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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535204/colocalization-of-receptors-for-shiga-toxins-with-lipid-rafts-in-primary-human-renal-glomerular-endothelial-cells-and-influence-of-d-pdmp-on-synthesis-and-distribution-of-glycosphingolipid-receptors
#1
Nadine Legros, Gottfried Pohlentz, Jana Runde, Stefanie Dusny, Hans-Ulrich Humpf, Helge Karch, Johannes Müthing
Damage of human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) of the kidney represents the linchpin in the pathogenesis of the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxins (Stxs) of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We performed a comprehensive structural analysis of the Stx receptor glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα4alβ4Glcβ1Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ3Galα4Galβ4Glcβ1Cer) and their distribution in lipid raft analogue detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs) and nonDRMs prepared from primary HRGECs...
May 23, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533479/the-landscape-of-dna-methylation-mediated-regulation-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-breast-cancer
#2
Chunlong Zhang, Xinyu Wang, Xuecang Li, Ning Zhao, Yihan Wang, Xiaole Han, Ce Ci, Jian Zhang, Meng Li, Yan Zhang
Although systematic studies have identified a host of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) which are involved in breast cancer, the knowledge about the methyla-tion-mediated dysregulation of those lncRNAs remains limited. Here, we integrated multi-omics data to analyze the methylated alteration of lncRNAs in breast invasive carcinoma (BRCA). We found that lncRNAs showed diverse methylation patterns on promoter regions in BRCA. LncRNAs were divided into two categories and four subcategories based on their promoter methylation patterns and expression levels be-tween tumor and normal samples...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522731/effect-of-metformin-on-bioactive-lipid-metabolism-in-insulin-resistant-muscle
#3
Piotr Zabielski, Marta Chacinska, Karol Charkiewicz, Marcin Baranowski, Jan Gorski, Agnieszka U Blachnio-Zabielska
Intramuscular accumulation of bioactive lipids leads to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). There is lack of consensus concerning which of the lipid mediators has the greatest impact on muscle insulin action in vivo Our aim was to elucidate the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) and metformin (Met) on skeletal muscle bioactive lipid accumulation and insulin resistance (IR) in rats. We employed a [U-(13)C]palmitate isotope tracer and mass spectrometry to measure the content and fractional synthesis rate (FSR) of intramuscular long-chain acyl-CoA (LCACoA), diacylglycerols (DAG) and ceramide (Cer)...
June 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515139/changes-in-ceramide-metabolism-are-essential-in-madin-darby-canine-kidney-cell-differentiation
#4
Lucila Gisele Pescio, Bruno Jaime Santacreu, Vanina Gisela Lopez, Carlos Humberto Paván, Daniela Judith Romero, Nicolás Octavio Favale, Norma Beatriz Sterin-Speziale
Ceramides and complex sphingolipids with defined acyl-chain lengths play important roles in numerous cell processes. Six ceramide synthase isoenzymes (CerS1-6) are the key enzymes responsible for the production of the diversity of molecular species. In this study, we investigated the changes in sphingolipid metabolism during the differentiation of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. By MALDI TOF TOF MS, we analyzed the molecular species of ceramide (Cer), glucosylceramide (GlcCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer) and sphingomyelin (SM) in non-differentiated and differentiated cells (cultured under hypertonicity)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507162/lipophagy-prevents-activity-dependent-neurodegeneration-due-to-dihydroceramide-accumulation-in-vivo
#5
Wei-Hung Jung, Chung-Chih Liu, Yu-Lian Yu, Yu-Chin Chang, Wen-Yu Lien, Hsi-Chun Chao, Shu-Yi Huang, Ching-Hua Kuo, Han-Chen Ho, Chih-Chiang Chan
Dihydroceramide desaturases are evolutionarily conserved enzymes that convert dihydroceramide (dhCer) to ceramide (Cer). While elevated Cer levels cause neurodegenerative diseases, the neuronal activity of its direct precursor, dhCer, remains unclear. We show that knockout of the fly dhCer desaturase gene, infertile crescent (ifc), results in larval lethality with increased dhCer and decreased Cer levels. Light stimulation leads to ROS increase and apoptotic cell death in ifc-KO photoreceptors, resulting in activity-dependent neurodegeneration...
