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Stefan Erb, Reno Frei, Marc Dangel, Andreas F Widmer
BACKGROUND Infections and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) identified >48 hours after hospital admission are considered healthcare-acquired according to the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Some may originate from delayed diagnosis rather than true acquisition in the hospital, potentially diluting the impact of infection control programs. In addition, such infections are not necessarily reimbursed in a healthcare system based on the diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)...
October 17, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Gabor Zilahi, Antonio Artigas, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Over the last several decades, antibacterial drug use has become widespread with their misuse being an ever-increasing phenomenon. Consequently, antibacterial drugs have become less effective or even ineffective, resulting in a global health security emergency. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) varies widely among regions and countries. The primary aim of antibiotic stewardship programs is to supervise the three most influential factors contributing to the development and transmission of MDROs, namely: (1) appropriate antibiotic prescribing; (2) early detection and prevention of cross-colonization of MDROs; and (3) elimination of reservoirs...
December 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Costi D Sifri, Gene H Burke, Kyle B Enfield
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of copper-impregnated composite hard surfaces and linens in an acute care hospital to reduce health care-associated infections (HAIs). METHODS: We performed a quasiexperimental study with a control group, assessing development of HAIs due to multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) and Clostridium difficile in the acute care units of a community hospital following the replacement of a 1970s-era clinical wing with a new wing outfitted with copper-impregnated composite hard surfaces and linens...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
James A McKinnell, Loren G Miller, Raveena Singh, Ken Kleinman, Ellena M Peterson, Kaye D Evans, Tabitha D Dutciuc, Lauren Heim, Adrijana Gombosev, Marlene Estevez, Bryn Launer, Tom Tjoa, Steven Tam, Michael A Bolaris, Susan S Huang
Nursing home residents are at risk for acquiring and transmitting MDROs. A serial point-prevalence study of 605 residents in 3 facilities using random sampling found MDRO colonization in 45% of residents: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 26%); extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL, 17%); vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. (VRE, 16%); carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE, 1%). MDRO colonization was associated with history of MDRO, care needs, incontinence, and catheters...
September 27, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Alvaro A Ordonez, Edward A Weinstein, Lauren E Bambarger, Vikram Saini, Yong S Chang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah H Klunk, Michael E Urbanowski, Kimberly L Moulton, Allison M Murawski, Supriya Pokkali, Alvin S Kalinda, Sanjay K Jain
: The modern patient is increasingly susceptible to bacterial infections including those due to multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). Noninvasive whole-body analysis with pathogen-specific imaging technologies can significantly improve patient outcomes by rapidly identifying a source of infection and monitoring the response to treatment, but no such technology exists clinically. METHODS: We systematic screened 961 random, radiolabeled molecules in silico as substrates for essential metabolic pathways in bacteria, followed by in vitro uptake in representative bacteria - Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and mycobacteria...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Alicia M Shams, Laura J Rose, Jonathan R Edwards, Salvatore Cali, Anthony D Harris, Jesse T Jacob, Anna LaFae, Lisa L Pineles, Kerri A Thom, L Clifford McDonald, Matthew J Arduino, Judith A Noble-Wang
OBJECTIVE To determine the typical microbial bioburden (overall bacterial and multidrug-resistant organisms [MDROs]) on high-touch healthcare environmental surfaces after routine or terminal cleaning. DESIGN Prospective 2.5-year microbiological survey of large surface areas (>1,000 cm2). SETTING MDRO contact-precaution rooms from 9 acute-care hospitals and 2 long-term care facilities in 4 states. PARTICIPANTS Samples from 166 rooms (113 routine cleaned and 53 terminal cleaned rooms). METHODS Using a standard sponge-wipe sampling protocol, 2 composite samples were collected from each room; a third sample was collected from each Clostridium difficile room...
September 13, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Bamidele Tolulope Odumosu, Olabayo Ajetunmobi, Hannah Dada-Adegbola, Idowu Odutayo
Multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) constitute a major public health threat globally. Clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa remains one of the most studied MDROs however there is paucity of information regarding the susceptibility of its animal and plants isolates to antipseudomonas drug in Nigeria. From a total of 252 samples consisting of plants, animals and clinical samples, 54, 24 and 22 P. aeruginosa were isolated from vegetables, animals and clinical sources respectively. All the isolates were identified by standard biochemical methods...
2016: SpringerPlus
Nils-Olaf Huebner, Kathleen Dittmann, Vivien Henck, Christian Wegner, Axel Kramer
BACKGROUND: One important aspect in combatting resistance to antibiotics is to increase the awareness and knowledge by epidemiological studies. We therefore conducted a German-wide point-prevalence survey for multidrug resistant bacterial organisms (MDROs) and Clostridium difficile (CD) to assess the epidemiology and structure quality of infection control in German hospitals. METHOD: 1550 hospitals were asked to participate and to report surveillance data on the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant and Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, VRSA/GRSA), Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis/faecium (VRE), multiresistant strains of Escherichia coli (EC), Klebsiella spp...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Evonne Koo, Sara McNamara, Bonnie Lansing, Russell N Olmsted, Ruth Anne Rye, Thomas Fitzgerald, Lona Mody
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess effectiveness of an interactive educational program in increasing knowledge of key infection prevention and control (IPC) principles with emphasis on indwelling device care, hand hygiene, and multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) among nursing home (NH) health care personnel (HCP). METHODS: We conducted a multimodal randomized controlled study involving HCP at 12 NHs. Ten comprehensive and interactive modules covered common IPC topics...
