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Detrusor muscle

Mandy Berndt-Paetz, Luise Herbst, Annett Weimann, Andreas Gonsior, Jens-Uwe Stolzenburg, Jochen Neuhaus
PURPOSE: Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) regulate a number of important physiological functions. Alteration of mAChR expression or function has been associated in the etiology of several pathologies including functional bladder disorders (e.g bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis - BPS/IC). In a previous study we found specific mAChR expression patterns associated with BPS/IC, while correlation between protein and gene expression was lacking. Posttranslational regulatory mechanisms, e...
March 15, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Sen Yang, Dongwen Wang, Xiaoming Cao, Xuhui Zhang, Xiaobin Yuan, Tiancheng Yang, Yang Mi
Store operated calcium channels (SOCCs) have been suggested to play a critical role in many diabetic complications. Diabetic cystopathy (DCP) is common in patients with diabetes, but the role of SOCCs in DCP is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of SOCCs in DCP with streptozocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats. Specifically, the authors investigated whether SOCCs were altered in streptozocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats and, if so, how this may contribute to the contraction of bladder detrusor strips and the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of bladder smooth muscle cells in diabetic rats...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Marcus George Kwesi Cumberbatch, Beat Foerster, James W F Catto, Ashish M Kamat, Wassim Kassouf, Ibrahim Jubber, Shahrokh F Shariat, Richard J Sylvester, Paolo Gontero
CONTEXT: Initial treatment for most bladder cancers (BCs) involves transurethral resection (TUR) or tumours. Often more cancer is found after the initial treatment in around half of patients, requiring a second resection. Repeat transurethral resection (reTUR) is recommended for high-risk, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) to remove any residual disease and improve cancer outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the practice and therapeutic benefit of an early reTUR for high-risk NMIBC...
March 6, 2018: European Urology
Ferdinando Fusco, Massimiliano Creta, Cosimo De Nunzio, Valerio Iacovelli, Francesco Mangiapia, Vincenzo Li Marzi, Enrico Finazzi Agrò
BACKGROUND: Bladder outlet obstruction is a common urological condition. We aimed to summarize available evidences about bladder outlet obstruction-induced molecular and morphological alterations occurring in human bladder. METHODS: We performed a literature search up to December 2017 including clinical and preclinical basic research studies on humans. The following search terms were combined: angiogenesis, apoptosis, bladder outlet obstruction, collagen, electron microscopy, extracellular matrix, fibrosis, hypoxia, histology, inflammation, innervation, ischemia, pressure, proliferation, remodeling, suburothelium, smooth muscle cells, stretch, urothelium...
March 9, 2018: BMC Urology
Bronagh M McDonnell, Paul J Buchanan, Kevin M Prise, Karen D McCloskey
Radiation-induced bladder toxicity is associated with radiation therapy for pelvic malignancies, arising from unavoidable irradiation of neighbouring normal bladder tissue. This study aimed to investigate the acute impact of ionizing radiation on the contractility of bladder strips and identify the radiation-sensitivity of the mucosa vs the detrusor. Guinea-pig bladder strips (intact or mucosa-free) received ex vivo sham or 20Gy irradiation and were studied with in vitro myography, electrical field stimulation and Ca2+-fluorescence imaging...
2018: PloS One
Fátima Fitz, Marair Sartori, Manoel João Girão, Rodrigo Castro
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) involves the contraction of the puborectal, anal sphincter and external urethral muscles, inhibiting the detrusor contraction, what justify its use in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effects of isolated PFMT on the symptoms of OAB. METHOD: Prospective clinical trial with 27 women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI), with predominance of OAB symptoms and loss ≥ 2 g in the pad test...
