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speech signal processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464412/speech-intelligibility-predicted-from-neural-entrainment-of-the-speech-envelope
#1
Jonas Vanthornhout, Lien Decruy, Jan Wouters, Jonathan Z Simon, Tom Francart
Speech intelligibility is currently measured by scoring how well a person can identify a speech signal. The results of such behavioral measures reflect neural processing of the speech signal, but are also influenced by language processing, motivation, and memory. Very often, electrophysiological measures of hearing give insight in the neural processing of sound. However, in most methods, non-speech stimuli are used, making it hard to relate the results to behavioral measures of speech intelligibility. The use of natural running speech as a stimulus in electrophysiological measures of hearing is a paradigm shift which allows to bridge the gap between behavioral and electrophysiological measures...
February 20, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450493/the-impact-of-age-background-noise-semantic-ambiguity-and-hearing-loss-on-recognition-memory-for-spoken-sentences
#2
Margaret A Koeritzer, Chad S Rogers, Kristin J Van Engen, Jonathan E Peelle
Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine how background noise, linguistic properties of spoken sentences, and listener abilities (hearing sensitivity and verbal working memory) affect cognitive demand during auditory sentence comprehension. Method: We tested 30 young adults and 30 older adults. Participants heard lists of sentences in quiet and in 8-talker babble at signal-to-noise ratios of +15 dB and +5 dB, which increased acoustic challenge but left the speech largely intelligible...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441834/speech-processing-to-improve-the-perception-of-speech-in-background-noise-for-children-with-auditory-processing-disorder-and-typically-developing-peers
#3
Sheila Flanagan, Tudor-Cătălin Zorilă, Yannis Stylianou, Brian C J Moore
Auditory processing disorder (APD) may be diagnosed when a child has listening difficulties but has normal audiometric thresholds. For adults with normal hearing and with mild-to-moderate hearing impairment, an algorithm called spectral shaping with dynamic range compression (SSDRC) has been shown to increase the intelligibility of speech when background noise is added after the processing. Here, we assessed the effect of such processing using 8 children with APD and 10 age-matched control children. The loudness of the processed and unprocessed sentences was matched using a loudness model...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439330/hypoxia-induced-signaling-activation-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-targets-for-new-therapeutic-strategies
#4
Niraj Kumar Jha, Saurabh Kumar Jha, Renu Sharma, Dhiraj Kumar, Rashmi K Ambasta, Pravir Kumar
For the maintenance of cellular homeostasis and energy metabolism, an uninterrupted supply of oxygen (O2) is routinely required in the brain. However, under the impaired level of O2 (hypoxia) or reduced blood flow (ischemia), the tissues are not sufficiently oxygenated, which triggers disruption of cellular homeostasis in the brain. Hypoxia is known to have a notable effect on controlling the expression of proteins involved in a broad range of biological processes varying from energy metabolism, erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, neurogenesis to mitochondrial trafficking and autophagy, thus facilitating neuronal cells to endure in deprived O2...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435487/auditory-brainstem-responses-to-continuous-natural-speech-in-human-listeners
#5
Ross K Maddox, Adrian K C Lee
Speech is an ecologically essential signal, whose processing crucially involves the subcortical nuclei of the auditory brainstem, but there are few experimental options for studying these early responses in human listeners under natural conditions. While encoding of continuous natural speech has been successfully probed in the cortex with neurophysiological tools such as electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography, the rapidity of subcortical response components combined with unfavorable signal-to-noise ratios signal-to-noise ratio has prevented application of those methods to the brainstem...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432110/the-cochlear-implant-eeg-artifact-recorded-from-an-artificial-brain-for-complex-acoustic-stimuli
#6
Luise Wagner, Natasha Maurits, Bert Maat, Deniz Baskent, Anita E Wagner
Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings provide objective estimates of listeners' cortical processing of sounds and of the status of their speech perception system. For profoundly deaf listeners with cochlear implants (CIs), the applications of EEG are limited because the device adds electric artifacts to the recordings. This restricts the possibilities for the neural-based metrics of speech processing by CI users, for instance to gauge cortical reorganization due to individual's hearing loss history. This paper describes the characteristics of the CI artifact as recorded with an artificial head substitute, and reports how the artifact is affected by the properties of the acoustical input signal versus the settings of the device...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430213/naplib-an-open-source-toolbox-for-real-time-and-offline-neural-acoustic-processing
#7
Bahar Khalighinejad, Tasha Nagamine, Ashesh Mehta, Nima Mesgarani
In this paper, we introduce the Neural Acoustic Processing Library (NAPLib), a toolbox containing novel processing methods for real-time and offline analysis of neural activity in response to speech. Our method divides the speech signal and resultant neural activity into segmental units (e.g., phonemes), allowing for fast and efficient computations that can be implemented in real-time. NAPLib contains a suite of tools that characterize various properties of the neural representation of speech, which can be used for functionality such as characterizing electrode tuning properties, brain mapping and brain computer interfaces...
