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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432911/lifting-the-lid-on-geographic-complexity-in-the-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-education-in-china
#1
Maigeng Zhou, Xiaoqi Feng, Jiang Yong, Yichong Li, Mei Zhang, Andrew Page, Thomas Astell-Burt, Wenhua Zhao
In China, rising obesity has coincided with increasing affluence. Few studies have properly accounted for geographic variation, however, which may influence prior results. Using large data with biomarkers in China, we show body mass index (BMI) to be positively correlated with higher person-level education if estimated using ordinary least squares. In stark contrast, fitting the same data within a multilevel model gives the complete opposite result. We go on to show that the relationship between BMI and person-level education in China is dependent upon geography, underlining why multilevel modelling is crucial for revealing these types of people-place contingencies...
April 19, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432861/spirometry-and-volumetric-capnography-in-lung-function-assessment-of-obese-and-normal-weight-individuals-without-asthma
#2
Mariana S Ferreira, Roberto T Mendes, Fernando A L Marson, Mariana P Zambon, Maria A R G M Antonio, Ilma A Paschoal, Adyléia A D C Toro, Silvana D Severino, Maria A G O Ribeiro, José D Ribeiro
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare lung function of obese and healthy, normal-weight children and adolescents, without asthma, through spirometry and volumetric capnography. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 77 subjects (38 obese) aged 5-17 years. All subjects underwent spirometry and volumetric capnography. The evaluations were repeated in obese subjects after the use of a bronchodilator. RESULTS: At the spirometry assessment, obese individuals, when compared with the control group, showed lower values of forced expiratory volume in the first second by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and expiratory flows at 75% and between 25 and 75% of the FVC (p<0...
April 19, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432848/trends-in-the-prevalence-of-extreme-obesity-among-korean-children-and-adolescents-from-2001-to-2014
#3
Hyo-Kyoung Nam, Hye Ryun Kim, Young-Jun Rhie, Kee-Hyoung Lee
BACKGROUND: We assessed nationwide trends in extreme obesity prevalence and its impact on metabolic syndrome in Korean youth. METHODS: Data from 19,593 youth (10,271 boys) aged 2-19 were obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2001-2014). The prevalence of extreme obesity and the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome were calculated. Questionnaires on body weight perceptions and weight control behaviors were administered. RESULTS: The prevalence of extreme obesity increased significantly among boys (p<0...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432801/weight-loss-in-obese-girls-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-is-associated-with-a-decrease-of-anti-muellerian-hormone-concentrations
#4
Thomas Reinehr, Alexandra Kulle, Juliane Rothermel, Caroline Knop, Nina Lass, Christina Bosse, Paul-Martin Holterhus
OBJECTIVE: The Anti- Muellerian Hormone (AMH) has been reported as surrogate marker of antral follicles, which are the origins of hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Therefore, AMH may be useful for the diagnosis of PCOS. The objective was to study the longitudinal changes in AMH concentrations in girls with and without PCOS. DESIGN: This is a longitudinal study of obese girls participating in a 1-year lifestyle intervention. PATIENTS: Forty obese girls aged 13-16 years (50% with PCOS) were included in the study...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432716/deciphering-tacrolimus-induced-toxicity-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#5
J Triñanes, A E Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Y Brito, A Wagner, A P J De Vries, G Cuesto, A Acebes, E Salido, A Torres, E Porrini
β-cell transcription factors like: FoxO1, MafA, PDX-1, NeuroD, are dysfunctional in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). PTDM resembles T2DM and reflects interaction between pre-transplant insulin resistance and immunosuppressants, mainly calcineurin inhibitors. We evaluated the effect of tacrolimus, cyclosporine-A and metabolic stressors (glucose+palmitate) on insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) in vitro and in pancreata of obese and lean Zucker rats. Cells were cultured for five days with 100μM palmitate and 22mM glucose; cyclosporin-A (250ng/mL) or tacrolimus (15ng/mL) were added the last 48h...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432575/liver-transplantation-the-role-of-metabolic-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Brian C Davis, M Shadab Siddiqui
The long-term survival in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is currently at an historical high level stemming from improvement in perioperative care, infection control, and immunosuppression medications. However, compared to the general population, LTRs have decreased survival. Metabolic diseases like hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and obesity are key determinants of long-term mortality in LTRs. The incidence and prevalence of these metabolic comorbidities is considerably higher in LTRs and likely results from a combination of factors including exposure to chronic immunosuppression, weight gain, and recurrence of chronic liver disease after liver transplantation (LT)...
