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speech signal processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681475/a-visual-cortical-network-for-deriving-phonological-information-from-intelligible-lip-movements
#1
Anne Hauswald, Chrysa Lithari, Olivier Collignon, Elisa Leonardelli, Nathan Weisz
Successful lip-reading requires a mapping from visual to phonological information [1]. Recently, visual and motor cortices have been implicated in tracking lip movements (e.g., [2]). It remains unclear, however, whether visuo-phonological mapping occurs already at the level of the visual cortex-that is, whether this structure tracks the acoustic signal in a functionally relevant manner. To elucidate this, we investigated how the cortex tracks (i.e., entrains to) absent acoustic speech signals carried by silent lip movements...
April 13, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666568/biologically-inspired-spike-based-automatic-speech-recognition-of-isolated-digits-over-a-reproducing-kernel-hilbert-space
#2
Kan Li, José C Príncipe
This paper presents a novel real-time dynamic framework for quantifying time-series structure in spoken words using spikes. Audio signals are converted into multi-channel spike trains using a biologically-inspired leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) spike generator. These spike trains are mapped into a function space of infinite dimension, i.e., a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS) using point-process kernels, where a state-space model learns the dynamics of the multidimensional spike input using gradient descent learning...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664721/effect-of-adaptive-compression-and-fast-acting-wdrc-strategies-on-sentence-recognition-in-noise-in-mandarin-speaking-pediatric-hearing-aid-users
#3
Haihong Liu, Yuanhu Liu, Ying Li, Xin Jin, Jing Li, Yi Zhou, Wentong Ge, Xin Ni
BACKGROUND: Wide dynamic range compression (WDRC) has been widely used in hearing aid technology. However, several reports indicate that WDRC may improve audibility at the expense of speech intelligibility. As such, a modified amplification compression scheme, named adaptive compression, was developed. However, the effect of compression strategies on speech perception in pediatric hearing aid users has not been clearly reported. PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of adaptive compression and fast-acting WDRC processing strategies on sentence recognition in noise with Mandarin, pediatric hearing aid users...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658795/an-update-and-systematic-review-on-drug-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-refractory-chronic-cough
#4
Nicole M Ryan, Anne E Vertigan, Surinder S Birring
Chronic Cough (CC) is common and often associated with significant comorbidity and decreased quality of life. In up to 50% of cases, the cough is refractory despite extensive investigation and treatment trials. It is likely that the key abnormality in refractory CC is dysfunctional, hypersensitive sensory nerves, similar to conditions such as laryngeal hypersensitivity and neuropathic pain. Areas covered: The aim of this systematic review is to assess drug therapies for refractory CC. The authors review the current management of CC and provide discussion of the similarities between neuropathic pain and refractory CC...
April 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656636/brainstem-correlates-of-comodulation-masking-release-for-speech-in-normal-hearing-adults
#5
Soheila Rostami, Abdollah Moossavi, Mohsen Ahadi, Shohreh Jalaei
Background and Objectives: Weak signals embedded in fluctuating masker can be perceived more efficiently than similar signals embedded in unmodulated masker. This release from masking is known as comodulation masking release (CMR). In this paper, we investigate, neural correlates of CMR in the human auditory brainstem. Subjects and Methods: A total of 26 normal hearing subjects aged 18-30 years participated in this study. First, the impact of CMR was quantified by a behavioral experiment...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Audiology & Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652892/the-effects-of-electrical-field-spatial-spread-and-some-cognitive-factors-on-speech-in-noise-performance-of-individual-cochlear-implant-users-a-computer-model-study
#6
Tim Jürgens, Volker Hohmann, Andreas Büchner, Waldo Nogueira
The relation of the individual speech-in-noise performance differences in cochlear implant (CI) users to underlying physiological factors is currently poorly understood. This study approached this research question by a step-wise individualization of a computer model of speech intelligibility mimicking the details of CI signal processing and some details of the physiology present in CI users. Two factors, the electrical field spatial spread and internal noise (as a coarse model of the individual cognitive performance) were incorporated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650304/the-design-and-validation-of-a-hybrid-digital-signal-processing-plug-in-for-traditional-cochlear-implant-speech-processors
#7
Fatemeh Hajiaghababa, Hamid R Marateb, Saeed Kermani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implants (CIs) are electronic devices restoring partial hearing to deaf individuals with profound hearing loss. In this paper, a new plug-in for traditional IIR filter-banks (FBs) is presented for cochlear implants based on wavelet neural networks (WNNs). Having provided such a plug-in for commercially available CIs, it is possible not only to use available hardware in the market but also to optimize their performance compared with the-state-of-the-art...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621194/vibration-and-noise-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-vocal-tract-differences-between-whole-body-and-open-air-devices
#8
Jiří Přibil, Anna Přibilová, Ivan Frollo
This article compares open-air and whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment working with a weak magnetic field as regards the methods of its generation, spectral properties of mechanical vibration and acoustic noise produced by gradient coils during the scanning process, and the measured noise intensity. These devices are used for non-invasive MRI reconstruction of the human vocal tract during phonation with simultaneous speech recording. In this case, the vibration and noise have negative influence on quality of speech signal...