December 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Mohamed Galal El Shatoury, Ling DeYoung, Eva Turley, Arjang Yazdani, Sumit Dave
INTRODUCTION: Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) is a neurotoxin that inhibits acetylcholine release by cleaving cytosolic synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) and results in bladder relaxation. A BTX-A intravesical injection has been established as an effective option for treating detrusor overactivity. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into control and experimental groups. Control Groups 1 to 3 received: BTX-A 10 units + saline instillation; hyaluronan-phosphatidylethanolamine (HA-PE) 0...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Junfeng Zhang, Longsheng Wang, Shiyu Mao, Mengnan Liu, Wentao Zhang, Ziwei Zhang, Yadong Guo, Bisheng Huang, Yang Yan, Yong Huang, Xudong Yao
PURPOSE: Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) using a wire loop is considered the gold standard for staging and treating non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). TURBT is associated with serious disadvantages that facilitate tumor recurrence. The present study evaluated the safety and efficacy of the bipolar button electrode for en bloc resection of NMIBC. METHODS: From January 2013 to July 2016, 82 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with NMIBC received transurethral en bloc resection with bipolar button electrode...
February 24, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Clara Steiner, Thomas Gevaert, Roman Ganzer, Dirk De Ridder, Jochen Neuhaus
Interstitial cells (ICs) are thought to play a functional role in urinary bladder. Animal models are commonly used to elucidate bladder physiology and pathophysiology. However, inter-species comparative studies on ICs are rare. We therefore analyzed ICs and their distribution in the upper lamina propria (ULP), the deeper lamina propria (DLP) and the detrusor muscular layer (DET) of human, guinea pig (GP) and pig. Paraffin slices were examined by immunohistochemistry and 3D confocal immunofluorescence of the mesenchymal intermediate filament vimentin (VIM), alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) and transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1)...
February 20, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Claire Doyle, Vivian Cristofaro, Bryan S Sack, Fabliha Mahmood, Maryrose P Sullivan, Rosalyn M Adam
AIMS: Mounting evidence indicates that a variety of factors released from the urothelium or suburothelium can modulate smooth muscle activity. Although the relationship between the mucosa and smooth muscle has been investigated, little is known about the pathophysiologic changes in detrusor-mucosa interactions in neurogenic bladders. The goal of the study was to determine the impact of the mucosa on evoked responses in spinal cord injured (SCI) bladders. METHODS: Urinary bladders were obtained from 6wk SCI rats or age-matched uninjured controls...
February 10, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Jean Gabriel Previnaire
The BCR consists of the contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscle in response to squeezing the glans penis or clitoris, and is mediated through the pudendal nerve. In case of a complete lesion, the presence of BCR is indicative of intact S2-S4 spinal reflex arcs and loss of supraspinal inhibition, determining an upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion, its absence a lower motor neuron (LMN) lesion. The BCR further helps distinguish conus medullaris from cauda equina syndromes. Sensory or motor function in the most caudal sacral segments, not BCR, defines the sacral sparing as part of the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI)...
2018: Spinal Cord Series and Cases
Sarah A Morrow, Heather Rosehart, Alp Sener, Blayne Welk
Bladder dysfunction is common in persons with MS (PwMS), often due to detrusor muscle overactivity. Anticholinergic medications are considered the first line treatment for bladder dysfunction and are known to worsen cognition in healthy older adults and in persons with dementia. Yet, it is not known if these medications have the same effect on PwMS. Thus, the Objective of this prospective matched-cohort study was to determine if anticholinergic medications affect objective measures of cognition in PwMS. We recruited PwMS starting either oxybutynin or tolterodine (cases)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
I V Pogonchenkova, M A Khan, N B Korchazhkina, E V Novikova, I A Bokova, N A Lyan
This article describes the modern technologies for the medical rehabilitation of the children presenting with neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder aimed at improving the act of urination at all levels of innervation. The most frequent variant of neurogenic dysfunction of the bladder in the children is the hyper-reflexive one; it is this variant in which the most pronounced disorders of urodynamics due to intravesical hypertension and detrusor hypoxia are observed. The urodynamic disorders are known to contribute to the formation of the characteristic clinical picture associated with the hyper-reflexive urinary bladder dysfunction in the children characterized by the mandatory urination syndrome, pollakiuria, imperative urges, and mandatory urinary incontinence in the combination with enuresis...