May 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506958/enhancing-comparative-effectiveness-research-with-automated-pediatric-pneumonia-detection-in-a-multi-institutional-clinical-repository-a-phis-pilot-study
#6
Stephane Meystre, Ramkiran Gouripeddi, Joel Tieder, Jeffrey Simmons, Rajendu Srivastava, Samir Shah
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity. Administrative data are often used to conduct comparative effectiveness research (CER) with sufficient sample sizes to enhance detection of important outcomes. However, such studies are prone to misclassification errors because of the variable accuracy of discharge diagnosis codes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an automated, scalable, and accurate method to determine the presence or absence of pneumonia in children using chest imaging reports...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485177/querying-stakeholders-to-inform-comparative-effectiveness-research
#7
Yoon Duk Hong, Daisuke Goto, C Daniel Mullins
Despite the growing recognition of the value of stakeholder engagement in research, there is limited guidance on effectively eliciting stakeholder views during the comparative effectiveness research (CER) process. This article outlines the potential role of each stakeholder (patient, provider, policymaker and payer) throughout the CER process and provides examples of practical questions that researchers can ask the four primary stakeholder groups at each step of the CER process. This guide aims to assist in the development of meaningful stakeholder-researcher shared decision-making to incorporate stakeholder views in the design, conduct and dissemination of patient-centered CER...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483801/intramyocellular-ceramides-sub-cellular-concentrations-and-fractional-de-novo-synthesis-in-postabsorptive-humans
#8
Jin Ook Chung, Christina Koutsari, Agnieszka U Blachnio-Zabielska, Kazanna C Hames, Michael D Jensen
We investigated the relationship between insulin resistance markers and subsarcolemmal (SS) and intramyofibrillar (IMF) ceramide concentrations, as well as the contribution of plasma palmitate (6.5 h infusion of [U-(13)C]palmitate) to intramyocellular ceramides. Seventy-six postabsorptive men and women had muscle biopsies 1.5 h, 6.5 h and 24 h after starting the tracer infusion. Concentrations and enrichment of muscle ceramides were measured by LC\MS\MS. We found that HOMA-IR, plasma insulin and triglyceride concentrations were positively correlated with SS C16:0 and C18:1 ceramide, but not SS C14:0-Cer, C20:0-Cer, C24:0-Cer, and C24:1-Cer concentrations; IMF ceramide concentrations were not correlated with any metabolic parameters...
May 8, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475182/lily-lipidome-isotope-labeling-of-yeast-in-vivo-synthesis-of-13-c-labeled-reference-lipids-for-quantification-by-mass-spectrometry
#9
Evelyn Rampler, Cristina Coman, Gerrit Hermann, Albert Sickmann, Robert Ahrends, Gunda Koellensperger
Quantification is an essential task in comprehensive lipidomics studies challenged by the high number of lipids, their chemical diversity and their dynamic range of the lipidome. In this work, we introduce lipidome isotope labeling of yeast (LILY) in order to produce (non-radioactive) isotopically labeled eukaryotic lipid standards in yeast for normalization and quantification in mass spectrometric assays. More specifically, LILY is a fast and efficient in vivo labeling strategy in Pichia pastoris for the production of (13)C labeled lipid library further paving the way to comprehensive compound-specific internal standardization in quantitative mass spectrometry based assays...
