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speech signal processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642686/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-trns-shapes-the-processing-of-rapidly-changing-auditory-information
#1
Katharina S Rufener, Philipp Ruhnau, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640038/impact-of-noise-and-noise-reduction-on-processing-effort-a-pupillometry-study
#2
Dorothea Wendt, Renskje K Hietkamp, Thomas Lunner
OBJECTIVES: Speech perception in adverse listening situations can be exhausting. Hearing loss particularly affects processing demands, as it requires increased effort for successful speech perception in background noise. Signal processing in hearing aids and noise reduction (NR) schemes aim to counteract the effect of noise and reduce the effort required for speech recognition in adverse listening situations. The present study examined the benefit of NR schemes, applying a combination of a digital NR and directional microphones, for reducing the processing effort during speech recognition...
June 20, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634306/representations-of-time-varying-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#3
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Electrical stimulation of the auditory periphery organ by cochlear implant (CI) generates highly synchronized inputs to the auditory system. It has long been thought such inputs would lead to highly synchronized neural firing along the ascending auditory pathway. However, neurophysiological studies with hearing animals have shown that the central auditory system progressively converts temporal representations of time-varying sounds to firing rate-based representations. It is not clear whether this coding principle also applies to highly synchronized CI inputs...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622530/brain-network-dynamics-in-the-human-articulatory-loop
#4
Masaaki Nishida, Anna Korzeniewska, Nathan E Crone, Goichiro Toyoda, Yasuo Nakai, Noa Ofen, Erik C Brown, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: The articulatory loop is a fundamental component of language function, involved in the short-term buffer of auditory information followed by its vocal reproduction. We characterized the network dynamics of the human articulatory loop, using invasive recording and stimulation. METHODS: We measured high-gamma activity70-110 Hz recorded intracranially when patients with epilepsy either only listened to, or listened to and then reproduced two successive tones by humming...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620283/octopus-cells-in-the-posteroventral-cochlear-nucleus-provide-the-main-excitatory-input-to-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus
#5
Richard A Felix Ii, Boris Gourévitch, Marcelo Gómez-Álvarez, Sara C M Leijon, Enrique Saldaña, Anna K Magnusson
Auditory streaming enables perception and interpretation of complex acoustic environments that contain competing sound sources. At early stages of central processing, sounds are segregated into separate streams representing attributes that later merge into acoustic objects. Streaming of temporal cues is critical for perceiving vocal communication, such as human speech, but our understanding of circuits that underlie this process is lacking, particularly at subcortical levels. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent group of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian brainstem, has been implicated in processing temporal information needed for the segmentation of ongoing complex sounds into discrete events...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618817/an-algorithm-to-increase-intelligibility-for-hearing-impaired-listeners-in-the-presence-of-a-competing-talker
#6
Eric W Healy, Masood Delfarah, Jordan L Vasko, Brittney L Carter, DeLiang Wang
Individuals with hearing impairment have particular difficulty perceptually segregating concurrent voices and understanding a talker in the presence of a competing voice. In contrast, individuals with normal hearing perform this task quite well. This listening situation represents a very different problem for both the human and machine listener, when compared to perceiving speech in other types of background noise. A machine learning algorithm is introduced here to address this listening situation. A deep neural network was trained to estimate the ideal ratio mask for a male target talker in the presence of a female competing talker...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602128/effect-of-energy-equalization-on-the-intelligibility-of-speech-in-fluctuating-background-interference-for-listeners-with-hearing-impairment
#7
Laura A D'Aquila, Joseph G Desloge, Charlotte M Reed, Louis D Braida
The masking release (MR; i.e., better speech recognition in fluctuating compared with continuous noise backgrounds) that is evident for listeners with normal hearing (NH) is generally reduced or absent for listeners with sensorineural hearing impairment (HI). In this study, a real-time signal-processing technique was developed to improve MR in listeners with HI and offer insight into the mechanisms influencing the size of MR. This technique compares short-term and long-term estimates of energy, increases the level of short-term segments whose energy is below the average energy, and normalizes the overall energy of the processed signal to be equivalent to that of the original long-term estimate...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601530/spectro-temporal-cues-enhance-modulation-sensitivity-in-cochlear-implant-users
#8
Yi Zheng, Monty Escabí, Ruth Y Litovsky
Although speech understanding is highly variable amongst cochlear implants (CIs) subjects, the remarkably high speech recognition performance of many CI users is unexpected and not well understood. Numerous factors, including neural health and degradation of the spectral information in the speech signal of CIs, likely contribute to speech understanding. We studied the ability to use spectro-temporal modulations, which may be critical for speech understanding and discrimination, and hypothesize that CI users adopt a different perceptual strategy than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, whereby they rely more heavily on joint spectro-temporal cues to enhance detection of auditory cues...
