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Lynch syndrome, hereditary cancer, mutation, mismatch repair gene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886675/pathogenic-germline-mcm9-variants-are-rare-in-australian-lynch-like-syndrome-patients
#1
Qing Liu, Luke B Hesson, Andrea C Nunez, Deborah Packham, Nicholas J Hawkins, Robyn L Ward, Mathew A Sloane
Lynch syndrome is a hereditary cancer syndrome caused by the autosomal dominant inheritance of loss-of-function mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Approximately one quarter of clinically suspected cases have no identifiable germline mutation in any MMR gene, a condition known as Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). MCM9 was recently identified as the DNA helicase in the mammalian MMR complex and loss of helicase activity results in microsatellite instability. We hypothesized that pathogenic variants in MCM9 may account for LLS...
November 2016: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785421/lynch-syndrome-and-exposure-to-aristolochic-acid-in-upper-tract-urothelial-carcinoma-its-clinical-impact
#2
REVIEW
Pierre Colin, Thomas Seisen, Romain Mathieu, Sharohkh F Shariat, Morgan Rouprêt
The purpose of the current review was to describe the clinical risk for Lynch syndrome (LS) after exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) in cases of upper urinary-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). A systematic review of the scientific literature was performed using the Medline database (National Library of Medicine, PubMed) using the following keywords: epidemiology, risk factor, AA, Balkan nephropathy (BNe), LS, hereditary cancer, hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), mismatch repair genes, urothelial carcinomas, upper urinary tract, renal pelvis, ureter, Amsterdam criteria, genetic counselling, mismatch repair genes, genetic instability, microsatellite, and Bethesda guidelines...
October 2016: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642480/-lynch-syndrome-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Laila Bouguenouch, Imane Samri, Khadija Belhassan, Hanane Sayel, Meriame Abbassi, Sanae Bennis, Dafr Allah Benajah, Adil Ibrahimi, Afaf Amarti, Karim Ouldim
Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancers. It increases cancer susceptibility, the risk of colorectal cancer in first-degree, endometrial cancer in women, and to a lesser extent, other cancers (ovarian, small bowel, stomach, urinary tract and hepatobiliary). Thus, the cumulative risk of developing colorectal cancer or endometrial cancer at the age of 80 years rises to 20 and 40% respectively. These cancers are characterized by a positive family history, their occurrence at an early age, and by the development of metachronous cancers in the same individual...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27602174/two-novel-sequence-variants-in-msh2-gene-in-a-patient-who-underwent-cancer-genetic-counseling-for-a-very-early-onset-epithelial-ovarian-cancer
#4
Matilde Pensabene, Caterina Condello, Chiara Carlomagno, Sabino De Placido, Raffaella Liccardo, Francesca Duraturo
BACKGROUND: Early-onset or hereditary ovarian cancer is mostly associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. Mismatch repair genes sequence alteration frequently cause colorectal cancer, and, in less extent, other tumors, such as ovarian cancer. Subjects with personal and/or family history suggestive for hereditary cancer should be addressed to cancer genetic counseling, aimed to the identification, definition and management of hereditary cancer syndrome, by a multidisciplinary approach. CASE PRESENTATION: A woman with a very early onset epithelial ovarian cancer underwent to cancer genetic counseling and genetic testing...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27601186/mismatch-repair-gene-mutation-spectrum-in-the-swedish-lynch-syndrome-population
#5
Kristina Lagerstedt-Robinson, Anna Rohlin, Christos Aravidis, Beatrice Melin, Margareta Nordling, Marie Stenmark-Askmalm, Annika Lindblom, Mef Nilbert
Lynch syndrome caused by constitutional mismatch‑repair defects is one of the most common hereditary cancer syndromes with a high risk for colorectal, endometrial, ovarian and urothelial cancer. Lynch syndrome is caused by mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes i.e., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. After 20 years of genetic counseling and genetic testing for Lynch syndrome, we have compiled the mutation spectrum in Sweden with the aim to provide a population-based perspective on the contribution from the different MMR genes, the various types of mutations and the influence from founder mutations...