December 28, 2017: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa, Yukio Hayashi, Akira Yoshida, Shohei Yoshida, Yoshihiko Ito, Kenya Yamaguchi, Shizuo Yamada, Satoru Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate time course of bladder dysfunction and concurrent changes in number and affinity of the muscarinic and P2X receptor in the early stage of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetic rats were prepared by the intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of STZ to 7-week-old female Wistar rats. We performed recording of 24-h voiding behavior and cystometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the induction of diabetes...
January 24, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Parag N Gad, Nelly Kokikian, Kari L Christe, V Reggie Edgerton, Leif A Havton
The lower urinary tract (LUT) may be activated by spinal cord stimulation, but the physiologic mapping characteristics of LUT activation using non-invasive transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (TSCS) are not known. The effects of aging on the contractile properties of the detrusor are also not well understood. Therefore, TSCS was applied over the T10/T11 to the L6/L7 spinous processes in adult (n=6) and aged (n=9) female rhesus macaques. A combination of urodynamic studies and electromyography recordings of the external urethral sphincter (EUS), external anal sphincter (EAS), and pelvic floor muscles were performed...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Marcus J Drake, Christopher H Fry, Hikaru Hashitani, Ruth Kirschner-Hermanns, Mohammad S Rahnama'i, John E Speich, Hikaru Tomoe, Anthony J Kanai, Karen D McCloskey
INTRODUCTION: Storage phase bladder activity is a counter-intuitive observation of spontaneous contractions. They are potentially an intrinsic feature of the smooth muscle, but interstitial cells in the mucosa and the detrusor itself, as well as other muscular elements in the mucosa may substantially influence them. They are identified in several models explaining lower urinary tract dysfunction. METHODS: A consensus meeting at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) 2017 congress considered the origins and relevance of spontaneous bladder contractions by debating which cell type(s) modulate bladder spontaneous activity, whether the methodologies are sufficiently robust, and implications for healthy and abnormal lower urinary tract function...
January 23, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Mithun Padmakumar, Keith L Brain, John S Young, Rohit Manchanda
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Detrusor smooth muscle cells (DSMCs) of the urinary bladder are electrically connected to one another via gap junctions and form a three dimensional syncytium. DSMCs exhibit spontaneous electrical activity, including passive depolarizations and action potentials. The shapes of spontaneous action potentials (sAPs) observed from a single DSM cell can vary widely. The biophysical origins of this variability, and the precise components which contribute to the complex shapes observed are not known...
2018: PloS One
Irfan Anjum
The contraction of detrusor smooth muscles depends on the increase in intracellular calcium. The influx of calcium from the plasma membrane calcium channels and calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum give rise to intracellular calcium. Under the pathophysiological conditions, the increased sensitivity of regulatory and contractile proteins to calcium also plays an important role in maintaining the spontaneous detrusor smooth muscle activity. Many proteins have been identified to play a role in calcium sensitization...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
Pawan Agarwal, Shabbir Husain, Sudesh Wankhede, D Sharma
BACKGROUND: Urinary bladder dysfunction in the form of acontractile/hypocontractile bladder is very common after spinal cord injury and it may lead to recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI), stones formation, and deteriorating renal function. Conventionally, these patients evacuate their bladders by life-long clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) or an indwelling catheter (IC). For these patients, another option is to use innervated skeletal muscle wrap around the bladder to augment detrusor function and voluntary evacuation of bladder...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Jonathan J Crook, Charly Brouillard, Pedro Irazoqui, Thelma Lovick
Objective Neuromodulation of autonomic nerve activity to regulate physiological processes is an emerging field. Vagal stimulation has received most attention whereas the potential of modulate visceral function by targeting autonomic nerves within the abdominal cavity remains under-exploited. Surgery to locate intra-abdominal targets is inherently more stressful than for peripheral nerves. Electrode leads risk becoming entrapped by intestines and loss of functionality in the nerve-target organ connection could result from electrode migration or twisting...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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