April 5, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618332/schizophrenia-alters-intra-network-functional-connectivity-in-the-caudate-for-detecting-speech-under-informational-speech-masking-conditions
#9
Yingjun Zheng, Chao Wu, Juanhua Li, Ruikeng Li, Hongjun Peng, Shenglin She, Yuping Ning, Liang Li
BACKGROUND: Speech recognition under noisy "cocktail-party" environments involves multiple perceptual/cognitive processes, including target detection, selective attention, irrelevant signal inhibition, sensory/working memory, and speech production. Compared to health listeners, people with schizophrenia are more vulnerable to masking stimuli and perform worse in speech recognition under speech-on-speech masking conditions. Although the schizophrenia-related speech-recognition impairment under "cocktail-party" conditions is associated with deficits of various perceptual/cognitive processes, it is crucial to know whether the brain substrates critically underlying speech detection against informational speech masking are impaired in people with schizophrenia...
April 4, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617421/real-time-loudness-normalisation-with-combined-cochlear-implant-and-hearing-aid-stimulation
#10
Dimitar Spirrov, Maaike Van Eeckhoutte, Lieselot Van Deun, Tom Francart
BACKGROUND: People who use a cochlear implant together with a contralateral hearing aid-so-called bimodal listeners-have poor localisation abilities and sounds are often not balanced in loudness across ears. In order to address the latter, a loudness balancing algorithm was created, which equalises the loudness growth functions for the two ears. The algorithm uses loudness models in order to continuously adjust the two signals to loudness targets. Previous tests demonstrated improved binaural balance, improved localisation, and better speech intelligibility in quiet for soft phonemes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610768/sensorimotor-representation-of-speech-perception-cross-decoding-of-place-of-articulation-features-during-selective-attention-to-syllables-in-7t-fmri
#11
Mario E Archila-Meléndez, Giancarlo Valente, Joao M Correia, Rob P W Rouhl, Vivianne H van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Bernadette M Jansma
Sensorimotor integration, the translation between acoustic signals and motoric programs, may constitute a crucial mechanism for speech. During speech perception, the acoustic-motoric translations include the recruitment of cortical areas for the representation of speech articulatory features, such as place of articulation. Selective attention can shape the processing and performance of speech perception tasks. Whether and where sensorimotor integration takes place during attentive speech perception remains to be explored...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605336/development-and-standardization-of-arabic-words-in-noise-test-in-egyptian-children
#12
Tayseer Taha Abdel Rahman
OBJECTIVES: To develop and establish norms of Arabic Words in Noise test in Egyptian children. METHOD: Total number of participants was 152 with normal hearing and ranging in age from 5 to 12 years. They are subdivided into two main groups (standardization group) which comprised 120 children with normal scholastic achievement and (application group) which comprised 32 children with different types of central auditory processing disorders. Arabic version of both Speech perception in noise (SPIN) and Words in Noise (WIN) tests were presented in each ear at zero signal to-noise ratio (SNR) using ipsilateral Cafeteria noise fixed at 50 dB sensation level (dBSL)...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593512/presbycusis-disrupts-spontaneous-activity-revealed-by-resting-state-functional-mri
#13
Yu-Chen Chen, Huiyou Chen, Liang Jiang, Fan Bo, Jin-Jing Xu, Cun-Nan Mao, Richard Salvi, Xindao Yin, Guangming Lu, Jian-Ping Gu
Purpose : Presbycusis, age-related hearing loss, is believed to involve neural changes in the central nervous system, which is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The goal of this study was to determine if presbycusis disrupted spontaneous neural activity in specific brain areas involved in auditory processing, attention and cognitive function using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach. Methods : Hearing and resting-state fMRI measurements were obtained from 22 presbycusis patients and 23 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593489/listening-effort-during-sentence-processing-is-increased-for-non-native-listeners-a-pupillometry-study
#14
Giulia Borghini, Valerie Hazan
Current evidence demonstrates that even though some non-native listeners can achieve native-like performance for speech perception tasks in quiet, the presence of a background noise is much more detrimental to speech intelligibility for non-native compared to native listeners. Even when performance is equated across groups, it is likely that greater listening effort is required for non-native listeners. Importantly, the added listening effort might result in increased fatigue and a reduced ability to successfully perform multiple tasks simultaneously...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588950/decreased-functional-connectivity-within-a-language-subnetwork-in-benign-epilepsy-with-centrotemporal-spikes
#15
Colm J McGinnity, Anna B Smith, Siti N Yaakub, Sofia Weidenbach Gerbase, Anya Gammerman, Adam L Tyson, Tiffany K Bell, Marwa Elmasri, Gareth J Barker, Mark P Richardson, Deb K Pal
Objective: Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS, also known as Rolandic epilepsy) is a common epilepsy syndrome that is associated with literacy and language impairments. The neural mechanisms of the syndrome are not known. The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that functional connectivity within the language network is decreased in children with BECTS. We also tested the hypothesis that siblings of children with BECTS have similar abnormalities. Methods: Echo planar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging data were acquired from 25 children with BECTS, 12 siblings, and 20 healthy controls, at rest...
