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Matthew J Scheffel, Kristi Helke, Ping Lu, Jacob S Bowers, Besim Ogretmen, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Chrystal M Paulos, Christina Voelkel-Johnson
Sphingolipids regulate critical cellular processes including inflammation. Ceramide, which serves a central role in sphingolipid metabolism, is generated by six ceramide synthases (CerS) that differ in substrate specificity. CerS6 preferentially generates C16-ceramide and its mRNA is highly expressed in immune tissues. In this study we analyzed how deficiency of CerS6 impacts on the development of colitis using an adoptive transfer model. Adoptive transfer of CerS6-deficient splenocytes, which have significantly decreased levels of C16-ceramide, showed that CerS6-deficiency protected against the development of colitis...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nicholas U Schwartz, Ryan W Linzer, Jean-Philip Truman, Mikhail Gurevich, Yusuf A Hannun, Can E Senkal, Lina M Obeid
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is the most commonly inherited neurologic disorder, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. One variant of CMT, 2F, is characterized by mutations in heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27). As bioactive sphingolipids have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, we sought to determine if their dysregulation is involved in CMT. Here, we show that Hsp27 knockout mice demonstrated decreases in ceramide in peripheral nerve tissue and that the disease-associated Hsp27 S135F mutant demonstrated decreases in mitochondrial ceramide...
November 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Donna Kenerson, Saudat Fadeyi, Jianguo Liu, Mirabel Kleriwoh, Katina Beard, Margaret K Hargreaves
The enrollment of African American women into cancer prevention trials (CPTs) continues to be low despite their higher cancer mortality rates. Clinical trials are vital to the discovery of new prevention, diagnostic, and treatment methods that improve cancer outcomes. This study addressed attitudes and beliefs associated with the sub optimal participation of African American women in CPTs through the development and pretesting of an educational tool. The use of community-engaged research (CER) in the formative phase of this study was the basis for developing an audio-card...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
Brittany A Law, Xianghai Liao, Kelsey S Moore, Abigail Southard, Patrick Roddy, Ruiping Ji, Zdzislaw Sculz, Ala Bielawska, P Christian Schulze, L Ashley Cowart
Accumulating data support a role for bioactive lipids as mediators of lipotixicity in cardiomyocytes. One class of these, the ceramides, constitutes a family of molecules that differ in structure and are synthesized by distinct enzymes, ceramide synthase (CerS)1-CerS6. Data support that specific ceramides and the enzymes that catalyze their formation play distinct roles in cell function. In a mouse model of diabetic cardiomyopathy, sphingolipid profiling revealed increases in not only the CerS5-derived ceramides but also in very long chain (VLC) ceramides derived from CerS2...
November 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Eric Moulton, Cécile Galléa, Claire Kemlin, Romain Valabregue, Marc A Maier, Pavel Lindberg, Charlotte Rosso
Structural and functional differences are known to exist within the cortical sensorimotor networks with respect to the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Similarly, the cerebellum, a key structure in the sensorimotor network with its cerebello-cortical connections, has been reported to respond differently when using the dominant vs. non-dominant hand. Several groups have already investigated causal interactions during diverse motor paradigms using effective connectivity but few have studied the larger visuomotor network, including key structures such as the parietal cortex and the cerebellum, with both hands...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Guangwei Hu, Guang Li, Hui Wang, Yiquan Wang
Correct patterning of left-right asymmetry is an important process during the embryonic development of bilaterians. It is known that Hh signaling plays a role in LR asymmetry development of mouse, chicken and sea urchin embryos by regulating Nodal expression. In this study, we reported a novel regulating way of Hh gene in the LR asymmetry development of amphioxus embryos. Our results revealed that Hh(-/-) embryos abolished Cerburs (Cer) transcription and led to bilaterally symmetric expression of Nodal, Lefty and Pitx As a consequence, Hh(-/-) mutants duplicated its left-side structures and lost right-side characters displaying an abnormal bilaterally symmetric body plan...
