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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431846/implementation-of-daily-chlorhexidine-bathing-to-reduce-colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-a-critical-care-unit
#1
Jackson S Musuuza, Ajay K Sethi, Tonya J Roberts, Nasia Safdar
BACKGROUND: Colonized patients are a reservoir for transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Not many studies have examined the effectiveness of daily chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) bathing under routine care conditions. We present a descriptive analysis of the trends of MDRO colonization following implementation of daily CHG bathing under routine clinical conditions in an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: From May 2010-January 2011, we screened patients admitted to a 24-bed ICU for and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and fluoroquinolone-resistant gram-negative bacilli (FQRGNB)...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412380/colonization-by-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-long-term-care-facilities-in-italy-a-point-prevalence-study
#2
Maria Giufrè, Enrico Ricchizzi, Marisa Accogli, Fabrizio Barbanti, Monica Monaco, Fernanda Pimentel de Araujo, Claudio Farina, Paolo Fazii, Romano Mattei, Mario Sarti, Agostino Barozzi, Rossella Buttazzi, Marina Cosentino, Maria Nardone, Vincenzo Savini, Patrizia Spigaglia, Annalisa Pantosti, Maria Luisa Moro, Marina Cerquetti
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine prevalence and risk factors for colonization by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents in Italy. Genotypes of MDRO isolates were investigated. METHODS: A point-prevalence study was conducted at 12 LTCFs located in 4 Italian cities (2 February-14 March 2015). Rectal swabs, faeces and nasal/auxiliary swabs were cultured for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and/or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), respectively...
April 12, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410511/evaluation-of-intraventricular-colistin-utilization-a-case-series
#3
Brian Gilbert, Christopher Morrison
PURPOSE: Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) are an increasing concern in health systems. Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, and carbapenamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae hold highest mortality rates especially when the central nervous system is involved. When MDROs are cultured treatment options are limited and reliance on medications such as colistin is becoming more prevalent. Penetration of these therapies into the central nervous system is concerning therefore local administration is a potential concomitant therapy...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395369/antibiotics-prescriptions-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-how-to-overcome-everyday-challenges
#4
D Donà, E Mozzo, V Mardegan, U Trafojer, P Lago, S Salvadori, E Baraldi, C Giaquinto
Antimicrobial prescriptions in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) represent a point of concern for the emergence of MDROs and for morbidity associated with prolonged antibiotic exposure (e.g., invasive candidiasis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and late-onset sepsis). Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) have shown to be a valuable tool for the prevention of resistance with the goals of optimizing clinical outcomes while decreasing unnecessary prescribing. The most frequent ASP strategies include the correct collection and interpretation of microbiological specimens, prescription of the narrowest-spectrum antibiotic appropriate for a particular case, and de-escalation or discontinuation of therapy in defined situations...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382547/challenges-and-strategies-for-prevention-of-multidrug-resistant-organism-transmission-in-nursing-homes
#5
REVIEW
Ghinwa Dumyati, Nimalie D Stone, David A Nace, Christopher J Crnich, Robin L P Jump
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nursing home residents are at high risk for colonization and infection with bacterial pathogens that are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We discuss challenges and potential solutions to support implementing effective infection prevention and control practices in nursing homes. RECENT FINDINGS: Challenges include a paucity of evidence that addresses MDRO transmission during the care of nursing home residents, limited staff resources in nursing homes, insufficient infection prevention education in nursing homes, and perceptions by nursing home staff that isolation and contact precautions negatively influence the well being of their residents...
