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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945016/cultural-hair-practices-physical-activity-and-obesity-among-urban-african-american-girls
#1
Felesia Bowen, Patricia O'Brien-Richardson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hair holds cultural meaning and value for women of African descent. The values placed on hair type and hair style date back to preslavery days. There is a small body of literature that addresses the relationship between cultural hair practices and physical inactivity among black women. Understanding this is important because inactivity during childhood and adolescent years contributes to increased weight-related morbidity and mortality during adult years. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cultural hair practices, physical activity, and obesity among urban African-American adolescent girls...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944991/a-qualitative-study-exploring-midwives-perceptions-and-knowledge-of-maternal-obesity-reflecting-on-their-experiences-of-providing-healthy-eating-and-weight-management-advice-to-pregnant-women
#2
Mary T McCann, Lisa Newson, Catriona Burden, Jane S Rooney, Margaret S Charnley, Julie C Abayomi
Midwives are responsible for providing advice regarding the complex issues of healthy eating and weight management during pregnancy. This study utilised an inductive data-driven thematic approach in order to determine midwives' perceptions, knowledge, and experiences of providing healthy eating and weight management advice to pregnant women. Semistructured interviews with 17 midwives were transcribed verbatim and data subjected to thematic analysis. The findings offer insight into the challenges facing midwives in their role trying to promote healthy eating and appropriate weight management to pregnant women...
September 25, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944982/evaluation-of-inos-inhibition-on-kidney-function-and-structure-in-high-fat-diet-induced-kidney-disease
#3
Blanche Martin, Nathalie Caron, Inès Jadot, Vanessa Colombaro, Gabrielle Federici, Clara Depommier, Anne-Émilie Declèves
BACKGROUND: Central obesity is related to caloric excess promoting deleterious cellular responses in targeted organs. Nitric oxide (NO) has been determined as a key player in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Here, we investigated the implication of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the development of obesity-induced kidney disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57Bl/6 male mice were randomized to a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with L-NIL, a specific iNOS inhibitor for 16 weeks...
September 25, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944976/obesity-and-frontal-striatal-brain-structures-in-offspring-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-results-from-the-global-mood-and-brain-science-initiative
#4
Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger S McIntyre, Bo Cao, Yena Lee, Letícia Japiassú, Kun Chen, Rui Lu, Weicong Lu, Xiaodong Chen, Ting Li, Guiyun Xu, Kangguang Lin
OBJECTIVES: To compare frontal-striatal brain volumes between offspring of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls; to investigate the associations of body mass index (BMI) and age with brain volumes; and to assess the moderating effects of BMI and age on the relationship between risk status and structural brain differences. METHODS: We cross-sectionally assessed structural regional and global brain volumes using magnetic resonance imaging and BMI among 53 BD offspring subjects, stratified by risk status, and 23 non-BD offspring controls (aged 8-28 years)...
September 25, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944937/individual-development-and-potential-determinants-of-excess-weight-in-children-and-adolescents-a-longitudinal-study
#5
Alexandra Papandreou, Matthias Bopp, Julia Braun, Kaspar Staub, David Faeh
OBJECTIVES: Excess body weight is a major public health concern already at a young age. The aim of this study was to track weight status among pupils aged 6-14 years in the City of Zurich, to examine the association between sociodemographic and environmental factors and excess weight at school entry and excess weight gain thereafter. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Data were from the medical examinations routinely performed at public schools in Zurich, the largest city in Switzerland...
September 25, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944834/nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%A2-mir15a%C3%A2-bfgf-vegfa-axis-contributes-to-the-impaired-angiogenic-capacity-of-bm%C3%A2-mscs-in-high-fat-diet%C3%A2-fed-mice
#6
Zhuoli Zhu, Xueqi Gan, Haiyang Yu
Potent paracrine properties, such as secretion of angiogenic cytokines and growth factors, have been considered essential for the function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tissue regeneration and repair. The present study determined that bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells from mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) had reduced pro‑angiogenic capacity, as evident from the reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); therefore, a reduced number of branches was induced in the angiogenesis assay...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944745/obesity-a-possible-risk-factor-for-restless-legs-syndrome
#7
Demet Yildiz, Nilufer Buyukkoyuncu, Ahmet Kasim Kilic, Soner Cander, Abdülmecit Yıldız, Aygul Gunes, Meral Seferoglu, Sevda Erer Ozbek
AIM/BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a frequent neurological and sleep disorder. Metabolic disorders are known to be related to sleep disorders. We prospectively evaluated whether obesity and its possible cofactors were related to the presence of RLS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 143 obese and 94 non-obese individuals. Obese patients had a BMI of 30 and over, while non-obese patients had a BMI lower than 30. Patients with arthritis and pregnancy were excluded but not those with diabetes mellitus...
