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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775205/modified-device-for-fluid-percussion-injury-in-rodents
#1
Wei Ouyang, Wenhui Wu, Zhiheng Fan, Jihui Wang, Huiju Pan, Weibin Yang
Fluid percussion (FP) injury model is a popular animal model of traumatic brain injury (TBI), but still there are some issues need to be addressed. To increase the validity and reliability of this technique, we adapted the FP device using electromagnetic protractor, stainless-steel cylinder, changing pressure transducer position, and foam pads to adjust the parameters of FP pulse. Besides, the adjusted FP device is more automatic. The FP pulse is promptly measured and displayed in a graphic user interface software...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774619/different-types-of-multiple-synapse-boutons-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-between-physically-enriched-and-ataxic-mutant-mice
#2
Hyun-Wook Kim, Seunghak Oh, Seung Hwan Lee, Sanghoon Lee, Ji-Eun Na, Kea Joo Lee, Im Joo Rhyu
Experience-dependent synapse remodeling is associated with information storage in the nervous system. Neuronal synapses show alteration in various neurological and cognitive disorders in their structure and function. At the ultrastructural level, parallel fiber boutons contacting multiple spines of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex are commonly observed in physiologically enriched animals as well as pathological ataxic mutants. However, the dendritic origin of those spines on parallel fiber multiple-synapse boutons (MSBs) has been poorly understood...
May 18, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774054/beta-adrenoceptor-blockade-ameliorates-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-alterations-of-the-cerebral-ceramide-metabolism-in-an-experimental-model-of-ischemic-stroke
#3
Sebastian Luger, Annette Schwebler, Rajkumar Vutukuri, Nerea Ferreiros Bouzas, Sandra Labocha, Yannick Schreiber, Robert Brunkhorst, Helmuth Steinmetz, Josef Pfeilschifter, Waltraud Pfeilschifter
Background: Sphingolipids are versatile signaling molecules derived from membrane lipids of eukaryotic cells. Ceramides regulate cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and are involved in cellular stress responses. Experimental evidence suggests a pivotal role of sphingolipids in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic stroke. A neuroprotective effect has been shown for beta-adrenergic antagonists in rodent stroke models and supported by observational clinical data...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772808/mercury-levels-in-women-and-children-from-interior-villages-in-suriname-south-america
#4
Paul E Ouboter, Gwendolyn Landburg, Gaitrie U Satnarain, Sheryl Y Starke, Indra Nanden, Bridget Simon-Friedt, William B Hawkins, Robert Taylor, Maureen Y Lichtveld, Emily Harville, Jeffrey K Wickliffe
Natural sources of mercury, historical gold mining, and contemporary artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) activities have led to mercury contamination in Suriname. Our primary objective was to evaluate mercury levels in hair of women and children from interior villages in Suriname where mercury levels in fish are elevated. We also estimated blood levels of mercury using an established mathematical conversion to facilitate comparison with other biomonitoring programs in the United States. Estimated levels of mercury in the blood of participants from Suriname were significantly higher than those in women from a heavy marine fish-consuming population in southeast Louisiana and estimates of the US national average...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772390/pathobiology-of-christianson-syndrome-linking-disrupted-endosomal-lysosomal-function-with-intellectual-disability-and-sensory-impairments
#5
Mallory Kerner-Rossi, Maria Gulinello, Steven Walkley, Kostantin Dobrenis
Christianson syndrome (CS) is a recently described rare neurogenetic disorder presenting early in life with a broad range of neurological symptoms, including severe intellectual disability with nonverbal status, hyperactivity, epilepsy, and progressive ataxia due to cerebellar atrophy. CS is due to loss-of-function mutations in SLC9A6, encoding NHE6, a sodium-hydrogen exchanger involved in the regulation of early endosomal pH. Here we review what is currently known about the neuropathogenesis of CS, based on insights from experimental models, which to date have focused on mechanisms that affect the CNS, specifically the brain...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772253/interstitial-ion-homeostasis-and-acid-base-balance-are-maintained-in-oedematous-brain-of-mice-with-acute-toxic-liver-failure
#6
Marta Obara-Michlewska, Fengfei Ding, Mariusz Popek, Alexei Verkhratsky, Maiken Nedergaard, Magdalena Zielinska, Jan Albrecht
Acute toxic liver failure (ATLF) rapidly leads to brain oedema and neurological decline. We evaluated the ability of ATLF-affected brain to control the ionic composition and acid-base balance of the interstitial fluid. ATLF was induced in 10-12 weeks old male C57Bl mice by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 100 μg/g azoxymethane (AOM). Analyses were carried out in cerebral cortex of precomatous mice 20-24 h after AOM administration. Brain fluid status was evaluated by measuring apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] using NMR spectroscopy, Evans Blue extravasation, and accumulation of an intracisternally-injected fluorescent tracer...
