation difference between non-contrast and arterial (ΔAP), portal (ΔPP) and delayed phase (ΔDP), tumour-spleen attenuation difference in the portal phase (ΔT-S), tumour contrast enhancement ratios (CERs), tumour-to-spleen ratio (TSR) and tumour volumes were obtained...
December 20, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995028/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-ultrasound-guided-seldinger-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-picc
#14
Jianghong Tan, Liping Liu, Jing Xie, Lingli Hu, Qiaolan Yang, Honghong Wang
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound-guided cannulation of deep mid-arm veins by a modified Seldinger (US-Seldinger) technique has been demonstrated to yield better puncture success rates and lower postoperative complication rates than direct cannulation of superficial veins near the elbow with a short peripheral cannula and peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) insertion through the cannula (non-US conventional method). Economic factors have been evaluated across different operators (i.e. nurses, radiologists, and general practitioners) and different venous catheter types (i...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988894/increase-in-circulating-sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-decrease-in-ceramide-levels-in-psoriatic-patients
#15
Hanna Myśliwiec, Anna Baran, Ewa Harasim-Symbor, Barbara Choromańska, Piotr Myśliwiec, Anna Justyna Milewska, Adrian Chabowski, Iwona Flisiak
Psoriasis is characterized by hyperproliferation, deregulated differentiation and impaired apoptosis of keratinocytes. Mechanisms of lipid profile disturbances and metabolic syndrome in the psoriatic patients are still not fully understood. Sphingolipids, namely ceramides (CER) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are signal molecules which can regulate cell growth, apoptosis and immune reactions. The aim of the study was to evaluate circulating CER and S1P levels in plaque-type psoriasis and their associations with the disease activity, inflammatory or metabolic markers and the presence of psoriatic comorbidities...
December 17, 2016: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988649/the-australian-ciidae-coleoptera-tenebrionoidea-a-preliminary-revision
#16
John F Lawrence
The Australian ciid fauna is revised based on 75 described species (56 of them new) and three undescribed species, placed in 22 genera (nine of them new and nine newly recorded from Australia). The revision is considered preliminary, since about 50 other undescribed Australian species have been seen (usually as uniques or in short series), and it is likely that more will be found with increased intensive collecting. One additional New Caledonian species is also described, and one Cis species is considered to be based on a mislabelled Hawaiian specimen...
November 25, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973837/molecular-dynamics-simulation-of-skin-lipids-effect-of-ceramide-chain-lengths-on-bilayer-properties
#17
Rakesh Gupta, Balarama Sridhar Dwadasi, Beena Rai
Stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of skin, serves as a barrier for pathogens and maintains the trans-epidermal water loss. The lipid matrix of SC is the major diffusion-rate-limiting pathway as molecules will have to pass through it. Ceramides play a key role in structuring and maintaining the barrier function of the skin. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to systematically investigate the effects of the chain length of ceramide (CER) tails on the properties of the bilayer at a skin temperature of 310 K...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960149/the-crucial-role-of-c18-cer-in-fat-induced-skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance
#18
Agnieszka U Blachnio-Zabielska, Marta Chacinska, Mikkel H Vendelbo, Piotr Zabielski
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Muscle bioactive lipids accumulation leads to several disorder states. The most common are insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes. There is an ongoing debate which of the lipid species plays the major role in induction of muscle IR. Our aim was to elucidate the role of particular lipid group in induction of muscle IR. METHODS: The analyses were performed on muscle from the following groups of rats: 1. Control, fed standard diet, 2 HFD, fed high fat diet, 3...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942727/quantifying-the-burden-of-interhospital-cost-variation-in-pediatric-surgery-implications-for-the-prioritization-of-comparative-effectiveness-research
#19
Danielle B Cameron, Dionne A Graham, Carly E Milliren, Charity C Glass, Christina Feng, Feroze Sidhwa, Hariharan Thangarajah, Matthew Hall, Shawn J Rangel
Importance: Practice variation is believed to be a driver of excess health care spending, although few objective data exist to guide the prioritization of comparative effectiveness research (CER) in pediatric surgery. Objective: To identify high-priority general pediatric surgical procedures for CER on the basis of the following 2 complementary measures: the magnitude of interhospital cost variation as a surrogate for the need for and potential effect of CER at the patient level and the cumulative fiscal burden of this cost variation when considering the case volume from all hospitals as a surrogate for public health relevance...
December 12, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934529/omega-o-acylceramides-in-skin-lipid-membranes-effects-of-concentration-sphingoid-base-and-model-complexity-on-microstructure-and-permeability
#20
Lukáš Opálka, Andrej Kováčik, Jaroslav Maixner, Kateřina Vávrová
Omega-O-acylceramides (acylCer), a subclass of sphingolipids with an ultralong N-acyl chain (from 20 to 38 carbons, most usually 30 and 32 carbons), are crucial components of the skin permeability barrier. AcylCer are involved in the formation of the long periodicity lamellar phase (LPP, 12-13 nm), which is essential for preventing water loss from the body. Lower levels of acylCer and LPP accompany skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, lamellar ichthyosis, and psoriasis. We studied how the concentration and structure of acylCer influence the organization and permeability barrier properties of model lipid membranes...
December 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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