June 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581445/incongruent-pitch-cues-are-associated-with-increased-activation-and-functional-connectivity-in-the-frontal-areas
#16
Jo-Fu Lotus Lin, Toshiaki Imada, Patricia K Kuhl, Fa-Hsuan Lin
Pitch plays a crucial role in music and speech perception. Pitch perception is characterized by multiple perceptual dimensions, such as pitch height and chroma. Information provided by auditory signals that are related to these perceptual dimensions can be either congruent or incongruent. To create conflicting cues for pitch perception, we modified Shepard tones by varying the pitch height and pitch chroma dimensions in either the same or opposite directions. Our behavioral data showed that most listeners judged pitch changes based on pitch chroma, instead of pitch height, when incongruent information was provided...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555752/sensorineural-hearing-loss-degrades-behavioral-and-physiological-measures-of-human-spatial-selective-auditory-attention
#17
Lengshi Dai, Virginia Best, Barbara G Shinn-Cunningham
Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss often have trouble understanding speech amid other voices. While poor spatial hearing is often implicated, direct evidence is weak; moreover, studies suggest that reduced audibility and degraded spectrotemporal coding may explain such problems. We hypothesized that poor spatial acuity leads to difficulty deploying selective attention, which normally filters out distracting sounds. In listeners with normal hearing, selective attention causes changes in the neural responses evoked by competing sounds, which can be used to quantify the effectiveness of attentional control...
March 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554541/facilitation-of-motor-excitability-during-listening-to-spoken-sentences-is-not-modulated-by-noise-or-semantic-coherence
#18
Muriel T N Panouillères, Rowan Boyles, Jennifer Chesters, Kate E Watkins, Riikka Möttönen
Comprehending speech can be particularly challenging in a noisy environment and in the absence of semantic context. It has been proposed that the articulatory motor system would be recruited especially in difficult listening conditions. However, it remains unknown how signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and semantic context affect the recruitment of the articulatory motor system when listening to continuous speech. The aim of the present study was to address the hypothesis that involvement of the articulatory motor cortex increases when the intelligibility and clarity of the spoken sentences decreases, because of noise and the lack of semantic context...
February 22, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554034/using-objective-metrics-to-measure-hearing-aid-performance
#19
James M Kates, Kathryn H Arehart, Melinda C Anderson, Ramesh Kumar Muralimanohar, Lewis O Harvey
OBJECTIVES: The performance of hearing aids is generally characterized by a small set of standardized measurements. The primary goals of these procedures are to measure basic aspects of the hearing aid performance and to ascertain that the device is operating properly. A more general need exists for objective metrics that can predict hearing aid outcomes. Such metrics must consider the interaction of all the signal processing operating in the hearing aid and must do so while also accounting for the hearing loss for which the hearing aid has been prescribed...
March 16, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550743/emotional-speech-processing-deficits-in-bipolar-disorder-the-role-of-mismatch-negativity-and-p3a
#20
Morgwn Paris, Yatin Mahajan, Jeesun Kim, Tanya Meade
BACKGROUND: Deficits in emotional prosody processing have been observed in bipolar disorder (BD). While recent neural studies have explored impaired processing of facial expressions, little is known about deficits in emotional speech processing, or the specific stages of processing at which they occur. This study examined if pre-attentive detection and attention to emotional speech is impaired in BD, relative to healthy individuals. METHODS: The EEG data was collected from 14 individuals with BD and 14 healthy control (HC) participants while the auditory stimuli was presented via a passive three-stimulus oddball sequence which included emotionally (neutral, happy, sad) spoken syllables and acoustically matched nonvocal tones...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
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