September 1, 2016: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496117/genetic-familial-high-risk-assessment-colorectal-version-1-2016-nccn-clinical-practice-guidelines-in-oncology
#6
Dawn Provenzale, Samir Gupta, Dennis J Ahnen, Travis Bray, Jamie A Cannon, Gregory Cooper, Donald S David, Dayna S Early, Deborah Erwin, James M Ford, Francis M Giardiello, William Grady, Amy L Halverson, Stanley R Hamilton, Heather Hampel, Mohammad K Ismail, Jason B Klapman, David W Larson, Audrey J Lazenby, Patrick M Lynch, Robert J Mayer, Reid M Ness, Scott E Regenbogen, Niloy Jewel Samadder, Moshe Shike, Gideon Steinbach, David Weinberg, Mary Dwyer, Susan Darlow
This is a focused update highlighting the most current NCCN Guidelines for diagnosis and management of Lynch syndrome. Lynch syndrome is the most common cause of hereditary colorectal cancer, usually resulting from a germline mutation in 1 of 4 DNA mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, or PMS2), or deletions in the EPCAM promoter. Patients with Lynch syndrome are at an increased lifetime risk, compared with the general population, for colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and other cancers, including of the stomach and ovary...
August 2016: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468915/first-description-of-mutational-analysis-of-mlh1-msh2-and-msh6-in-algerian-families-with-suspected-lynch-syndrome
#7
H Ziada-Bouchaar, K Sifi, T Filali, T Hammada, D Satta, N Abadi
Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the early onset of colorectal cancer (CRC) linked to germline defects in Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes. We present here, the first molecular study of the correlation between CRC and mutations occurring in these genes performed in twenty-one unrelated Algerian families. The presence of germline mutations in MMR genes, MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was tested by sequencing all exons plus adjacent intronic sequences and Multiplex ligand-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for testing large genomic rearrangements...
July 28, 2016: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459116/hmsh2-and-hmsh6-gene-expression-profiles-in-colorectal-adenocarcinoma-in-patients-up-to-50-years-of-age
#8
Demétrius Germini, Flávia Gehrke, Daniel Lira, Beatriz Alves, Lígia Azzalis, Matheus Perez, Fernando Fonseca, Jaques Waisberg
Lynch syndrome, previously called hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), is a major mortality threat. It is an autosomal dominant disease which is caused by a germline mutation in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR), especially in patients aged up to 50 years. Such mutation more frequently occurs in the hMSH2 gene (38-40%) and less frequently in the hMSH6 gene (14-16%). These mutations, when associated with the patient's lifestyle, may reveal a considerable variability in the disease manifestations, such as the degrees of penetrance and clinical aggressiveness...
