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RA mimics

Graham E Jackson, Fatin M Elmagbari, Ahmed N Hammouda, Raffaele P Bonomo
Copper complexes have anti-inflammatory activity in the treatment of inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The preferred route of administration is through the skin, so the rate of dermal absorption and bioavailability of copper is important. Based on previous studies, 3-amino-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-propanamide, [H(56)NH2], was designed as a potential chelator of copper. The stability constant measurements revealed that MLH-1 is the most stable species at the physiological pH of 7.4. The X-ray crystal structure of this species was solved and copper was found in a rectangular pyramidal geometry...
October 4, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Xiu Wang, Chunlei Yang, Shaojun Zhu, Mei Yan, Shenguang Ge, Jinghua Yu
A highly sensitive electrochemical (EC) biosensor combined with a 3D origami device for detection of Pb(2+)was developed based on novel Au nanoparticles modified paper working electrode (Au-PWE) as sensor platform and DNA functionalized iron-porphyrinic metal-organic framework ((Fe-P)n-MOF-Au-GR) hybrids as signal probes. In the presence of Pb(2+), GR could be specifically cleaved at the ribonucleotide (rA) site, which produced the short (Fe-P)n-MOF-linked oligonucleotide fragment to hybridize with hairpin DNA immobilized on the surface of Au-PWE...
August 5, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Sukesh Edavalath, Abhra C Chowdhury, Sanat Phatak, Durga P Misra, Ritu Verma, Able Lawrence
Multiple myeloma can rarely mimic seronegative rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We report a 55-year-old woman who presented with longstanding deforming polyarthritis with extensive subcutaneous nodules, tenosynovitis, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity and mononeuritis multiplex. Even though the clinical picture was consistent with seropositive RA, the absence of bone erosion or joint space narrowing on hand and knee radiographs led us to question the diagnosis of RA. Further investigation revealed a diagnosis of multiple myeloma with cutaneous amyloid deposits, based on serum immunofixation, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy of a subcutaneous nodule...
August 12, 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
U Snekhalatha, V Muthubhairavi, M Anburajan, Neelkanth Gupta
The present study focuses on automatically to segment the blood flow pattern of color Doppler ultrasound in hand region of rheumatoid arthritis patients and to correlate the extracted the statistical features and color Doppler parameters with standard parameters. Thirty patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their total of 300 joints of both the hands, i.e., 240 MCP and 60 wrists were examined in this study. Ultrasound color Doppler of both the hands of all the patients was obtained. Automated segmentation of color Doppler image was performed using color enhancement scaling based segmentation algorithm...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
Aziza Elmesmari, Alasdair R Fraser, Claire Wood, Derek Gilchrist, Diane Vaughan, Lynn Stewart, Charles McSharry, Iain B McInnes, Mariola Kurowska-Stolarska
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that miR-155 regulates monocyte migratory potential via modulation of chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in RA, and thereby is associated with disease activity. METHODS: The miR-155 copy-numbers in monocytes from peripheral blood (PB) of healthy (n = 22), RA (n = 24) and RA SF (n = 11) were assessed by real time-PCR using synthetic miR-155 as a quantitative standard. To evaluate the functional impact of miR-155, human monocytes were transfected with control or miR-155 mimic, and the effect on transcript levels, and production of chemokines was evaluated by Taqman low-density arrays and multiplex assays...
July 13, 2016: Rheumatology
Anne D Christensen, Claus Haase, Andrew D Cook, John A Hamilton
The K/BxN serum-transfer arthritis (STA) model is a murine model in which the immunological mechanisms occurring in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other arthritides can be studied. To induce K/BxN STA, serum from arthritic transgenic K/BxN mice is transferred to naive mice and manifestations of arthritis occur a few days later. The inflammatory response in the model is driven by autoantibodies against the ubiquitously expressed self-antigen, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (G6PI), leading to the formation of immune complexes that drive the activation of different innate immune cells such as neutrophils, macrophages, and possibly mast cells...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Ming-Wei Zhou, Ri-Hua Jiang, Ki-Duck Kim, Jin-Hyup Lee, Chang-Deok Kim, Wei-Tian Yin, Jeung-Hoon Lee
AIMS: Keratinocytes are the predominant cells in the epidermis, exerting their primary role of physical barrier through sophisticated differentiation process. In addition, keratinocytes contribute to the activation of innate immunity, providing the surveillant role against external pathogens. It has been known that chronic skin inflammatory disease such as psoriasis can be provoked by viral pathogens including double-stranded RNA. In this study, we demonstrated that rosmarinic acid (RA) has an inhibitory potential on inflammatory reaction induced by double-stranded RNA mimic poly(I:C) in epidermal keratinocytes...