April 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373038/presence-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-in-the-residents-and-environments-of-long-term-care-facilities-in-taiwan
#6
Chun-Ming Lee, Chih-Cheng Lai, Hsiu-Tzy Chiang, Min-Chi Lu, Ling-Fang Wang, Tsai-Ling Tsai, Mei-Yu Kang, Yi-Ni Jan, Yi-Ting Lo, Wen-Chien Ko, Shu-Hui Tseng, Po-Ren Hsueh
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the residents and environments of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Taiwan. METHODS: We prospectively investigated the distribution of MDROs in residents of six LTCFs and their environments from January 2015 to December 2015 (intervention period). Active surveillance of colonization of MDROs was performed by culturing rectal and nasal swab samples every 3 months for the residents: 63, 79, and 73 in the first, second, and third surveillance investigations, respectively...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322345/nursing-staff-fluctuation-and-pathogenic-burden-in-the-nicu-effective-outbreak-management-and-the-underestimated-relevance-of-non-resistant-strains
#7
Kai O Hensel, Rhea van den Bruck, Ingo Klare, Michael Heldmann, Beniam Ghebremedhin, Andreas C Jenke
In the course of a hospital management takeover, a microbial outbreak took place in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Here, we characterize the outbreak and its management. About 4 months prior to takeover, there was a sharp increase in positive isolates for MSSA and multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Simultaneously, the nursing staff sick leave rate increased dramatically which directly correlated with the number of infection/colonization per week (r(2) = 0.95, p = 0.02). During the following months we observed several peaks in positive isolates of methicillin-sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), MDROs and subsequently a vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) outbreak...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319476/anesthesia-in-patients-with-infectious-disease-caused-by-multi-drug-resistant-bacteria
#8
Sharon Einav, Yonit Wiener-Well
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Up to 50% of specific bacterial strains in healthcare admission facilities are multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Involvement of anesthesiologists in management of patients carrying/at risk of carrying MDROs may decrease transmission in the Operating Room (OR). RECENT FINDINGS: Anesthesiologists, their work area and tools have all been implicated in MDRO outbreaks. Causes include contamination of external ventilation circuits and noncontribution of filters to prevention, inappropriate decontamination procedures for nondisposable equipment (e...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285725/universal-versus-targeted-additional-contact-precautions-for-multidrug-resistant-organism-carriage-for-patients-admitted-to-an-intensive-care-unit
#9
Michel Djibré, Samuel Fedun, Pierre Le Guen, Sophie Vimont, Mehdi Hafiani, Jean-Pierre Fulgencio, Antoine Parrot, Michel Denis, Muriel Fartoukh
BACKGROUND: Although additional contact precautions (ACPs) are routinely used to reduce cross-transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), the relevance of isolation precautions remains debated. We hypothesized that the collection of recognized risk factors for MDRO carriage on intensive care unit (ICU) admission might be helpful to target ACPs without increasing MDRO acquisition during ICU stays, compared with universal ACPs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a sequential single-center observational study performed in consecutive patients admitted to a French medical and surgical ICU...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270258/the-impact-of-reducing-antibiotics-on-the-transmission-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#10
Sean L Barnes, Clare Rock, Anthony D Harris, Sara E Cosgrove, Daniel J Morgan, Kerri A Thom
OBJECTIVE Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to public health. Resistance is largely driven by antibiotic usage, which in many cases is unnecessary and can be improved. The impact of decreasing overall antibiotic usage on resistance is unknown and difficult to assess using standard study designs. The objective of this study was to explore the potential impact of reducing antibiotic usage on the transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). DESIGN We used agent-based modeling to simulate interactions between patients and healthcare workers (HCWs) using model inputs informed by the literature...
March 8, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215914/fecal-carriage-of-mdros-in-a-population-of-lebanese-elderly-dynamics-and-impact-on-bacterial-fitness
#11
Caren Challita, Elias Dahdouh, Michel Attieh, Iman Dandachi, Elio Ragheb, Roy Taoutel, Carl Tanba, Ziad Daoud
Muti-Drug Resistant Organisms (MDROs) are problematic all over the world, especially in Lebanon. High fecal carriage rates of MDR Enterobacteriaceae were reported from Lebanese nursing homes. Some studies show that MDROs have a fitness cost as compared to sensitive isolates. In this study, the competitive growth of MDR Escherichia coli obtained from fecal samples from elderly is assessed. Fecal swabs from ten elderly patients from a Lebanese nursing home were obtained between June and December, 2015. Isolates were identified by API 20E and antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176132/checking-rounds-for-isolation-precautions-in-the-control-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms-reduction-achieved
#12
P Barbadoro, E Martini, M G Gioia, R Stoico, S Savini, E Manso, G Serafini, E Prospero, M M D'Errico
The objective of this investigation was to analyze the effectiveness of a quality improvement initiative in limiting the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the hospital setting. During the period 2011-2013, a multimodal intervention was activated at a tertiary care center in Italy. The intervention included: laboratory-based surveillance, interdisciplinary training sessions, monitoring the adoption of isolation precautions and daily supervision provided by infection control nurses, and a monthly feedback...
February 7, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995941/outcome-of-bloodstream-infections-among-spinal-cord-injury-patients-and-impact-of-multidrug-resistant-organisms
#13
M Saliba, D Saadeh, F Bouchand, B Davido, C Duran, B Clair, C Lawrence, D Annane, P Denys, J Salomon, L Bernard, A Dinh
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed to describe the outcome of bloodstream infection (BSI) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and their associated risk factors for severity and mortality. SETTING: A French University Hospital. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all BSIs occurring in hospitalized SCI patients. We analyzed their outcome and risk factors especially the impact of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs)...