May 26, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588524/perceptual-plasticity-for-auditory-object-recognition
#9
Shannon L M Heald, Stephen C Van Hedger, Howard C Nusbaum
In our auditory environment, we rarely experience the exact acoustic waveform twice. This is especially true for communicative signals that have meaning for listeners. In speech and music, the acoustic signal changes as a function of the talker (or instrument), speaking (or playing) rate, and room acoustics, to name a few factors. Yet, despite this acoustic variability, we are able to recognize a sentence or melody as the same across various kinds of acoustic inputs and determine meaning based on listening goals, expectations, context, and experience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582895/implementation-of-integrated-circuit-and-design-of-sar-adc-for-fully-implantable-hearing-aids
#10
Jong Hoon Kim, Jyung Hyun Lee, Jin-Ho Cho
BACKGOUND: The hearing impaired population has been increasing; many people suffer from hearing problems. To deal with this difficulty, various types of hearing aids are being rapidly developed. In particular, fully implantable hearing aids are being actively studied to improve the performance of existing hearing aids and to reduce the stigma of hearing loss patients. It has to be of small size and low-power consumption for easy implantation and long-term use. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to implement a small size and low-power consumption successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) for fully implantable hearing aids...
May 19, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578876/noise-and-pitch-interact-during-the-cortical-segregation-of-concurrent-speech
#11
Gavin M Bidelman, Anusha Yellamsetty
Behavioral studies reveal listeners exploit intrinsic differences in voice fundamental frequency (F0) to segregate concurrent speech sounds-the so-called "F0-benefit." More favorable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the environment, an extrinsic acoustic factor, similarly benefits the parsing of simultaneous speech. Here, we examined the neurobiological substrates of these two cues in the perceptual segregation of concurrent speech mixtures. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while listeners performed a speeded double-vowel identification task...
May 25, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578222/using-prosody-to-infer-discourse-prominence-in-cochlear-implant-users-and-normal-hearing-listeners
#12
Yi Ting Huang, Rochelle S Newman, Allison Catalano, Matthew J Goupell
Cochlear implants (CIs) provide speech perception to adults with severe-to-profound hearing loss, but the acoustic signal remains severely degraded. Limited access to pitch cues is thought to decrease sensitivity to prosody in CI users, but co-occurring changes in intensity and duration may provide redundant cues. The current study investigates how listeners use these cues to infer discourse prominence. CI users and normal-hearing (NH) listeners were presented with sentences varying in prosody (accented vs...
June 1, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571652/functional-neuroanatomy-of-speech-signal-decoding-in-primary-progressive-aphasias
#13
Chris J D Hardy, Jennifer L Agustus, Charles R Marshall, Camilla N Clark, Lucy L Russell, Emilie V Brotherhood, Rebecca L Bond, Cassidy M Fiford, Sasha Ondobaka, David L Thomas, Sebastian J Crutch, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jason D Warren
The pathophysiology of primary progressive aphasias remains poorly understood. Here, we addressed this issue using activation fMRI in a cohort of 27 patients with primary progressive aphasia (nonfluent, semantic, and logopenic variants) versus 15 healthy controls. Participants listened passively to sequences of spoken syllables in which we manipulated 3-key auditory speech signal characteristics: temporal regularity, phonemic spectral structure, and pitch sequence entropy. Relative to healthy controls, nonfluent variant patients showed reduced activation of medial Heschl's gyrus in response to any auditory stimulation and reduced activation of anterior cingulate to temporal irregularity...