May 5, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468968/tolerogenic-versus-immunogenic-lipidomic-profiles-of-cd11c-immune-cells-and-control-of-immunogenic-dendritic-cell-ceramide-dynamics
#10
Carlos Ocaña-Morgner, Susanne Sales, Manuela Rothe, Andrej Shevchenko, Rolf Jessberger
Lipids affect the membrane properties determining essential biological processes. Earlier studies have suggested a role of switch-activated protein 70 (SWAP-70) in lipid raft formation of dendritic cells. We used lipidomics combined with genetic and biochemical assays to analyze the role of SWAP-70 in lipid dynamics. TLR activation using LPS as a ligand represented a pathogenic immunogenic stimulus, physical disruption of cell-cell contacts a tolerogenic stimulus. Physical disruption, but not LPS, caused an increase of phosphatidylcholine ether and cholesteryl esters in CD11c(+) immune cells...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463779/isolation-and-structural-characterization-of-glucosylceramides-from-ethiopian-plants-by-lc-apci-ms-ms
#11
Efrem N Tessema, Tsige Gebre-Mariam, Christian E H Schmelzer, Reinhard H H Neubert
Chronic skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and aged skin are characterized by defective skin barrier and dryness which are associated with reduced levels of skin ceramides (CERs). The beneficial effects of plant-derived CERs for skin hydration and skin barrier recovery have been shown in several studies. Although plenty of glucosylceramide (GlcCER)-based dietary supplements meant for skin barrier improvement have been marketed, there are limited commercial sources of plant GlcCERs. In an attempt to explore alternative GlcCER sources, a reversed phase LC-MS/MS method with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) interface was developed for separation and structural identification of GlcCERs isolated from three plants...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463492/kinetics-of-electrocatalytic-reactions-from-first-principles-a-critical-comparison-with-the-ab-initio-thermodynamics-approach
#12
Kai S Exner, Herbert Over
Multielectron processes in electrochemistry require the stabilization of reaction intermediates (RI) at the electrode surface after every elementary reaction step. Accordingly, the bond strengths of these intermediates are important for assessing the catalytic performance of an electrode material. Current understanding of microscopic processes in modern electrocatalysis research is largely driven by theory, mostly based on ab initio thermodynamics considerations, where stable reaction intermediates at the electrode surface are identified, while the actual free energy barriers (or activation barriers) are ignored...
May 2, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460316/a-comprehensive-regional-analysis-of-genome-wide-expression-profiles-for-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Diego A Forero, Gina P Guio-Vega, Yeimy González-Giraldo
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a global health challenge. In recent years, a large number of genome-wide expression studies (GWES) have been carried out to identify the transcriptomic profiles for MDD. The objective of this work was to carry out a comprehensive meta-analysis of available GWES for MDD. METHODS: GWES for MDD with available raw data were searched in NCBI GEO, Array Express and Stanley databases. Raw GWES data were preprocessed and normalized and meta-analytical procedures were carried out with the Network Analyst program...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457225/otoacoustic-emissions-in-rural-nicaragua-cost-analysis-and-implications-for-newborn-hearing-screening
#14
Lye-Yeng Wong, Francisca Espinoza, Karen Mojica Alvarez, Dave Molter, James E Saunders
Objective (1) Determine the incidence and risk factors for congenital hearing loss. (2) Perform cost analysis of screening programs. Study Design Proportionally distributed cross-sectional survey. Setting Jinotega, Nicaragua. Subjects and Methods Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were used to screen 640 infants <6 months of age from neonatal intensive care unit, institutional, and home birth settings. Data on 15 risk factors were analyzed. Cost of 4 implementation strategies was studied: universal screening, screening at the regional health center (RHC), targeted screening, and screening at the RHC plus targeted screening...
