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speech signal processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220308/learning-midlevel-auditory-codes-from-natural-sound-statistics
#1
Wiktor Młynarski, Josh H McDermott
Interaction with the world requires an organism to transform sensory signals into representations in which behaviorally meaningful properties of the environment are made explicit. These representations are derived through cascades of neuronal processing stages in which neurons at each stage recode the output of preceding stages. Explanations of sensory coding may thus involve understanding how low-level patterns are combined into more complex structures. To gain insight into such midlevel representations for sound, we designed a hierarchical generative model of natural sounds that learns combinations of spectrotemporal features from natural stimulus statistics...
December 8, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217685/scale-free-amplitude-modulation-of-neuronal-oscillations-tracks-comprehension-of-accelerated-speech
#2
Ana Filipa Teixeira Borges, Anne-Lise Giraud, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Speech comprehension is preserved up to a three-fold acceleration but rapidly deteriorates at higher speeds. Current models posit that perceptual resilience to accelerated speech is limited by the brain's ability to parse speech into syllabic units using delta/theta oscillations. Here, we ask whether the involvement of neuronal oscillations in processing accelerated speech also relates to their scale-free amplitude modulation as indexed by the strength of long-range temporal correlations (LRTC). We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while 24 human subjects (12 females) listened to radio news uttered at different comprehensible rates, at a mostly unintelligible rate, and at this same speed interleaved with silence gaps...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205588/machine-learning-for-decoding-listeners-attention-from-eeg-evoked-by-continuous-speech
#3
Tobias de Taillez, Birger Kollmeier, Bernd T Meyer
Previous research has shown that it is possible to predict which speaker is attended in a multi-speaker scene by analyzing a listener's EEG activity. In this study, existing linear models that learn the mapping from neural activity to an attended speech envelope are replaced by a non-linear neural network. The proposed architecture takes into account the temporal context of the estimated envelope, and is evaluated using EEG data obtained from 20 normal-hearing listeners who focused on one speaker in a two-speaker setting...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195458/predicting-effects-of-hearing-instrument-signal-processing-on-consonant-perception
#4
Johannes Zaar, Nicola Schmitt, Ralph-Peter Derleth, Mishaela DiNino, Julie G Arenberg, Torsten Dau
This study investigated the influence of hearing-aid (HA) and cochlear-implant (CI) processing on consonant perception in normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Measured data were compared to predictions obtained with a speech perception model [Zaar and Dau (2017). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 141, 1051-1064] that combines an auditory processing front end with a correlation-based template-matching back end. In terms of HA processing, effects of strong nonlinear frequency compression and impulse-noise suppression were measured in 10 NH listeners using consonant-vowel stimuli...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165085/a-speech-recognition-based-solution-for-the-automatic-detection-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-from-spontaneous-speech
#5
Laszlo Toth, Ildiko Hoffmann, Gabor Gosztolya, Veronika Vincze, Greta Szatloczki, Zoltan Banreti, Magdolna Pakaski, Janos Kalman
BACKGROUND: Even today the reliable diagnosis of the prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a great challenge. Our research focuses on the earliest detectable indicators of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the presence of language impairment has been reported even in the mild stage of AD, the aim of this study is to develop a sensitive neuropsychological screening method which is based on the analysis of spontaneous speech production during performing a memory task...
November 20, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160743/left-inferior-frontal-gyrus-sensitivity-to-phonetic-competition-in-receptive-language-processing-a-comparison-of-clear-and-conversational-speech
#6
Xin Xie, Emily Myers
The speech signal is rife with variations in phonetic ambiguity. For instance, when talkers speak in a conversational register, they demonstrate less articulatory precision, leading to greater potential for confusability at the phonetic level compared with a clear speech register. Current psycholinguistic models assume that ambiguous speech sounds activate more than one phonological category and that competition at prelexical levels cascades to lexical levels of processing. Imaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is modulated by phonetic competition between simultaneously activated categories, with increases in activation for more ambiguous tokens...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131760/deep-learning-a-primer-for-radiologists
#7
Gabriel Chartrand, Phillip M Cheng, Eugene Vorontsov, Michal Drozdzal, Simon Turcotte, Christopher J Pal, Samuel Kadoury, An Tang
Deep learning is a class of machine learning methods that are gaining success and attracting interest in many domains, including computer vision, speech recognition, natural language processing, and playing games. Deep learning methods produce a mapping from raw inputs to desired outputs (eg, image classes). Unlike traditional machine learning methods, which require hand-engineered feature extraction from inputs, deep learning methods learn these features directly from data. With the advent of large datasets and increased computing power, these methods can produce models with exceptional performance...