May 14, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772244/gender-difference-in-the-effect-of-progesterone-on-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-mouse
#7
Shuyu Dong, Qian Zhang, Delian Kong, Chao Zhou, Jie Zhou, Jingjing Han, Yan Zhou, Guoliang Jin, Xiaodong Hua, Jun Wang, Fang Hua
This study was to investigate the effects of progesterone (PROG) on neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (NHI) brain injury, the differences in effects between genders, and the underlying mechanisms. NHI brain injury was established in both male and female neonatal mice induced by occlusion of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia. The mice were treated with PROG or vehicle. Fluoro-Jade B staining (F-JB), long term behavior testing, and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) were applied to evaluate neuronal death, neurological function, and brain damage...
May 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772219/differential-roles-of-polar-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-and-parietal-lobes-in-logical-reasoning-with-neutral-and-negative-emotional-content
#8
Iveta Eimontaite, Vinod Goel, Vanessa Raymont, Frank Krueger, Igor Schindler, Jordan Grafman
To answer the question of how brain pathology affects reasoning about negative emotional content, we administered a disjunctive logical reasoning task involving arguments with neutral content (e.g. Either there are tigers or women in NYC, but not both; There are no tigers in NYC; There are women in NYC) and emotionally laden content (e.g. Either there are pedophiles or politicians in Texas, but not both; There are politicians in Texas; There are no pedophiles in Texas) to 92 neurological patients with focal lesions to various parts of the brain...
May 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771445/tirofiban-combined-with-rt-pa-intraarterial-thrombolysis-improves-the-recanalization-rate-of-acute-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rabbits
#9
Y-J Yu, W Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of tirofiban combined with recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) selective intra-arterial thrombolysis on acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Japanese white rabbits weighing 2.5-3.0 kg were selected, and the acute cerebral infarction model was established via autologous thromboembolism of middle cerebral artery. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: tirofiban group (Ti group, 5 μg/kg, n=15), rt-PA group (rt-PA group, 2 mg/kg, n=15), tirofiban + rt-PA group (Ti + rt-PA group, 3 μg/kg Ti + 1 mg/kg rt-PA, n=15), and control group (Co group, n=15)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771335/loss-of-fragile-x-protein-fmrp-impairs-homeostatic-synaptic-downscaling-through-tumor-suppressor-p53-and-ubiquitin-e3-ligase-nedd4-2
#10
Kwan Young Lee, Kathryn A Jewett, Hee Jung Chung, Nien-Pei Tsai
Synaptic scaling allows neurons to homeostatically readjust synaptic strength upon chronic neural activity perturbations. Although altered synaptic scaling has been implicated to underlie imbalanced brain excitability in neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy, the molecular dysregulation and restoration of synaptic scaling in those diseases have not been demonstrated. Here, we showed that the homeostatic synaptic downscaling is absent in the hippocampal neurons of Fmr1 KO mice, the mouse model of the most common inherited autism, Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)...
May 16, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770505/poor-self-reported-sleep-quality-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis
#11
Jesús Castro-Marrero, Maria C Zaragozá, Sergio González-Garcia, Luisa Aliste, Naia Sáez-Francàs, Odile Romero, Alex Ferré, Tomás Fernández de Sevilla, José Alegre
Non-restorative sleep is a hallmark symptom of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis. However, little is known about self-reported sleep disturbances in these subjects. This study aimed to assess the self-reported sleep quality and its impact on quality of life in a Spanish community-based chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis cohort. A prospective cross-sectional cohort study was conducted in 1,455 Spanish chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis patients. Sleep quality, fatigue, pain, functional capacity impairment, psychopathological status, anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life were assessed using validated subjective measures...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770208/case-report-polyarteritis-nodosa-or-complicated-henoch-schonlein-purpura-a-rare-case
#12
Sajad Hasanzadeh, Seyedeh Maryam Alavi, Elahe Masnavi, Maryam Rohani, Saeid Jokar
Background: Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a vasculitis that affects medium sized arteries. PAN is a rare disease and requires a high vilgilance for diagnosis. For instance, PAN and Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) have narrowing differential diagnosis. Here, we report a case of PAN. Case presentation : Our patient was a 65 year old woman that came to hospital due to abdominal pain and skin lesion on the right upper and right lower extremities. All rheumatologic tests were negative. A biopsy of the skin lesion was reported as mild hyperkeratosis, slight spongiosis with intact basal layer...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770123/what-if-low-back-pain-is-the-most-prevalent-parkinsonism-in-the-world
#13
Jesse V Jacobs, Sharon M Henry, Fay B Horak
Low back pain (LBP) has a point prevalence of nearly 10% and ranks highest in global disease burden for years lived with disability; Parkinson's disease (PD) ranks in the top 100 most disabling health conditions for years lost and years lived with disability (1). Recent evidence suggests that people with chronic, recurrent LBP exhibit many postural impairments reminiscent of a neurological postural disorder such as PD. We compare and contrast postural impairments associated with LBP and PD in order to inform treatment strategies for both conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769808/decision-making-around-gastrostomy-tube-feeding-in-children-with-neurologic-impairment-engaging-effectively-with-families
#14
Sanjay Mahant, Eyal Cohen, Katherine E Nelson, Peter Rosenbaum
Children with neurologic impairment may not be able to feed safely or sufficiently by mouth to maintain an adequate nutritional state. Gastrostomy tube (G-tube) feeding is an important, often essential, intervention in such situations. However, many parents and families struggle with the decision to proceed with G-tube feeding. This practice point reviews common reasons for decisional conflict in parents and explores key aspects of life with G-tube feeding. A framework for shared decision-making and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) approach are highlighted...