May 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456081/gamma-tocotrienol-profoundly-alters-sphingolipids-in-cancer-cells-by-inhibition-of-dihydroceramide-desaturase-and-possibly-activation-of-sphingolipid-hydrolysis-during-prolonged-treatment
#15
Yumi Jang, Xiayu Rao, Qing Jiang
Vitamin E gamma-tocotrienol (γTE) is known to have anticancer effects, but mechanisms underlying these actions are not clear. Here using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we show that γTE induced marked changes of sphingolipids including rapid elevation of dihydrosphingosine and dihydroceramides (dhCers) in various types of cancer cells. The elevation of dihydrosphingolipids coincided with increased cellular stress, as indicated by JNK phosphorylation, and was prior to any sign of induction of apoptosis...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449543/nanoporous-cyanate-ester-resins-structure-gas-transport-property-relationships
#16
Kristina Gusakova, Alexander Fainleib, Eliane Espuche, Olga Grigoryeva, Olga Starostenko, Fabrice Gouanve, Gisèle Boiteux, Jean-Marc Saiter, Daniel Grande
This contribution addresses the relationships between the structure and gas transport properties of nanoporous thermostable cyanate ester resins (CERs) derived from polycyclotrimerization of 1,1'-bis(4-cyanatophenyl)ethane in the presence of 30 or 50 wt% of inert high-boiling temperature porogens (i.e., dimethyl- or dibutyl phthalates), followed by their quantitative removal. The nanopores in the films obtained were generated via a chemically induced phase separation route with further porogen extraction from the densely crosslinked CERs...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449343/cost-effectiveness-of-the-highly-effective-direct-acting-antivirals-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-hong-kong
#17
Angeline Oi-Shan Lo, Henry Lik-Yuen Chan, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Grace Lai-Hung Wong
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In Asia-Pacific where cost is a major concern, peginterferon plus ribavirin (PR) often remain as the standard of care in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment, while the direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are commonly recommended as retreatment. Newer DAAs can achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) of nearly 100% with pan-genotypic coverage, that is "Highly Effective DAAs." We aimed to investigate the most desirable cost range for the Highly Effective DAAs using Hong Kong as an example...
May 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446382/compensatory-mechanisms-activated-with-intermittent-energy-restriction-a-randomized-control-trial
#18
Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Eline Holli Halset, Sigrid Gåsbakk, Jens F Rehfeld, Bård Kulseng, Helen Truby, Cátia Martins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strong compensatory responses, with reduced resting metabolic rate (RMR), increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite, are activated when weight loss (WL) is achieved with continuous energy restriction (CER), which try to restore energy balance. Intermittent energy restriction (IER), where short spells of energy restriction are interspaced by periods of habitual energy intake, may offer some protection in minimizing those responses. We aimed to compare the effect of IER versus CER on body composition and the compensatory responses induced by WL...
April 7, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409209/2-acetyl-5-tetrahydroxybutyl-imidazole-thi-protects-661w-cells-against-oxidative-stress
#19
Carlotta Fabiani, Aida Zulueta, Fabiola Bonezzi, Josefina Casas, Riccardo Ghidoni, Paola Signorelli, Anna Caretti
Retinal degeneration and in particular retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is associated to ceramide (Cer) accumulation and cell death induction. Cer and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) belong to the sphingolipids class and exert a pro-apoptotic and pro-survival activity, respectively. Our aim is to target sphingolipid metabolism by inhibiting S1P lyase that regulates one of the S1P degradation pathways, to reduce retinal photoreceptor damage. The murine 661W cone-like cell line was pretreated with THI, an inhibitor of S1P lyase and exposed to H2O2-induced oxidative stress...
April 13, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407621/potential-applications-of-phyto-derived-ceramides-in-improving-epidermal-barrier-function
#20
Efrem N Tessema, Tsige Gebre-Mariam, Reinhard H H Neubert, Johannes Wohlrab
The outer most layer of the skin, the stratum corneum, consists of corneocytes which are coated by a cornified envelope and embedded in a lipid matrix of ordered lamellar structure. It is responsible for the skin barrier function. Ceramides (CERs) are the backbone of the intercellular lipid membranes. Skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis and aged skin are characterized by dysfunctional skin barrier and dryness which are associated with reduced levels of CERs. Previously, the effectiveness of supplementation of synthetic and animal-based CERs in replenishing the depleted natural skin CERs and restoring the skin barrier function have been investigated...
April 14, 2017: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology
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