September 25, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944718/obesity-is-associated-with-altered-mid-insula-functional-connectivity-to-limbic-regions-underlying-appetitive-responses-to-foods
#8
Jason A Avery, Joshua N Powell, Florence J Breslin, Rebecca J Lepping, Laura E Martin, Trisha M Patrician, Joseph E Donnelly, Cary R Savage, W Kyle Simmons
Obesity is fundamentally a disorder of energy balance. In obese individuals, more energy is consumed than is expended, leading to excessive weight gain through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Complications arising from obesity, including cardiovascular disease, elevated peripheral inflammation, and the development of Type II diabetes, make obesity one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is of paramount importance to both individual and public health that we understand the neural circuitry underlying the behavioral regulation of energy balance...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944717/an-overview-of-assessment-methodology-for-obesity-related-variables-in-infants-at-risk
#9
Danae Dinkel, Corrine Hanson, Karsten Koehler, Ann Anderson Berry, Anastasia Kyvelidou, Matthew Bice, Jill Wallen, Danstan Bagenda, Laura Jana, Jana Pressler
BACKGROUND: The first 2 years of a child's life are a particularly critical time period for obesity prevention. AIM: An increasing amount of research across the world is aimed at understanding factors that impact early childhood obesity and developing interventions that target these factors effectively. With this growing interest, new and interdisciplinary research teams are developing to meet this research need. Due to rapid growth velocity during this phase of the lifespan, typical assessments used in older populations may not be valid or applicable in infants, and investigators need to be aware of the pros and cons of specific methodological strategies...
January 1, 2017: Nutrition and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944709/the-cardiometabolic-effect-of-current-management-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-strategies-of-prevention-and-treatment
#10
Dinka Pavicic Baldani, Lana Skrgatic, Roya Ougouag, Miro Kasum
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age, which is characterized by reproductive and cardiometabolic disturbances with long-term health repercussions. Insulin resistance (IR), impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), obesity and dyslipidemia occur more in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS. Long term data regarding risks or benefits of medical intervention for metabolic dysfunction of PCOS are lacking. Therapies, such as oral contraceptives (OCPs) and anti-androgenic medications used to manage the reproductive manifestations of PCOS, may themselves be the cause of cardiometabolic perturbations...
September 23, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944626/caveolin-1-secreted-from-adipose-tissues-and-adipocytes-functions-as-an-adipogenesis-enhancer
#11
Chia-Chu Chang, Chen-Yu Chen, Hui-Chin Wen, Chih-Yang Huang, Ming-Shiu Hung, Hsi-Chi Lu, Woan-Ling Chen, Chung-Ho Chang
OBJECTIVE: Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is expressed abundantly in adipose tissue and involved in many physiological processes. While Cav-1 has been reported to be secreted in pancreatic acinar cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells, its secretion from adipose tissue awaits investigation. METHODS: Cav-1 secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and fat tissues from normal chow diet- and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice was measured. Functions and uptake of secreted Cav-1 proteins were assessed by adding Cav-1 back to preadipocytes and LNCaP cells...
September 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944621/factors-associated-with-ohio-nurse-practitioners-childhood-obesity-preventive-practice-patterns
#12
Rika Tanda, Elizabeth A Beverly, Kimberly Hughes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: More nurse practitioners (NPs) infiltrate into primary care settings, and play a pivotal role in prevention of childhood obesity. However, minimal research has been published about their practice patterns. The current study uses a sample of Ohio NPs and describes NPs' childhood obesity prevention practice patterns, knowledge of the guidelines, their personal physical activity in relation to childhood obesity prevention practices, and identification of perceived barriers for practice...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944615/agreement-between-weight-status-and-perceived-body-size-and-the-association-with-body-size-satisfaction-in-children
#13
Iris Leppers, Henning Tiemeier, Sonja A Swanson, Frank C Verhulst, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Oscar H Franco, Pauline W Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Extensive evidence suggests that children and adolescents often inaccurately perceive their body size. However, the extent of this misperception is unclear. This paper describes the agreement between children's actual weight and the perception of body size (self-reported and maternally reported) and the association of actual weight with self-reported body satisfaction. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study of 3,408 children aged 9 to 10 years, we assessed the children's self-perception and ideal perception of their body size with the Children's Body Image Scale...