November 9, 2017: Development
Thomas Schmitt, Stefan Lange, Stefan Sonnenberger, Bodo Dobner, Bruno Demé, Reinhard H H Neubert, Gert Gooris, Joke A Bouwstra
This study was able to investigate the different influence of the d- and l-ceramide [AP] on the lamellar as well as molecular nanostructure of stratum corneum simulating lipid model mixtures. In this case, neutron diffraction together with specifically deuterated ceramide was used as an effective tool to investigate the lamellar and the molecular nanostructure of the mixtures. It could clearly be demonstrated, that both isomers show distinctly different characteristics, even though the variation between both is only a single differently arranged OH-group...
November 4, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Adrian Paz Ramos, Gert Gooris, Joke Bouwstra, Michel Lafleur
The stratum corneum (SC), the top layer of skin, dictates both the rate of water loss through the skin, and absorption of exogenous molecules into the body. The crystalline organization of the lipids in the SC is believed to be a key feature associated with the very limited permeability of the skin. In this work, we characterized the organization of SC lipid models that include, as in native SC, cholesterol, a free fatty acid series (saturated with C16-C24 chains), as well as a ceramide bearing an oleate linked to a very long saturated acyl chain (Cer EOS)...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
Liat Adar, William Zarycranski, Jill B Conner, Jeffrey Dragone, Lindsay Janka, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt
OBJECTIVE: Difficulty swallowing pills can compromise pain control in painful musculoskeletal disorders. This open-label, 2-period crossover study assessed pharmacokinetics and safety of cyclobenzaprine extended-release (CER) 30-mg capsule contents sprinkled over applesauce compared with intact capsules in healthy subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 subjects were randomized to treatment sequences AB or BA (A = single CER intact capsule; B = single CER capsule contents sprinkled over applesauce (15 mL))...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ayişe Karadag, Seval C Hanönü, Evrim Eyikara
Nurses play an important role in identifying patients at risk for medical device-related (MDR) pressure injuries and preventing their occurrence. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted across 6 hospitals in Ankara, Turkey between December 2014 and June 2015 to assess nursing perceptions about and interventions used for the pre- vention of MDR pressure ulcers. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic information and data on experience with MDR pressure ulcers; in addition, participants completed a Nursing Interventions Form that included 10 statements regarding basic nursing interventions to prevent MDR pressure ulcers; answer options were I perform, I partly perform, I do not perform...
October 2017: Ostomy/wound Management
Jakub Karasinski, Ewa Bulska, Ludwik Halicz, Marcin Wojciechowski, Agnieszka Anna Krata
High precision on-line procedure for measurement of calcium isotopic ratio by coupling Ion Chromatography (IC) to Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) was developed. Calcium separation from the sample matrix was achieved on an IC column - IonPac CS16 ID 3 mm connected with CERS 500 2 mm suppressor and followed by MC-ICPMS calcium isotopic ratio determination. Dry plasma mode was used with Aridus II desolvation system. In order to sustained samples with high level of total dissolved salts (TDS) as well as account capacity of applied analytical column, the method has been optimized with regards to calcium isotope ratio measurements with low resolution mass spectrometry...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Dikshant Sharma, Liz Taylor-Edmonds, Robert C Andrews
Media type is a critical design consideration when implementing biofiltration for drinking water treatment. Granular activated carbon (GAC) has been shown to provide superior performance when compared to a wide range of media types, largely due to its higher surface area. Engineered ceramic media is an attractive alternative to GAC as it has a similar surface area but at a lower cost. This pilot-scale biofiltration study compared the performance of GAC, anthracite and two different effective sizes of ceramic (CER) media (1...
October 13, 2017: Water Research
Yong-Quan Zhang, Zhi-Chao Li, Fei Chen, Hong-Juan Wang, Qiang Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference of postoperative drainage and systemic trauma response between endoscopic and traditional near total thyroidectomy to provide the basis for selecting appropriate operative methods. METHODS: In this prospective clinical controlled study, 80 patientsscheduled for near total bilateral thyroidectomy for the first time were divided equally into endoscopic surgery group (group A) and open surgery group (group B). The total drainage volume after operation, postoperative extubation time, and postoperative daily drainage volume were recorded after the operation...