April 21, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432570/vascular-and-endothelial-function-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
REVIEW
Amy S Shah, Elaine M Urbina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the burden of type 2 diabetes in youth and summarize the studies that have utilized noninvasive techniques to assess early vascular disease in youth with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive imaging modalities provide researchers with tools to investigate the vasculature in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. The data published to date consistently show adolescents with type 2 diabetes have greater vascular thickness and stiffness and worse endothelial function compared to their obese and lean peers...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432400/-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-metabolic-diseases-from-obesity-to-diabetes-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#8
S C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome consists of about 10 million genes, many of which encode digestive enzymes. This explains why animal and human experiments revealed that the intestinal microbiome adapts to food intake and optimizes energy harvest from food. This function is considered beneficial in states of lack of food, but following overnutrition, it might support the development of obesity. OBJECTIVES: The relevance of the intestinal microbiome for the pathogenesis of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and for the clinical management of such diseases shall be discussed...
April 21, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432296/aminoglycosides-but-not-ptc124-ataluren-rescue-nonsense-mutations-in-the-leptin-receptor-and-in-luciferase-reporter-genes
#9
Florian Bolze, Sabine Mocek, Anika Zimmermann, Martin Klingenspor
In rare cases, monogenetic obesity is caused by nonsense mutations in genes regulating energy balance. A key factor herein is the leptin receptor. Here, we focus on leptin receptor nonsense variants causing obesity, namely the human W31X, murine Y333X and rat Y763X mutations, and explored their susceptibilities to aminoglycoside and PTC124 mediated translational read-through in vitro. In a luciferase based assay, all mutations - when analysed within the mouse receptor - were prone to aminoglycoside mediated nonsense suppression with the highest susceptibility for W31X, followed by Y763X and Y333X...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432282/loss-of-function-myostatin-mutation-increases-insulin-sensitivity-and-browning-of-white-fat-in-meishan-pigs
#10
Chunbo Cai, Lili Qian, Shengwang Jiang, Youde Sun, Qingqing Wang, Dezun Ma, Gaojun Xiao, Biao Li, Shanshan Xie, Ting Gao, Yaoxing Chen, Jie Liu, Xiaorong An, Wentao Cui, Kui Li
Myostatin-deficient mice showed a remarkable hypertrophy of skeletal muscle, with a decreased fat mass and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Currently, it is unclear if the inhibition of myostatin could be used as an approach to treat human obesity and insulin resistance. In this study, we investigated if the inhibition of porcine myostatin has any effect on fat deposition and insulin sensitivity using genetically engineered Meishan pigs containing a myostatin loss-of-function mutation (Mstn -/- ). Our results indicated that, when compared with wild-type pigs, the amount of subcutaneous fat and leaf fat of Mstn -/- pigs were significantly decreased mainly due to the browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432106/prohibitin-induced-obesity-leads-to-anovulation-and-polycystic-ovary-in-mice
#11
Sudharsana Rao Ande, Khanh Hoa Nguyen, Yang Xin Zi Xu, Suresh Mishra
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, the etiology of the disease and the mechanisms by which this disorder progress remain unclear. Here we report that a transgenic obese mouse (Mito-Ob) developed by overexpressing prohibitin in adipocytes develops polycystic ovaries. Initially, the female Mito-Ob mice were equally fertile to their wild-type littermates. Mito-Ob mice begin to gain weight after puberty, become significantly obese between 3-6 months of age, and roughly 25% of them become infertile by 9 months of age...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432082/effect-of-oral-contraceptives-and-or-metformin-on-glp-1-secretion-and-reactive-hypoglycemia-in-pcos
#12
Dorte Glintborg, Hanne Mumm, Jens Juul Holst, Marianne Andersen
CONTEXT: Insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may increase the risk of reactive hypoglycaemia (RH) and decrease glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. The possible effects of treatment with oral contraceptives (OCP) and/or metformin on GLP-1 secretion and risk of RH in PCOS is undetermined. SETTING: Outpatient clinic. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Randomized, controlled clinical trial. Ninety women with PCOS were randomized to 12 month treatment with OCP (150 mg desogestrel+30 microgram ethinylestradiol), metformin (2 g/day), or metformin +OCP...
