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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214540/cognitive-performance-of-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice-after-repetitive-concussive-brain-injuries
#1
Alexander G Velosky, Laura B Tucker, Amanda H Fu, Jiong Liu, Joseph T McCabe
In contact sports, repetitive concussive brain injury (rCBI) is the prevalent form of head injury seen in athletes. The need for effective treatment is urgent as rCBI has been associated with a host of cognitive, behavioral and neurological complaints. There has been a growing trend in the use of female animals in pre-clinical research, but few studies have investigated possible sex differences following rCBI. The goal of the current study was to determine any differences between male and female C57BL/6J mice on assessments of learning and memory after repetitive concussive injury...
February 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214318/clinical-course-treatment-modalities-and-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-congenital-melanocytic-nevi-data-from-the-german-cmn-registry
#2
Maria Elisabeth Wramp, Anna Langenbruch, Matthias Augustin, Detlef Zillikens, Sven Krengel
BACKGROUND: Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are associated with mental stress as well as medical risks for those affected. The German CMN registry was initiated in 2005. Herein, we present results from an interim analysis focusing on disease course, treatment modalities, and quality of life. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred patients enrolled in the registry between 2005 and 2012 were included in this prospective cohort study, and asked to participate in a follow-up survey...
February 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214165/agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-and-aicardi-syndrome-a%C3%A2-neuroimaging-and-clinical-comparison
#3
T Govil-Dalela, A Kumar, R Agarwal, H T Chugani
BACKGROUND: Agenesis of the corpus callosum can occur in individuals with epilepsy, either in isolation or as part of various neurological conditions, such as Aicardi syndrome. In this study, we evaluated the clinical and neuroradiological differences between children with nonsyndromic agenesis of the corpus callosum and those with Aicardi syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 31 children with epilepsy and agenesis of the corpus callosum (11 males, 20 females), 14 of whom had Aicardi syndrome (all females)...
January 4, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213557/tension-pneumocephalus-induced-by-high-flow-nasal-cannula-ventilation-in-a-neonate
#4
Alicia Iglesias-Deus, Alejandro Pérez-Muñuzuri, Olalla López-Suárez, Pilar Crespo, Maria-Luz Couce
The use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy as respiratory support for preterm infants has increased rapidly worldwide. The evidence available for the use of HFNC is as an alternative to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and in particular to prevent postextubation failure. We report a case of tension pneumocephalus in a preterm infant as a complication during HFNC ventilation. Significant neurological impairment was detected and support was eventually withdrawn. Few cases of pneumocephalus as a complication of positive airway pressure have been reported in the neonatal period, and they all have been related to CPAP...
March 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#5
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212307/antiretroviral-treatment-in-hiv-1-positive-mothers-neurological-implications-in-virus-free-children
#6
REVIEW
Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Paola Maura Tricarico, Fulvio Celsi, Sergio Crovella
Since the worldwide introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1-positive mothers, together with HIV-1 testing prior to pregnancy, caesarian birth and breastfeeding cessation with replacement feeding, a reduction of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) has been observed in the last few years. As such, an increasing number of children are being exposed in utero to ART. Several questions have arisen concerning the neurological effects of ART exposure in utero, considering the potential effect of antiretroviral drugs on the central nervous system, a structure which is in continuous development in the fetus and characterized by great plasticity...