July 23, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413415/a-novel-deleterious-c-2656g-t-msh2-germline-mutation-in-a-pakistani-family-with-a-phenotypic-overlap-of-hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-and-lynch-syndrome
#9
Muhammad U Rashid, Humaira Naeemi, Noor Muhammad, Asif Loya, Muhammed A Yusuf, Jan Lubiński, Anna Jakubowska, Ute Hamann
BACKGROUND: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome (LS) account for a significant proportion of inherited gynecologic malignancies, mainly caused by pathogenic germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes or in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, such as MLH1 and MSH2. Women harboring deleterious mutations in these genes have increased life-time risks of developing a number of malignancies including ovarian cancer. Since there is a phenotypic overlap of HBOC and LS, timely identification of individuals at-risk of a particular syndrome is crucial in order to optimize cancer risk management...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27296402/-lynch-syndrome-%C3%A2-the-pathologist-s-diagnosis
#10
M Dušek, L Hadravský, K Černá, J Stehlík, M Švajdler, B Kokošková, M Dubová, M Michal, O Daum
Lynch syndrome (formerly known as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) is the most com-mon hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome. The syndrome is caused by a germline mutation of one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes responsible for DNA replication error repair. Impaired function of the proteins encoded by these genes leads to microsatellite instability (MSI), which is associated with increased incidence of neoplasms: mainly colorectal cancer. According to recent estimates, up to 5% of all colorectal cancers are associated with Lynch syndrome...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295708/-founder-mutation-in-lynch-syndrome
#11
Andrea R Cajal, Tamara A Piñero, Alicia Verzura, Juan Pablo Santino, Angela R Solano, Pablo G Kalfayan, Alejandra Ferro, Carlos Vaccaro
Lynch syndrome is the most frequent syndrome in hereditary colorectal cancer, a family-specific deleterious mutations in genes encoding DNA reparation proteins: MLH1 (mutL homolog 1), MSH2, MSH6 (mutS homolog 2 y 6, respectively), PMS2 (PMS1 homolog 2, mismatch repair system component) y MUTYH (mutY DNA glycosylase). The c.2252_2253delAA, p.Lys751Serfs*3 mutation in MLH1 gene segregates with a haplotype reported in the northern region of Italy and whose origin was attributed to a founder effect. This mutation co-segregates with typical characteristics of Lynch syndrome, including early age at onset and multiple primary tumors in the same individual, a high frequency of pancreatic cancer, high microsatellite instability and lack of PMS2 expression...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27249773/how-far-do-we-go-with-genetic-evaluation-gene-panel-and-tumor-testing
#12
Filipa Lynce, Claudine Isaacs
The traditional model by which an individual was identified as harboring a hereditary susceptibility to cancer was to test for a mutation in a single gene or a finite number of genes associated with a particular syndrome (e.g., BRCA1 and BRCA2 for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer or mismatch repair genes for Lynch syndrome). The decision regarding which gene or genes to test for was based on a review of the patient's personal medical history and their family history. With advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technology, offering simultaneous testing for multiple genes associated with a hereditary susceptibility to cancer is now possible...
2016: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27144940/familial-adrenocortical-carcinoma-in-association-with-lynch-syndrome
#13
Benjamin G Challis, Narayanan Kandasamy, Andrew S Powlson, Olympia Koulouri, Anand Kumar Annamalai, Lisa Happerfield, Alison J Marker, Mark J Arends, Serena Nik-Zainal, Mark Gurnell
CONTEXT: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with a poor prognosis. Although the majority of childhood ACC arises in the context of inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes, it remains less clear whether a hereditary tumor predisposition exists for the development of ACC in adults. Here, we report the first occurrence of familial ACC in a kindred with Lynch syndrome resulting from a pathogenic germline MSH2 mutation. CASE: A 54-year-old female with a history of ovarian and colorectal malignancy was found to have an ACC...
June 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27064304/lynch-syndrome-mutation-spectrum-in-new-south-wales-australia-including-55-novel-mutations
#14
Wenche Sjursen, Mary McPhillips, Rodney J Scott, Bente A Talseth-Palmer
BACKGROUND: Lynch syndrome, the most frequent hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, is caused by defects in mismatch repair genes. Genetic testing is important in order to identify mutation carriers who can benefit from intensive surveillance programs. One of the challenges with genetic testing is the interpretation of pathogenicity of detected DNA variants. The aim of this study was to investigate all putative pathogenic variants tested for at the Division of Molecular Medicine, Pathology North, in Newcastle, Australia, to establish whether previous variant classification is in accordance with that recently performed in the InSiGHT collaboration...