February 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984411/multiple-drug-resistance-in-burn-patients-a-retrospective-study-on-the-impact-of-antibiotic-resistance-on-survival-and-length-of-stay
#14
Ilse van Langeveld, Robin C Gagnon, Peggie F Conrad, Richard L Gamelli, Brendan Martin, Mashkoor A Choudhry, Michael J Mosier
Despite improvements in early treatment, survival following burn injury remains challenged by sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Additionally, susceptibility to infections and growing antibiotic resistance places burn patients at increased risk for infections with multiple-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). We therefore aimed to evaluate the impact of MDRO infections on survival and hospital length of stay, as well as examine the role of these organisms in the development of complications, such as acute kidney injury, sepsis, and MODS...
March 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956267/intravenous-fosfomycin-back-to-the-future-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-clinical-literature
#15
REVIEW
B Grabein, W Graninger, J Rodríguez Baño, A Dinh, D B Liesenfeld
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the clinical evidence and usage patterns of intravenous fosfomycin from its development to the present time. METHODS: PubMed, the Cochrane Library and local journals were searched for relevant studies reporting aggregated data of intravenous fosfomycin use in adults and children, with no restrictions regarding study design. Single case reports were excluded. Data were systematically abstracted for all included studies...
December 9, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810070/high-rate-of-multidrug-resistant-organism-colonization-among-patients-hospitalized-overseas-highlights-the-need-for-preemptive-infection-control
#16
Kayoko Hayakawa, Kazuhisa Mezaki, Yuko Sugiki, Maki Nagamatsu, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Teruo Kirikae, Satoshi Kutsuna, Nozomi Takeshita, Kei Yamamoto, Yuichi Katanami, Norio Ohmagari
We performed 4 years of active screening for multidrug resistant organism (MDRO) colonization among patients with a history of overseas hospitalization. Thirteen (56.5%) of 23 cases were positive for MDROs, which highlights the importance of preemptive infection control to prevent the spread of MDROs in this population.
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810068/current-status-of-personnel-and-infrastructure-resources-for-infection-prevention-and-control-programs-in-the-republic-of-korea-a-national-survey
#17
Young Kyung Yoon, Sung Eun Lee, Beom Sam Seo, Hyeon Jeong Kim, Jong Hun Kim, Kyung Sook Yang, Min Ja Kim, Jang Wook Sohn
BACKGROUND: There is significant variability in personnel and infrastructural resources for infection prevention and control (IPC) among health care institutions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current status of individual hospital-based IPC programs in the Republic of Korea (ROK). METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional survey of 100 hospitals participating in the national surveillance programs for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the ROK was conducted in September 2015...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810066/correlations-between-quality-ratings-of-skilled-nursing-facilities-and-multidrug-resistant-urinary-tract-infections
#18
Azad L Gucwa, Veronika Dolar, Chao Ye, Stephanie Epstein
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors for the acquisition of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in residents of skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). METHODS: Using the informational database provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), a retrospective logistic regression was performed on 1,523 urine cultures from 12 SNFs located in Long Island, New York. RESULTS: Of the 1,142 positive urine cultures, Escherichia coli was most prevalent...
November 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784938/gc-ms-analysis-of-bio-active-molecules-derived-from-paracoccus-pantotrophus-fmr19-and-the-antimicrobial-activity-against-bacterial-pathogens-and-mdros
#19
I Faridha Begum, R Mohankumar, M Jeevan, K Ramani
The present investigation is focused on the study of chemical composition of a bioactive compound derived from a rumen isolate Paracoccus pantotrophus FMR19 using GC-MS and to find out the antibacterial activity of the extracted crude bioactive compounds against multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs) and other clinical pathogens. GC-MS analysis revealed that P. pantotrophus FMR19 produced eight major compounds that have been reported to exhibit antimicrobial property. The main components identified from hexane fraction are long chain alkanes, fatty alcohols, fatty acid methyl ester and aromatic hydrocarbons...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745555/multidrug-resistant-organisms-detected-more-than-48-hours-after-hospital-admission-are-not-necessarily-hospital-acquired
#20
Stefan Erb, Reno Frei, Marc Dangel, Andreas F Widmer
BACKGROUND Infections and colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) identified >48 hours after hospital admission are considered healthcare-acquired according to the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Some may originate from delayed diagnosis rather than true acquisition in the hospital, potentially diluting the impact of infection control programs. In addition, such infections are not necessarily reimbursed in a healthcare system based on the diagnosis-related groups (DRGs)...
January 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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