June 15, 2016: Life Sciences
Andrés Corral-Lugo, Abdelali Daddaoua, Alvaro Ortega, Manuel Espinosa-Urgel, Tino Krell
Apart from inter-bacteria communication quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms also enable inter-domain interactions. To interfere with bacterial QS, plants were found to secrete compounds; most of which of unknown identity. We have identified the plant compound rosmarinic acid (RA) to modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa QS by binding to the RhlR QS regulator. RA was found to be a homoserine-lactone (HSL) mimic that caused agonistic effects on transcription, resulting ultimately in a stimulation of several RhlR controlled phenotypes like virulence factor synthesis or biofilm formation...
March 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Camilia R Martin, Pei-Ra Ling, George L Blackburn
Mothers' own milk is the best source of nutrition for nearly all infants. Beyond somatic growth, breast milk as a biologic fluid has a variety of other benefits, including modulation of postnatal intestinal function, immune ontogeny, and brain development. Although breastfeeding is highly recommended, breastfeeding may not always be possible, suitable or solely adequate. Infant formula is an industrially produced substitute for infant consumption. Infant formula attempts to mimic the nutritional composition of breast milk as closely as possible, and is based on cow's milk or soymilk...
2016: Nutrients
Taghreed Hirz, Charles Dumontet
Neutrophils are the most abundant (40% to 75%) type of white blood cells and among the first inflammatory cells to migrate towards the site of inflammation. They are key players in the innate immune system and play major roles in cancer biology. Neutrophils have been proposed as key mediators of malignant transformation, tumor progression, angiogenesis and in the modulation of the antitumor immunity; through their release of soluble factors or their interaction with tumor cells. To characterize the specific functions of neutrophils, a fast and reliable method is coveted for in vitro isolation of neutrophils from human blood...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rizwan Malik, Anne C Belliveau, Glen P Sharpe, Lesya M Shuba, Balwantray C Chauhan, Marcelo T Nicolela
PURPOSE: Ruling out glaucoma in myopic eyes often poses a diagnostic challenge because of atypical optic disc morphology and visual field defects that can mimic glaucoma. We determined whether neuroretinal rim assessment based on Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), rather than conventional optic disc margin (DM)-based assessment or retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, yielded higher diagnostic accuracy in myopic patients with glaucoma. DESIGN: Case-control, cross-sectional study...
June 2016: Ophthalmology
Chao Zhou, Hong-Mei Jia, Yue-Tao Liu, Meng Yu, Xing Chang, Yuan-Ming Ba, Zhong-Mei Zou
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a complex liver disease with an increasing prevalence in recent years and can develop into the severe or fulminant form if the patients are not diagnosed accurately or treated in time. However, AIH accurate diagnosis, especially at the early stage, is still difficult to perform due to the absence of specific diagnostic markers and the large heterogeneity of its clinical, laboratory and histological features. To evaluate the biochemical process of AIH at the early stage, we investigated serum metabolic alterations in mice with liver injury induced by concanavalin A (Con A), which closely mimics the immune and inflammatory response of AIH in humans...
April 26, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Amir I Elshafie, Mohammed Mullazehi, Johan Rönnelid
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease in tropical countries. Clinical and laboratory features may mimic autoimmune diseases and this can complicate the Leishmania diagnosis. Due to our previous investigation for false anti-CCP2 reactivity in Leishmania-infected subjects and our interest in immunity against the joint-specific collagen type II (CII) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) we investigated the same cohort for anti-CII antibodies. We found elevated anti-CII reactivity in Leishmania-infected patients as compared to controls...