November 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131743/integration-and-temporal-processing-of-asynchronous-audiovisual-speech
#8
David M Simon, Mark T Wallace
Multisensory integration of visual mouth movements with auditory speech is known to offer substantial perceptual benefits, particularly under challenging (i.e., noisy) acoustic conditions. Previous work characterizing this process has found that ERPs to auditory speech are of shorter latency and smaller magnitude in the presence of visual speech. We sought to determine the dependency of these effects on the temporal relationship between the auditory and visual speech streams using EEG. We found that reductions in ERP latency and suppression of ERP amplitude are maximal when the visual signal precedes the auditory signal by a small interval and that increasing amounts of asynchrony reduce these effects in a continuous manner...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106999/functional-connectivity-in-the-dorsal-stream-and-between-bilateral-auditory-related-cortical-areas-differentially-contribute-to-speech-decoding-depending-on-spectro-temporal-signal-integrity-and-performance
#9
Stefan Elmer, Jürg Kühnis, Piyush Rauch, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Lutz Jäncke
Speech processing relies on the interdependence between auditory perception, sensorimotor integration, and verbal memory functions. Functional and structural connectivity between bilateral auditory-related cortical areas (ARCAs) facilitates spectro-temporal analyses, whereas the dynamic interplay between ARCAs and Broca's area (i.e., dorsal pathway) contributes to verbal memory functions, articulation, and sound-to-motor mapping. However, it remains unclear whether these two neural circuits are preferentially driven by spectral or temporal acoustic information, and whether their recruitment is predictive of speech perception performance and learning...
October 30, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075747/verbal-working-memory-in-children-with-cochlear-implants
#10
Susan Nittrouer, Amanda Caldwell-Tarr, Keri E Low, Joanna H Lowenstein
Purpose: Verbal working memory in children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing was examined. Participants: Ninety-three fourth graders (47 with normal hearing, 46 with cochlear implants) participated, all of whom were in a longitudinal study and had working memory assessed 2 years earlier. Method: A dual-component model of working memory was adopted, and a serial recall task measured storage and processing. Potential predictor variables were phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, nonverbal IQ, and several treatment variables...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072542/a-critical-review-of-hearing-aid-single-microphone-noise-reduction-studies-in-adults-and-children
#11
Foong Yen Chong, Lorienne M Jenstad
PURPOSE: Single-microphone noise reduction (SMNR) is implemented in hearing aids to suppress background noise. The purpose of this article was to provide a critical review of peer-reviewed studies in adults and children with sensorineural hearing loss who were fitted with hearing aids incorporating SMNR. METHOD: Articles published between 2000 and 2016 were searched in PUBMED and EBSCO databases. RESULTS: Thirty-two articles were included in the final review...
October 26, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071340/combined-effects-of-noise-and-reverberation-on-sound-localization-for-listeners-with-normal-hearing-and-bilateral-cochlear-implants
#12
Yunfang Zheng, Janet Koehnke, Joan Besing
Purpose: This study examined the individual and combined effects of noise and reverberation on the ability of listeners with normal hearing (NH) and with bilateral cochlear implants (BCIs) to localize speech. Method: Six adults with BCIs and 10 with NH participated. All subjects completed a virtual localization test in quiet and at 0-, -4-, and -8-dB signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in simulated anechoic and reverberant (0.2-, 0.6-, and 0.9-s RT60) environments. BCI users were also tested at +8- and +4-dB SNR...