March 2017: Proceedings of the ... IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430212/deep-attractor-network-for-single-microphone-speaker-separation
#8
Zhuo Chen, Yi Luo, Nima Mesgarani
Despite the overwhelming success of deep learning in various speech processing tasks, the problem of separating simultaneous speakers in a mixture remains challenging. Two major difficulties in such systems are the arbitrary source permutation and unknown number of sources in the mixture. We propose a novel deep learning framework for single channel speech separation by creating attractor points in high dimensional embedding space of the acoustic signals which pull together the time-frequency bins corresponding to each source...
March 2017: Proceedings of the ... IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426859/evoked-and-oscillatory-eeg-activity-differentiates-language-discrimination-in-young-monolingual-and-bilingual-infants
#9
Loreto Nacar Garcia, Carlos Guerrero-Mosquera, Marc Colomer, Nuria Sebastian-Galles
Language discrimination is one of the core differences between bilingual and monolingual language acquisition. Here, we investigate the earliest brain specialization induced by it. Following previous research, we hypothesize that bilingual native language discrimination is a complex process involving specific processing of the prosodic properties of the speech signal. We recorded the brain activity of monolingual and bilingual 4.5-month-old infants using EEG, while listening to their native/dominant language and two foreign languages...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402437/auditory-prediction-during-speaking-and-listening
#10
Marc Sato, Douglas M Shiller
In the present EEG study, the role of auditory prediction in speech was explored through the comparison of auditory cortical responses during active speaking and passive listening to the same acoustic speech signals. Two manipulations of sensory prediction accuracy were used during the speaking task: (1) a real-time change in vowel F1 feedback (reducing prediction accuracy relative to unaltered feedback) and (2) presenting a stable auditory target rather than a visual cue to speak (enhancing auditory prediction accuracy during baseline productions, and potentially enhancing the perturbing effect of altered feedback)...
February 2, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401062/the-parsing-syllable-envelopes-test-for-assessment-of-amplitude-modulation-discrimination-skills-in-children-development-normative-data-and-test-retest-reliability-studies
#11
Sharon Cameron, Nicky Chong-White, Kiri Mealings, Tim Beechey, Harvey Dillon, Taegan Young
BACKGROUND: Intensity peaks and valleys in the acoustic signal are salient cues to syllable structure, which is accepted to be a crucial early step in phonological processing. As such, the ability to detect low-rate (envelope) modulations in signal amplitude is essential to parse an incoming speech signal into smaller phonological units. PURPOSE: The Parsing Syllable Envelopes (ParSE) test was developed to quantify the ability of children to recognize syllable boundaries using an amplitude modulation detection paradigm...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401057/effects-of-early-and-late-arriving-room-reflections-on-the-speech-evoked-auditory-brainstem-response
#12
Rida Al Osman, Christian Giguère, Hilmi R Dajani
BACKGROUND: Room reverberation alters the acoustical properties of the speech signals reaching our ears, affecting speech understanding. Therefore, it is important to understand the consequences of reverberation on auditory processing. In perceptual studies, the direct sound and early reflections of reverberated speech have been found to constitute useful energy, whereas the late reflections constitute detrimental energy. PURPOSE: This study investigated how various components (direct sound versus early reflections versus late reflections) of the reverberated speech are encoded in the auditory system using the speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (ABR)...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398142/low-and-high-frequency-cortical-brain-oscillations-reflect-dissociable-mechanisms-of-concurrent-speech-segregation-in-noise
#13
Anusha Yellamsetty, Gavin M Bidelman
Parsing simultaneous speech requires listeners use pitch-guided segregation which can be affected by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the auditory scene. The interaction of these two cues may occur at multiple levels within the cortex. The aims of the current study were to assess the correspondence between oscillatory brain rhythms and determine how listeners exploit pitch and SNR cues to successfully segregate concurrent speech. We recorded electrical brain activity while participants heard double-vowel stimuli whose fundamental frequencies (F0s) differed by zero or four semitones (STs) presented in either clean or noise-degraded (+5 dB SNR) conditions...