April 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
Timo Gaber, Martin Hahne, Cindy Strehl, Paula Hoff, Yvonne Dörffel, Eugen Feist, Gerd-Rüdiger Burmester, Frank Buttgereit
The synovial tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represents a hypoxic environment with up-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular infiltrates including neutrophils. Although inhibition of the interleukin (IL)6 receptor pathway by tocilizumab is a potent treatment option for RA, it may also cause adverse effects such as an occasionally high-grade neutropenia. We analysed the impact of tocilizumab on survival, mediator secretion, oxidative burst, phagocytosis and energy availability of high-dose toll-like receptor (TLR)2/4-stimulated neutrophils (to mimic an arthritis flare) under normoxic versus hypoxic conditions...
June 2016: Immunologic Research
Deniz Kantar Gok, Nihal Ozturk, Hakan Er, Mutay Aslan, Necdet Demir, Narin Derin, Aysel Agar, Piraye Yargicoglu
INTRODUCTION: Animal models designed to mimic certain features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can help us to increase our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of disease. Previous studies have revealed that long-term D-galactose injection combined with ovariectomy results in pathophysiologic alterations associated with AD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rosmarinic acid (RA) administration on pathological changes associated with ovariectomy and D-galactose injection, which serve as a two-insult model for AD...
2015: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
Jin Hwa Jung, Andrew Aujin Kim, Da-Young Chang, Yoo Ra Park, Haeyoung Suh-Kim, Sung-Soo Kim
Stem cells carrying a suicide gene have emerged as therapeutic candidates for their cytotoxic bystander effects on neighboring cancers, while being non-toxic to other parts of the body. However, traditional cytotoxicity assays are unable to adequately assess the therapeutic effects of bystander cells. Here, we report a method to assess bystander effects of therapeutic stem cells against 3-dimensionally grown glioma cells in real time. U87 glioma cells were stably transduced to express a green fluorescence protein and co-cultivated with mesenchymal stem cells engineered to carry a bacterial cytosine deaminase gene (MSC/CD)...
2015: American Journal of Cancer Research
Felix T Kurz, Thomas Kampf, Lukas R Buschle, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Christian H Ziener
Since changes in lung microstructure are important indicators for (early stage) lung pathology, there is a need for quantifiable information of diagnostically challenging cases in a clinical setting, e.g. to evaluate early emphysematous changes in peripheral lung tissue. Considering alveoli as spherical air-spaces surrounded by a thin film of lung tissue allows deriving an expression for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill transverse relaxation rates R2 with a dependence on inter-echo time, local air-tissue volume fraction, diffusion coefficient and alveolar diameter, within a weak field approximation...
2015: PloS One
Patricia R Wardwell, Martin B Forstner, Rebecca A Bader
INTRODUCTION: The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is highly involved in regulation of a number of cellular processes, including production of inflammatory mediators. Thus, this transcription factor plays a role in pathology of many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease hallmarked by an imbalance of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Small nucleic acids with sequences that mimic the native binding site of NF-κB have been proposed as treatment options for RA; however due to low cellular penetration and a high degree of instability, clinical applications of these therapeutics have been limited...
2015: Arthritis Research & Therapy
S Lopa, M J C Leijs, M Moretti, E Lubberts, G J V M van Osch, Y M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens
OBJECTIVE: Synovitis with an increased presence of macrophages is observed in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given the important role of macrophages in arthritis, we investigated the influence of OA and RA synovial fluid (SF) on primary human monocytes (Mo), their lineage precursors. METHOD: Adherent monocytes without any stimulation (Mo(-)) or stimulated with IFN-γ and TNF-α (Mo(IFN-γ/TNF-α)) or IL-4 (Mo(IL-4)) were exposed to SF from 6 donors without any known joint disease (SF-Ctrl), 10 OA donors (SF-OA), and 10 RA donors (SF-RA)...
November 2015: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Martin Gasiorek, Hans-Jörg Schneider
Synthetic helicases can be designed on the basis of ligands that bind more strongly to single-stranded nucleic acids than to double-stranded nucleic acids. This can be achieved with ligands containing phenyl groups, which intercalate into single strands, but due to their small size not into double strands. Moreover, two phenyl rings are combined with a distance that allows bis-intercalation with only single strands and not double strands. In this respect, such ligands also mimic single-strand binding (SSB) proteins...
December 7, 2015: Chemistry: a European Journal
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