May 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768358/spastic-paraparesis-caused-by-x-linked-adrenoleukodystrophy-mimicking-vacuolar-myelopathy-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-patient-a-case-report
#15
Jin-Sung Park, Donghwi Park
RATIONALE: Vacuolar myelopathy is one of most common cause of spastic paresis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which is a metabolic disorder caused by impairment of peroxisomal beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA), also manifests as various neurological deteriorations including adult onset spastic paraparesis. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of newly developed spastic paresis due to X-ALD in a patient with HIV infection...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767275/aldh2-protects-against-ischemic-stroke-in-rats-by-facilitating-4-hne-clearance-and-aqp4-down-regulation
#16
Yan Li, Si-Liang Liu, Si-Hua Qi
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a new therapeutic target in the central nervous system. However, the association between ALDH2 and brain edema following ischemic stroke (IS) remains unclear. The present study was investigated to whether active ALDH2 can attenuate brain edema by using a rat model of IS, with the aim of clarifying the underlying mechanisms involved. Rats were administered the ALDH2 agonist Alda-1, vehicle or the ALDH2 inhibitor cyanamide (CYA) 15 min prior to a 1.5 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery...
May 16, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766929/sleep-disorders-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-a-questionnaire-based-study-from-india
#17
Samhita Panda, Mandaville Gourie-Devi, Ankkita Sharma
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relatively rare neurological disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord with survival for 3-5 years and rarely beyond 10 years. Sleep disturbances in ALS are underreported and undertreated and there is no related data from India. This study aimed to assess the frequency of sleep disorders in patients of ALS and their determinants. Methods: Patients with definite and probable ALS as per the El Escorial criteria were recruited from May 2014 to April 2016...
May 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766392/excessive-glutamate-stimulation-impairs-ace2-activity-through-adam17-mediated-shedding-in-cultured-cortical-neurons
#18
Jiaxi Xu, Srinivas Sriramula, Eric Lazartigues
The excitotoxicity of glutamate plays an important role in the progression of various neurological disorders via participating in inflammation and neuronal damage. In this study, we identified the role of excessive glutamate stimulation in the modulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme type 2 (ACE2), a critical component in the compensatory axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In primary cultured cortical neurons, high concentration of glutamate (100 µM) significantly reduced the enzymatic activity of ACE2...
May 15, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766366/consensus-statement-on-the-definition-of-neurogenic-supine-hypertension-in-cardiovascular-autonomic-failure-by-the-american-autonomic-society-aas-and-the-european-federation-of-autonomic-societies-efas-endorsed-by-the-european-academy-of-neurology-ean-and-the
#19
REVIEW
Alessandra Fanciulli, Jens Jordan, Italo Biaggioni, Giovanna Calandra-Buonaura, William P Cheshire, Pietro Cortelli, Sabine Eschlboeck, Guido Grassi, Max J Hilz, Horacio Kaufmann, Heinz Lahrmann, Giuseppe Mancia, Gert Mayer, Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Satish R Raj, David Robertson, Isabel Rocha, Walter Struhal, Roland Thijs, Konstantinos P Tsioufis, J Gert van Dijk, Gregor K Wenning
PURPOSE: Patients suffering from cardiovascular autonomic failure often develop neurogenic supine hypertension (nSH), i.e., high blood pressure (BP) in the supine position, which falls in the upright position owing to impaired autonomic regulation. A committee was formed to reach consensus among experts on the definition and diagnosis of nSH in the context of cardiovascular autonomic failure. METHODS: As a first and preparatory step, a systematic search of PubMed-indexed literature on nSH up to January 2017 was performed...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765395/progressive-neurological-decline-with-deep-bilateral-imaging-changes-a-protean-presentation-of-dural-arteriovenous-fistulae
#20
Rene A Colorado, Marcelo Matiello, Hyun-Sik Yang, James D Rabinov, Aman Patel, Joshua A Hirsch, Ram Chavali, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) within the deep cerebral vasculature are diagnostically challenging because of their variable clinical presentation and typical bilateral neuroimaging findings mimicking inflammatory, infectious, and metabolic processes. Increasingly, reports have emerged highlighting the diagnostic and treatment challenges of these lesions and their associated high morbidity and rapid clinical deterioration when untreated. We describe here a case series of 4 patients with deep cerebral DAVF who presented with impaired arousal or memory and behavioral changes...
April 2018: Interventional Neurology
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