October 25, 2017: American Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061702/presynaptic-neuronal-nicotinic-receptors-differentially-shape-select-inputs-to-auditory-thalamus-and-are-negatively-impacted-by-aging
#13
Sarah Y Sottile, Troy A Hackett, Rui Cai, Lynne Ling, Daniel A Llano, Donald M Caspary
Acetylcholine is a potent neuromodulator capable of modifying patterns of acoustic information flow. In auditory cortex, cholinergic systems have been shown to increase salience/gain while suppressing extraneous information. However, the mechanism by which cholinergic circuits shape signal processing in the auditory thalamus (medial geniculate body, MGB) is poorly understood. The present study, in male Fischer Brown Norway rats, seeks to determine the location and function of presynaptic neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the major inputs to MGB and characterize how nAChRs change during aging...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060686/sparse-coding-of-ecog-signals-identifies-interpretable-components-for-speech-control-in-human-sensorimotor-cortex
#14
Kristofer E Bouchard, Alejandro F Bujan, Edward F Chang, Friedrich T Sommer
The concept of sparsity has proven useful to understanding elementary neural computations in sensory systems. However, the role of sparsity in motor regions is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the functional properties of sparse structure in neural activity collected with high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) from speech sensorimotor cortex (vSMC) in neurosurgical patients. Using independent components analysis (ICA), we found individual components corresponding to individual major oral articulators (i...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060359/feature-analysis-of-dysphonia-speech-for-monitoring-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Alice Rueda, Sridhar Krishnan
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that has no known cure and no known prevention. Early detection is crucial in order to slow down the progress. In the past 10 years, interest in PD analysis has visibly increased. Speech impairment affects the majority of people with Parkinson's (PWP). New features and machine learning algorithms were proposed to help diagnose PD and to measure a patient's progress. Using sustained vowel /a/ recordings, we identified a more prominent set of Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) and Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF), and other parameters that can best represent the characteristics of Parkinson's dysphonia to assist with the diagnosis process...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060199/neural-decoding-of-attentional-selection-in-multi-speaker-environments-without-access-to-separated-sources
#16
James O'Sullivan, Zhuo Chen, Sameer A Sheth, Guy McKhann, Ashesh D Mehta, Nima Mesgarani
People who suffer from hearing impairments can find it difficult to follow a conversation in a multi-speaker environment. Modern hearing aids can suppress background noise; however, there is little that can be done to help a user attend to a single conversation without knowing which speaker is being attended to. Cognitively controlled hearing aids that use auditory attention decoding (AAD) methods are the next step in offering help. A number of challenges exist, including the lack of access to the clean sound sources in the environment with which to compare with the neural signals...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055058/the-neural-oscillations-of-speech-processing-and-language-comprehension-state-of-the-art-and-emerging-mechanisms
#17
Lars Meyer
Neural oscillations subserve a broad range of functions in speech processing and language comprehension. On the one hand, speech contains-somewhat-repetitive trains of air pressure bursts that occur at three dominant amplitude modulation frequencies, physically marking the linguistically meaningful progressions of phonemes, syllables, and intonational phrase boundaries. To these acoustic events, neural oscillations of isomorphous operating frequencies are thought to synchronize, presumably resulting in an implicit temporal alignment of periods of neural excitability to linguistically meaningful spectral information on the three low-level linguistic description levels...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053773/less-is-more-neural-mechanisms-underlying-anomia-treatment-in-chronic-aphasic-patients
#18
Davide Nardo, Rachel Holland, Alexander P Leff, Cathy J Price, Jennifer T Crinion
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044763/theta-band-oscillations-reflect-more-than-entrainment-behavioral-and-neural-evidence-demonstrate-an-active-chunking-process
#19
Xiangbin Teng, Xing Tian, Keith Doelling, David Poeppel
Parsing continuous acoustic streams into perceptual units is fundamental to auditory perception. Previous studies have uncovered a cortical entrainment mechanism in the delta and theta bands (~1-8 Hz) that correlates with formation of perceptual units in speech, music, and other quasi-rhythmic stimuli. Whether cortical oscillations in the delta-theta bands are passively entrained by regular acoustic patterns or play an active role in parsing the acoustic stream is debated. Here we investigate cortical oscillations using novel stimuli with 1/f modulation spectra...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042580/distorting-temporal-fine-structure-by-phase-shifting-and-its-effects-on-speech-intelligibility-and-neural-phase-locking
#20
Yingyue Xu, Maxin Chen, Petrina LaFaire, Xiaodong Tan, Claus-Peter Richter
Envelope (E) and temporal fine structure (TFS) are important features of acoustic signals and their corresponding perceptual function has been investigated with various listening tasks. To further understand the underlying neural processing of TFS, experiments in humans and animals were conducted to demonstrate the effects of modifying the TFS in natural speech sentences on both speech recognition and neural coding. The TFS of natural speech sentences was modified by distorting the phase and maintaining the magnitude...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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