August 20, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Tobias Tenenbaum, Klaus-Peter Becker, Bettina Lange, Anka Martin, Peter Schäfer, Stefan Weichert, Horst Schroten
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) colonizing in pediatric refugees admitted to a University Children Hospital in Germany. DESIGN Retrospective observational study. SETTING General pediatric and pediatric surgery units. PATIENTS In Germany, recommendations for MDRO screening of pediatric refugees were recently published. According to these and institutional recommendations, all hospitalized pediatric refugees were screened for MDROs between October 2015 and March 2016...
August 15, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
P B Mal, J Farooqi, S Irfan, M A Hughes, E Khan
We analysed susceptibility of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) including New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 positive Enterobacteriaceae to chlorhexidine and compared results to their susceptible counterparts. Susceptibilities of chlorhexidine digluconate in a standard (CHX-S) preparation and two commercial disinfectants containing different CHX concentrations (2% w/v and 4% w/w) were performed. MDROs had narrower range of higher CHX-S minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as compared to pan-sensitive organisms...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Lindsey M Weiner, Amy K Webb, Maroya S Walters, Margaret A Dudeck, Alexander J Kallen
We examined reported policies for the control of common multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in US healthcare facilities using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network Annual Facility Survey. Policies for the use of Contact Precautions were commonly reported. Chlorhexidine bathing for preventing MDRO transmission was also common among acute care hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016:1-4.
September 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
N Esther Babady
Hospital-associated infection (HAI) in immunocompromised patients can result in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are especially worrisome because of the limited choice of remaining antibiotics available when a patient becomes colonized or infected with an MDRO. It is therefore important that immunocompromised patients be cared for in an environment that limits the risk for acquiring infections. However, with healthcare being increasingly delivered in settings other than the traditional inpatient hospital wards, a bigger effort will need to be set forth to prevent or rapidly diagnose HAI...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
A Hamprecht, A M Rohde, M Behnke, S Feihl, P Gastmeier, F Gebhardt, W V Kern, J K Knobloch, A Mischnik, B Obermann, C Querbach, S Peter, C Schneider, W Schröder, F Schwab, E Tacconelli, M Wiese-Posselt, T Wille, M Willmann, H Seifert, J Zweigner
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to prospectively assess the rectal carriage rate of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GCREB) in non-ICU patients on hospital admission and to investigate resistance mechanisms and risk factors for carriage. METHODS: Adult patients were screened for 3GCREB carriage at six German tertiary care hospitals in 2014 using rectal swabs or stool samples. 3GCREB isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods...
October 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Wen-Sen Lee, Tai-Chin Hsieh, Justine C Shiau, Tsong-Yih Ou, Fu-Lun Chen, Yu-Hsin Liu, Muh-Yong Yen, Po-Ren Hsueh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: This prospective before-after study was intended to investigate the effect of Bio-Kil on reducing environmental bacterial burden and healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in intensive care units (ICUs) at the Municipal Wan-Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan in 2014. METHODS: Four rooms in the medical and surgical ICUs were investigated and designated as study rooms (n = 2) or control rooms (n = 2). Routine disinfection was performed during the pre-intervention period in both room types...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
N T Mutters, F Günther, U Frank, A Mischnik
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are an economic burden, and infection control (IC) measures are cost- and labour-intensive. A two-tier IC management strategy was developed, including active screening, in order to achieve effective use of limited resources. Briefly, high-risk patients were differentiated from other patients, distinguished according to type of MDRO, and IC measures were implemented accordingly. AIM: To evaluate costs and benefits of this IC management strategy...
June 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Carlos Polanco, Thomas Buhse, Vladimir N Uversky
Proteins in the post-genome era impose diverse research challenges, the main are the understanding of their structure-function mechanism, and the growing need for new pharmaceutical drugs, particularly antibiotics that help clinicians treat the ever- increasing number of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms (MDROs). Although, there is a wide range of mathematical-computational algorithms to satisfy the demand, among them the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship algorithms that have shown better performance using a characteristic training data of the property searched; their performance has stagnated regardless of the number of metrics they evaluate and their complexity...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Ian Hosein, Rosie Madeloso, Wijayaratnam Nagaratnam, Frank Villamaria, Eileen Stock, Chetan Jinadatha
BACKGROUND: Pathogen transmission from contaminated surfaces can cause hospital-associated infections. Although pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) light devices have been shown to decrease hospital room bioburden in the United States, their effectiveness in United Kingdom (UK) hospitals is less understood. METHODS: Forty isolation rooms at the Queens Hospital (700 beds) in North London, UK, were sampled for aerobic bacteria after patient discharge, after manual cleaning with a hypochlorous acid-troclosene sodium solution, and after PX-UV disinfection...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Ling-Shan Syue, Yen-Hsu Chen, Wen-Chien Ko, Po-Ren Hsueh
The continuing increase in multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) worldwide has created new challenges in treating complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs). A number of novel antimicrobial agents have been developed against resistant pathogens. To target extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens, novel β-lactam antibiotics, such as ceftolozane/tazobactam, ceftazidime/avibactam, aztreonam/avibactam, imipenem/relebactam and S-649266, are antimicrobial alternatives for cIAIs. Two new drugs, eravacycline and plazomicin, have activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K...
April 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Vicenç Falcó, Joaquin Burgos, Elisabeth Papiol, Ricard Ferrer, Benito Almirante
INTRODUCTION: Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the main infections acquired by patients during a stay in hospital. The main issue when dealing with patients with HAP and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the increasing role of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). AREAS COVERED: In this review the authors summarize the actual situation of MDROs as a cause of HAP and VAP. They also review the current treatment options stated in the most important international guidelines...
June 2016: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
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