April 21, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432036/increased-inflammation-from-childhood-to-adolescence-predicts-sleep-apnea-in-boys-a-preliminary-study
#13
Jordan Gaines, Alexandros N Vgontzas, Julio Fernandez-Mendoza, Fan He, Susan L Calhoun, Duanping Liao, Edward O Bixler
While chronic systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been traditionally considered a consequence of intermittent hypoxia, several treatment studies targeting inflammation suggest that this process may precede the development of the disorder. A recent cross-sectional study in the Penn State Child Cohort (PSCC) revealed that inflammation largely mediates the association between visceral adiposity and OSA in adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine for the first time whether, longitudinally, inflammation precedes OSA during this developmental period...
April 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432007/caloric-compensation-in-preschool-children-relationships-with-body-mass-and-differences-by-food-category
#14
S Carnell, L Benson, E L Gibson, L A Mais, S Warkentin
Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs...
April 18, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431973/understanding-the-relationship-of-cigarette-smoking-trajectories-through-adolescence-and-weight-status-in-young-adulthood-in-the-united-states
#15
Minal Patel, Annette Kaufman, Yvonne Hunt, Linda Nebeling
PURPOSE: Adolescent cigarette smoking has steadily declined since 1999, whereas adolescent obesity rates have quadrupled since the 1980s. Few studies address the longitudinal relationship of smoking and weight in youth and young adulthood. This study examines the relationship of smoking trajectories beginning in adolescence on weight status in young adulthood in a nationally representative longitudinal sample. METHODS: The study sample was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Waves I-IV (N = 13,361)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431912/osteosarcopenic-obesity-prevalence-and-relation-with-frailty-and-physical-performance-in-middle-aged-and-older-women
#16
Claudia Szlejf, Lorena Parra-Rodríguez, Oscar Rosas-Carrasco
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and to investigate its association with frailty and physical performance in Mexican community-dwelling middle-aged and older women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. SETTING: The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 434 women aged 50 years or older, living in the designated area in Mexico City...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431845/infection-prevention-and-control-and-the-refugee-population-experiences-from-the-university-of-louisville-global-health-center
#17
Ruth M Carrico, Linda Goss, Timothy L Wiemken, Rahel S Bosson, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Allison Pauly, Rebecca A Ford, Stanley Kotey, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431747/effects-of-vibration-training-in-reducing-risk-of-slip-related-falls-among-young-adults-with-obesity
#18
Feng Yang, Jose Munoz, Long-Zhu Han, Fei Yang
This study examined the effects of controlled whole-body vibration training on reducing risk of slip-related falls in people with obesity. Twenty-three young adults with obesity were randomly assigned into either the vibration or placebo group. The vibration and placebo groups respectively received 6-week vibration and placebo training on a side-alternating vibration platform. Before and after the training, the isometric knee extensors strength capacity was measured for the two groups. Both groups were also exposed to a standardized slip induced by a treadmill during gait prior to and following the training...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431684/attacking-obesity-related-diseases-at-the-source-is-bariatric-surgery-the-next-wave-in-cancer-prevention
#19
EDITORIAL
Peter A Argenta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431670/use-of-glp-1-receptor-agonists-for-type-2-diabetes-treatment-intensification-after-basal-insulin-failure
#20
M Joubert, Y Reznik
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are part of the armamentarium for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), although recent guidelines have mainly recommended their use on top of oral treatments when a single or combination of two or three oral hypoglycaemic agents has failed to lower HbA1c levels below the individualized target range. In such situations, the decision to use GLP-1RAs is mostly driven by their high level of efficacy, their effect on body weight balance and their safety considerations, such as low hypoglycaemic risk...
April 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
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