February 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211814/are-major-dementias-triggered-by-poor-blood-flow-to-the-brain-theoretical-considerations
#7
Jack C de la Torre
There is growing evidence that chronic brain hypoperfusion plays a central role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before dyscognitive symptoms or amyloid-β accumulation in the brain appear. This commentary proposes that dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) may also develop from chronic brain hypoperfusion following a similar but not identical neurometabolic breakdown as AD. The argument to support this conclusion is that chronic brain hypoperfusion, which is found at the early stages of the three dementias reviewed here, will reduce oxygen delivery and lower oxidative phosphorylation promoting a steady decline in the synthesis of the cell energy fuel adenosine triphosphate (ATP)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211486/motor-phenotype-is-not-associated-with-vascular-dysfunction-in-symptomatic-huntington-s-disease-transgenic-r6-2-160-cag-mice
#8
A Di Pardo, A Carrizzo, A Damato, S Castaldo, E Amico, L Capocci, M Ambrosio, F Pompeo, C De Sanctis, C C Spinelli, A A Puca, P Remondelli, V Maglione, C Vecchione
Whereas Huntington's disease (HD) is unequivocally a neurological disorder, a critical mass of emerging studies highlights the occurrence of peripheral pathology like cardiovascular defects in both animal models and humans. The overt impairment in cardiac function is normally expected to be associated with peripheral vascular dysfunction, however whether this assumption is reasonable or not in HD is still unknown. In this study we functionally characterized the vascular system in R6/2 mouse model (line 160 CAG), which recapitulates several features of human pathology including cardiac disease...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210835/a-10-year-review-of-cannabis-exposure-in-children-under-3-years-of-age-do-we-need-a-more-global-approach
#9
Isabelle Claudet, Mathilde Le Breton, Camille Bréhin, Nicolas Franchitto
: Pediatricians working in an emergency environment are confronted with children admitted to emergency departments for intoxication on a daily basis. We carried out a retrospective cohort study of children admitted to a pediatric emergency department due to unintentional cannabis exposure over a 10-year period from 2004 to 2014. Twenty-nine children under the age of 3 were admitted with a positive cannabis urine test. Eighty-seven percent of intoxications occurred at the family home. Resin was the main form of ingested cannabis (69%)...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207168/design-and-rationale-of-the-ebbinghaus-trial-a-phase-3-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-study-to-assess-the-effect-of-evolocumab-on-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-clinically-evident-cardiovascular-disease-and-receiving-statin-background-lipid
#10
Robert P Giugliano, Francois Mach, Kenton Zavitz, Christopher Kurtz, Jingjing Schneider, Huei Wang, Anthony Keech, Terje R Pedersen, Marc S Sabatine, Peter S Sever, Narimon Honarpour, Scott M Wasserman, Brian R Ott
Some observational studies raised concern that statins may cause memory impairment, leading to a US Food and Drug Administration warning. Similar questions were raised regarding proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) and neurocognitive function. No prospectively designed study has evaluated the relationship between long-term PCSK9i use and cognition changes. Patients with prior cardiovascular disease treated with maximally tolerated statin enrolled in FOURIER (the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cardiovascular outcome study of the PCSK9i evolocumab) could participate in this prospective assessment of cognitive function (EBBINGHAUS)...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206826/the-nine-hole-peg-test-as-a-manual-dexterity-performance-measure-for-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Peter Feys, Ilse Lamers, Gordon Francis, Ralph Benedict, Glenn Phillips, Nicholas LaRocca, Lynn D Hudson, Richard Rudick
Impaired manual dexterity is a frequently reported disability in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and is increasingly prevalent with worsening disease. While various tests and patient-reported outcome measures are available, the Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT) is considered as a gold standard measure of manual dexterity and most frequently used in MS research and clinical practice. The MS Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205497/critical-motor-involvement-in-prediction-of-human-and-non-biological-motion-trajectories
#12
Matthieu M de Wit, Laurel J Buxbaum
OBJECTIVES: Adaptive interaction with the environment requires the ability to predict both human and non-biological motion trajectories. Prior accounts of the neurocognitive basis for prediction of these two motion classes may generally be divided into those that posit that non-biological motion trajectories are predicted using the same motor planning and/or simulation mechanisms used for human actions, and those that posit distinct mechanisms for each. Using brain lesion patients and healthy controls, this study examined critical neural substrates and behavioral correlates of human and non-biological motion prediction...
February 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204844/safe-placement-of-lateral-mass-screw-in-the-subaxial-cervical-spine-a-case-series
#13
Di Zhang, Xianda Gao, Jiang Jiang, Fanlong Kong, Yong Shen, Wenyuan Ding, Xiufang Hao, Huixian Cui
PURPOSE: Laminectomy with lateral mass screw fixation has been proven to be an effective method to treat the multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy and severe cervical spondylosis. However, accurate and safe insertion of the lateral mass screw is technically demanding due to the individual variations of the anatomy of the lateral mass of the subaxial cervical spine. Misplaced lateral mass screw is not uncommon, and operation-related complications still beset the surgeons, which may impair the clinical outcomes...