May 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562426/age-related-differences-in-the-processing-of-temporal-envelope-and-spectral-cues-in-a-speech-segment
#14
Matthew J Goupell, Casey R Gaskins, Maureen J Shader, Erin P Walter, Samira Anderson, Sandra Gordon-Salant
OBJECTIVES: As people age, they experience reduced temporal processing abilities. This results in poorer ability to understand speech, particularly for degraded input signals. Cochlear implants (CIs) convey speech information via the temporal envelopes of a spectrally degraded input signal. Because there is an increasing number of older CI users, there is a need to understand how temporal processing changes with age. Therefore, the goal of this study was to quantify age-related reduction in temporal processing abilities when attempting to discriminate words based on temporal envelope information from spectrally degraded signals...
May 26, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559320/visual-cortex-entrains-to-sign-language
#15
Geoffrey Brookshire, Jenny Lu, Howard C Nusbaum, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Daniel Casasanto
Despite immense variability across languages, people can learn to understand any human language, spoken or signed. What neural mechanisms allow people to comprehend language across sensory modalities? When people listen to speech, electrophysiological oscillations in auditory cortex entrain to slow ([Formula: see text]8 Hz) fluctuations in the acoustic envelope. Entrainment to the speech envelope may reflect mechanisms specialized for auditory perception. Alternatively, flexible entrainment may be a general-purpose cortical mechanism that optimizes sensitivity to rhythmic information regardless of modality...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549538/processing-of-word-stress-related-acoustic-information-a-multi-feature-mmn-study
#16
Ferenc Honbolygó, Orsolya Kolozsvári, Valéria Csépe
In the present study, we investigated the processing of word stress related acoustic features in a word context. In a passive oddball multi-feature MMN experiment, we presented a disyllabic pseudo-word with two acoustically similar syllables as standard stimulus, and five contrasting deviants that differed from the standard in that they were either stressed on the first syllable or contained a vowel change. Stress was realized by an increase of f0, intensity, vowel duration or consonant duration. The vowel change was used to investigate if phonemic and prosodic changes elicit different MMN components...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544871/signs-of-social-class-the-experience-of-economic-inequality-in-everyday-life
#17
Michael W Kraus, Jun Won Park, Jacinth J X Tan
By some accounts, global economic inequality is at its highest point on record. The pernicious effects of this broad societal trend are striking: Rising inequality is linked to poorer health and well-being across countries, continents, and cultures. The economic and psychological forces that perpetuate inequality continue to be studied, and in this theoretical review, we examine the role of daily experiences of economic inequality-the communication of social class signals between interaction partners-in this process...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534732/evaluation-of-adaptive-noise-management-technologies-for-school-age-children-with-hearing-loss
#18
Jace Wolfe, Mila Duke, Erin Schafer, Christine Jones, Lori Rakita
BACKGROUND: Children with hearing loss experience significant difficulty understanding speech in noisy and reverberant situations. Adaptive noise management technologies, such as fully adaptive directional microphones and digital noise reduction, have the potential to improve communication in noise for children with hearing aids. However, there are no published studies evaluating the potential benefits children receive from the use of adaptive noise management technologies in simulated real-world environments as well as in daily situations...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525641/erp-correlates-of-motivating-voices-quality-of-motivation-and-time-course-matters
#19
Konstantina Zougkou, Netta Weinstein, Silke Paulmann
Here, we conducted the first study to explore how motivations expressed through speech are processed in real-time. Participants listened to sentences spoken in two types of well-studied motivational tones (autonomy-supportive and controlling), or a neutral tone of voice. To examine this, listeners were presented with sentences that either signaled motivations through prosody (tone of voice) and words simultaneously (e.g., "You absolutely have to do it my way" spoken in a controlling tone of voice), or lacked motivationally biasing words (e...
May 19, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510618/auditory-processing-of-older-adults-with-probable-mild-cognitive-impairment
#20
Jerri D Edwards, Jennifer J Lister, Maya N Elias, Amber M Tetlow, Angela L Sardina, Nasreen A Sadeq, Amanda D Brandino, Aryn L Harrison Bush
Purpose: Studies suggest that deficits in auditory processing predict cognitive decline and dementia, but those studies included limited measures of auditory processing. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults with and without probable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) across two domains of auditory processing (auditory performance in competing acoustic signals and temporal aspects of audition). Method: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (Nasreddine et al...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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