September 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944601/an-advanced-multifunctional-hydrogel-based-dressing-for-wound-monitoring-and-drug-delivery
#14
Bahram Mirani, Erik Pagan, Barbara Currie, Mohammad Ali Siddiqui, Reihaneh Hosseinzadeh, Pooria Mostafalu, Yu Shrike Zhang, Aziz Ghahary, Mohsen Akbari
Wound management is a major global challenge and poses a significant financial burden to the healthcare system due to the rapid growth of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and aging population. The ability to detect pathogenic infections and release drug at the wound site is of the utmost importance to expedient patient care. Herein, this study presents an advanced multifunctional dressing (GelDerm) capable of colorimetric measurement of pH, an indicator of bacterial infection, and release of antibiotic agents at the wound site...
September 25, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944597/caloric-restriction-induced-decreases-in-dopamine-receptor-availability-are-associated-with-leptin-concentration
#15
Julia P Dunn, Naji N Abumrad, Robert M Kessler, Bruce W Patterson, Rui Li, Pamela Marks-Shulman, Robyn A Tamboli
OBJECTIVE: It has been previously reported that early after Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass, dopamine (DA) type 2 and 3 receptor (D2/3R) binding potential (BPND ) was decreased from preoperative levels. The current study aimed to determine whether calorie restriction without weight loss modifies D2/3R BPND and whether such changes are explained by neuroendocrine regulation. METHODS: Fifteen females with obesity (BMI = 39 ± 6 kg/m(2) ) were studied before and after ∼10 days of a very-low-calorie-diet (VLCD)...
September 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944593/fifty-years-of-behavioral-lifestyle-interventions-for-overweight-and-obesity-where-have-we-been-and-where-are-we-going
#16
REVIEW
Donald A Williamson
OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the structure and content of intensive lifestyle interventions (ILIs) for overweight/obesity since Richard Stuart described this new treatment approach in 1967. A consensus opinion has formed that behavioral/lifestyle treatment of overweight and obesity should be viewed as a mainstream intervention for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and medical complications associated with obesity. METHODS: The development of modern ILIs and demonstration of their efficacy are compared by structure, content, and efficacy of four major randomized controlled trials: Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), Look AHEAD, POUNDS Lost, and CALERIE...
September 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944580/biallelic-mutations-in-gpd1-gene-in-a-chinese-boy-mainly-presented-with-obesity-insulin-resistance-fatty-liver-and-short-stature
#17
Niu Li, Guoying Chang, Yufei Xu, Yu Ding, Guoqiang Li, Tingting Yu, Ruen Yao, Juan Li, Yiping Shen, Xiumin Wang, Jian Wang
Biallelic mutations in the GPD1 gene cause a rare autosomal recessive inherited disease known as transient infantile hypertriglyceridemia (OMIM #614480). To date, only five pathogenic variants have been reported in 15 patients from three studies. The clinical symptoms of the affected individuals present a certain degree of heterogeneity. Here, we describe a chinese adolescent patient who mainly presented with obesity, insulin resistance, fatty liver, and short stature. Targeted next-generation sequencing revealed a novel compound heterozygous variant in GPD1 gene (c...
September 25, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944432/trend-of-changes-in-serum-albumin-and-its-relation-with-sex-age-and-bmi-following-laparoscopic-mini-gastric-bypass-surgery-in-morbid-obese-cases
#18
Mehrdad Karimi, Ali Kabir, Masoumeh Nejatifar, Abdolreza Pazouki
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the pattern of changes in serum albumin level after mini-gastric bypass (MGB) and its association with gender, age, and body mass index (BMI) of the patients. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted on 196 morbidly obese patients undergoing MGB followed for 1 year. The data on BMI, serum albumin level, demographic, anthropometric, biochemical variables and comorbidities were gathered before and after (3, 6, and 12 months) surgery...
September 24, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944323/the-effects-of-bariatric-surgical-procedures-on-the-improvement-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-morbidly-obese-patients-comparison-of-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-versus-laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#19
Mehmet Ertuğrul Kafalı, Mustafa Şahin, İlhan Ece, Fahrettin Acar, Hüseyin Yılmaz, Hüsnü Alptekin, Leyla Ateş
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in terms of weight loss, metabolic parameters, and postoperative complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with a diagnosis of morbid obesity between January 2012 and June 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were compared in terms of age, sex, body mass index, duration of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, perioperative complications, length of hospital stay, and long term follow-up results...
2017: Turk J Surg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944270/the-role-of-leptin-in-health-and-disease
#20
REVIEW
Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Jose Donato
Leptin is a master regulator of energy balance and body adiposity. Additionally, leptin exerts important control on glucose homeostasis, thermogenesis, autonomic nervous system and neuroendocrine axes. In metabolic diseases, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, leptin signaling may be compromised, indicating the important role of this hormone in the etiology and pathophysiological manifestations of these conditions. In the present manuscript, we reviewed important concepts of leptin signaling, as well as about the effects of leptin on several biologic functions...
2017: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
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