October 20, 2017: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Barbora Amélie Čuříková, Kamila Procházková, Barbora Filková, Petra Diblíková, Jan Svoboda, Andrej Kováčik, Kateřina Vávrová, Jarmila Zbytovská
The activity of transdermal permeation enhancers is usually evaluated in vitro on human or animal skin, but skin samples can be hard to source and highly variable. To provide a more consistent basis for evaluating the activity of permeation enhancers, we prepared relatively simple and inexpensive artificial membranes that imitate the stratum corneum (SC) lipid matrix. Our membranes were composed of stearic acid, cholesterol, cholesterol sulfate and a ceramide (CER) component consisting of N-2-hydroxystearoyl phytosphingosine (CER[AP]) and/or N-stearoyl phytosphingosine (CER[NP])...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Cynthia Van Gampelaere, Tine Vervoort, Koen Luyckx, Annick De Paepe, Sara Van Aken, Liesbet Goubert
Parents of children with Type 1 diabetes (T1D) experience high levels of distress, which may negatively impact child functioning. However, little is known about mechanisms that may buffer the adverse impact of parental distress. The current study explored the possible buffering role of maternal adaptive cognitive emotion regulation (CER) for the relationship between maternal distress and child psychological functioning. Forty-three children with T1D (8-15 years) completed measures assessing trait anxiety and depressive symptoms...
October 23, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
Cícero Célio de Figueiredo, Alexsandra Duarte de Oliveira, Isis Lima Dos Santos, Eloisa Aparecida Belleza Ferreira, Juaci Vitoria Malaquias, Marcos Aurélio Carolino de Sá, Arminda Moreira de Carvalho, João de Deus Gomes Dos Santos
In the Brazilian Cerrado, despite the increasing adoption of no-till systems, there are still extended areas under conventional soil management systems that reduce soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and increase the emissions of greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). Conservation agroecosystems, such as no-till, have been proposed as a strategy to mitigate agriculture-induced climatic changes through reductions in N2O emissions. However, the relationship between organic matter and N2O emissions from soils under different agroecosystems is not yet clear...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Dulani Wimalachandra, Joan Xiaohui Yang, Lina Zhu, Evan Tan, Harry Asada, Jerry Y K Chan, Yie Hou Lee
Endometriosis is a disease characterized by regurgitated lesions which are invasive and migratory, embedding at ectopic, extra-uterine locations. Extracellular glucosylceramides (GlcCers), bioactive sphingolipids potentiating signals for cell migration, are found in elevated levels in endometriosis; however underlying mechanisms that result in cellular migration are poorly defined. Here, we demonstrated that internalized GlcCer induced migratory activity in immortalized human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs), with highest potency observed in long-chain GlcCer...
October 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Emily S Mohn, John W Erdman, Matthew J Kuchan, Martha Neuringer, Elizabeth J Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Lutein, a carotenoid with anti-oxidant functions, preferentially accumulates in primate brain and is positively related to cognition in humans. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is also beneficial for cognition, but is susceptible to oxidation. The present study characterized the membrane distribution of lutein in brain regions important for different domains of cognitive function and determined whether membrane lutein was associated with brain PUFA oxidation...
2017: PloS One
Laura Hackl, Cornelia Speich, Christophe Zeder, Antoni Sánchez-Ferrer, Horst Adelmann, Saskia de Pee, Fabian Tay, Michael B Zimmermann, Diego Moretti
Background: Rice can be fortified with the use of hot or cold extrusion or coating, but the nutritional qualities of the resulting rice grains have never been directly compared.Objective: Using fortified rice produced by coating or hot or cold extrusion, we compared 1) iron and zinc absorption with the use of stable isotopes, 2) iron and zinc retention during cooking, and 3) starch microstructure.Methods: We conducted 2 studies in young women: in study 1 [n = 19; mean ± SD age: 26.2 ± 3.4 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 21...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
Kennedy Amone-P'Olak, Vavani Boitumelo, Diana Shamisai Mberengwa
BACKGROUND: Cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERS) have been shown to moderate the influence of War Experiences (WE) on mental health problems. AIMS: This study assessed the influence of WE and use of specific CERS on mental health problems among war-affected youth in Northern Uganda. METHODS: Five hundred and thirty-nine participants in an ongoing war-affected youth study (WAYS) were assessed by locally developed measures. CERS were measured by Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ)...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
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