March 2016: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27060000/opportunities-for-immunotherapy-in-microsatellite-instable-colorectal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Harm Westdorp, Felix L Fennemann, Robbert D A Weren, Tanya M Bisseling, Marjolijn J L Ligtenberg, Carl G Figdor, Gerty Schreibelt, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Florian Wimmers, I Jolanda M de Vries
Microsatellite instability (MSI), the somatic accumulation of length variations in repetitive DNA sequences called microsatellites, is frequently observed in both hereditary and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). It has been established that defects in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway underlie the development of MSI in CRC. After the inactivation of the DNA MMR pathway, misincorporations, insertions and deletions introduced by DNA polymerase slippage are not properly recognized and corrected. Specific genomic regions, including microsatellites, are more prone for DNA polymerase slippage and, therefore, more susceptible for the introduction of these mutations if the DNA MMR capacity is lost...
October 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016223/the-genetic-prediction-of-risk-for-gynecologic-cancers
#16
REVIEW
Leslie M Randall, Bhavana Pothuri
Salient to the intent of personalized medicine, hereditary cancer syndromes present significant opportunities in the treatment and prevention of some gynecologic cancers. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and DNA mismatch repair genes: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 are important causal agents in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and Lynch syndromes. Though they only account for an estimated 10-18% of ovarian, tubal, peritoneal, and endometrial cancer cases, inherited cancers are imminently preventable if mutation carriers are identified in a timely manner...
April 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962170/oncologists-selection-of-genetic-and-molecular-testing-in-the-evolving-landscape-of-stage-ii-colorectal-cancer
#17
Aparna R Parikh, Nancy L Keating, Pang-Hsiang Liu, Stacy W Gray, Carrie N Klabunde, Katherine L Kahn, David A Haggstrom, Sapna Syngal, Benjamin Kim
PURPOSE: Little is known about the roles of genetic and molecular testing and Lynch syndrome screening in the formulation of predictive and prognostic assessments for patients with stage II colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: From 2012 to 2013, we surveyed medical oncologists in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium and evaluated oncologists' selection of microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins, germline testing for MMR genes, BRAF and KRAS mutation analysis, and Oncotype DX in stage II CRC...
March 2016: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26873718/update-on-lynch-syndrome-genomics
#18
Päivi Peltomäki
Four main DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes have been identified, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, which when mutated cause susceptibility to Lynch syndrome (LS). LS is one of the most prevalent hereditary cancer syndromes in man and accounts for 1-3 % of unselected colorectal carcinomas and some 15 % of those with microsatellite instability and/or absent MMR protein. The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) maintains a database for LS-associated mutations since 1996. The database was recently reorganized to efficiently gather published and unpublished data and to classify the variants according to a five-tiered scheme linked to clinical recommendations...
July 2016: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811195/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-22-mismatch-repair-genes-identifies-lynch-syndrome-families
#19
Bente A Talseth-Palmer, Denis C Bauer, Wenche Sjursen, Tiffany J Evans, Mary McPhillips, Anthony Proietto, Geoffrey Otton, Allan D Spigelman, Rodney J Scott
Causative germline mutations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes can only be identified in ~50% of families with a clinical diagnosis of the inherited colorectal cancer (CRC) syndrome hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)/Lynch syndrome (LS). Identification of these patients are critical as they are at substantially increased risk of developing multiple primary tumors, mainly colorectal and endometrial cancer (EC), occurring at a young age. This demonstrates the need to develop new and/or more thorough mutation detection approaches...
May 2016: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26807560/loss-of-mismatch-repair-protein-expression-in-unselected-endometrial-adenocarcinoma-precursor-lesions
#20
Koah Robin Vierkoetter, Laura A T Kagami, Hyeong Jun Ahn, David M Shimizu, Keith Y Terada
OBJECTIVE: The benefit of evaluating the precursor of endometrial carcinoma, endometrial hyperplasia (intraepithelial neoplasia [EIN]), for loss of mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression and Lynch syndrome has yet to be determined. The present study aims to establish the incidence and type of loss of MMR protein expression in unselected premalignant lesions of endometrial adenocarcinoma, as well as the agreement of immunohistochemical staining in pretreatment endometrial biopsy (EMB) specimens with subsequent uterine resections...
February 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Cancer
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