February 15, 2017: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203097/cerebral-malaria-insight-into-pathogenesis-complications-and-molecular-biomarkers
#14
Farah Hafiz Yusuf, Muhammad Yusuf Hafiz, Maria Shoaib, Syed Ahsanuddin Ahmed
Cerebral malaria is a medical emergency. All patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria with neurologic manifestations of any degree should be urgently treated as cases of cerebral malaria. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is due to damaged vascular endothelium by parasite sequestration, inflammatory cytokine production and vascular leakage, which result in brain hypoxia, as indicated by increased lactate and alanine concentrations. The levels of the biomarkers' histidine-rich protein II, angiopoietin-Tie-2 system and plasma osteoprotegrin serve as diagnostic and prognostic markers...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202615/il-13-mediated-regulation-of-learning-and-memory
#15
Tiroyaone M Brombacher, Justin K Nono, Keisha S De Gouveia, Nokuthula Makena, Matthew Darby, Jacqueline Womersley, Ousman Tamgue, Frank Brombacher
The role of proinflammatory cytokines in cognitive function has been investigated with both beneficial and possible detrimental effects, depending on the cytokine. More recently, the type 2 IL-4 has been demonstrated to play a role in cognition. In this study, using the Morris water maze task, we demonstrate that IL-13-deficient mice are significantly impaired in working memory as well as attenuated reference memory, both functions essential for effective complex learning. During the learning process, wild-type mice increased the number of CD4(+) T cells in the meninges and production of IL-13, whereas neither Morris water maze-trained IL-4 nor trained IL-13-deficient mice were able to increase CD4(+) T cells in the meninges...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202547/post-translational-activation-of-glutamate-cysteine-ligase-with-dimercaprol-a-novel-mechanism-of-inhibiting-neuroinflammation-in-vitro
#16
Pallavi B McElroy, Ashwini Sri Hari, Brian J Day, Manisha Patel
Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of various neurological diseases. However, whether and how the redox processes control neuroinflammation is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that increasing cellular glutathione (GSH) levels would inhibit neuroinflammation. A series of thiol compounds were identified to elevate cellular GSH levels by a novel approach i.e. post-translational activation of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), the rate-limiting enzyme in GSH biosynthesis. These small thiolcontaining compounds were examined for their ability to increase intracellular GSH levels in a murine microglial cell line (BV2), of which dimercaprol [2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (DMP)] was found to be the most effective compound...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201864/recurrent-contrast-induced-encephalopathy-following-coronary-angiography
#17
Roberto Spina, Neil Simon, Romesh Markus, David W M Muller, Krishna Kathir
Contrast-induced encephalopathy (CIE) is an acute and reversible neurological disturbance associated with the intra-arterial administration of iodinated contrast medium during cardiac catheterisation. It may manifest with encephalopathy, motor and sensory disturbances; vision disturbances, including cortical blindness, ophthalmoplegia, aphasia; and seizures. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier and direct neuronal toxicity are believed to be implicated in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Symptoms appear soon after contrast administration and resolve completely within 24-48 h...
February 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198408/therapeutic-effects-of-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cell-hadsc-transplantation-on-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-eae-mice
#18
Jia Li, Ying Chen, Zhibo Chen, Yuanyuan Huang, Dehao Yang, Zhongqian Su, Yiyun Weng, Xiang Li, Xu Zhang
This study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of human adipose tissue-derived stem cell (hADSC) transplantation on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. EAE mouse model was established by MOG35-55 immunization. Body weight and neurological function were assessed. H&E and LFB staining was performed to evaluate histopathological changes. Flow cytometry was used to detect Th17 and Treg cells. ELISA and real-time PCR were performed to determine transcription factor and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197949/the-impact-of-next-generation-sequencing-on-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-paediatric-patients
#19
REVIEW
Davide Mei, Elena Parrini, Carla Marini, Renzo Guerrini
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has contributed to the identification of many monogenic epilepsy syndromes and is favouring earlier and more accurate diagnosis in a subset of paediatric patients with epilepsy. The cumulative information emerging from NGS studies is rapidly changing our comprehension of the relations between early-onset severe epilepsy and the associated neurological impairment, progressively delineating specific entities previously gathered under the umbrella definition of epileptic encephalopathies, thereby influencing treatment choices and limiting the most aggressive drug regimens only to those conditions that are likely to actually benefit from them...
February 14, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197190/electroacupuncture-induces-acute-changes-in-cerebral-cortical-mirna-profile-improves-cerebral-blood-flow-and-alleviates-neurological-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-stroke
#20
Hai-Zhen Zheng, Wei Jiang, Xiao-Feng Zhao, Jing Du, Pan-Gong Liu, Li-Dan Chang, Wen-Bo Li, Han-Tong Hu, Xue-Min Shi
Electroacupuncture has been shown to improve cerebral blood flow in animal models of stroke. However, it is unclear whether electroacupuncture alters miRNA expression in the cortex. In this study, we examined changes in the cerebral cortical miRNA profile, cerebral blood flow and neurological function induced by electroacupuncture in a rat model of stroke. Electroacupuncture was performed at Renzhong (GV26) and Neiguan (PC6), with a frequency of 2 Hz, continuous wave, current intensity of 3.0 mA, and stimulation time of 1 minute...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
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