February 2, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392835/cortical-oscillations-and-entrainment-in-speech-processing-during-working-memory-load
#14
Jens Hjortkjaer, Jonatan Märcher-Rørsted, Søren A Fuglsang, Torsten Dau
Neuronal oscillations are thought to play an important role in working memory (WM) and speech processing. Listening to speech in real-life situations is often cognitively demanding but it is unknown whether WM load influences how auditory cortical activity synchronizes to speech features. Here we developed an auditory n-back paradigm to investigate cortical entrainment to speech envelope fluctuations under different degrees of WM load. We measured the electroencephalogram (EEG), pupil dilations, and behavioural performance from 22 subjects listening to continuous speech with an embedded n-back task...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388081/loss-of-angelman-syndrome-protein-e6ap-disrupts-a-novel-antagonistic-estrogen-retinoic-acid-transcriptional-crosstalk-in-neurons
#15
Jimmy El Hokayem, Edwin Weeber, Zafar Nawaz
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a complex genetic disorder that affects the nervous system. AS affects an estimated 1 in 12,000 to 20,000 individuals. Characteristic features of AS includes developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, seizures, small head size (microcephaly), and problems with movement and balance (ataxia). AS individuals usually have microdeletion of the maternal copy of 15q11.2-15q13 region of chromosome 15. The E6-associated protein (E6AP, an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase enzyme) is encoded by the gene UBE3A, which is located in this region, and it has been shown that deregulation of E6AP gives rise to AS and neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (e...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383571/variation-in-the-speech-signal-as-a-window-into-the-cognitive-architecture-of-language-production
#16
Audrey Bürki
The pronunciation of words is highly variable. This variation provides crucial information about the cognitive architecture of the language production system. This review summarizes key empirical findings about variation phenomena, integrating corpus, acoustic, articulatory, and chronometric data from phonetic and psycholinguistic studies. It examines how these data constrain our current understanding of word production processes and highlights major challenges and open issues that should be addressed in future research...
January 30, 2018: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378317/decoding-the-auditory-brain-with-canonical-component-analysis
#17
Alain de Cheveigné, Daniel Wong, Giovanni M Di Liberto, Jens Hjortkjaer, Malcolm Slaney, Edmund Lalor
The relation between a stimulus and the evoked brain response can shed light on perceptual processes within the brain. Signals derived from this relation can also be harnessed to control external devices for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) applications. While the classic event-related potential (ERP) is appropriate for isolated stimuli, more sophisticated "decoding" strategies are needed to address continuous stimuli such as speech, music or environmental sounds. Here we describe an approach based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) that finds the optimal transform to apply to both the stimulus and the response to reveal correlations between the two...
January 26, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377807/simultaneous-multimodal-pc-access-for-people-with-disabilities-by-integrating-head-tracking-speech-recognition-and-tongue-motion
#18
M Nazmus Sahadat, Arish Alreja, Maysam Ghovanloo
Multimodal Tongue Drive System (mTDS) is a highly integrated wireless assistive technology (AT) in the form of a lightweight wearable headset that utilizes three remaining key control and communication abilities in people with severe physical disabilities, such as tetraplegia, to provide them with effective access to computers: 1) tongue motion for discrete/switch-based control (e.g., clicking), 2) head tracking for proportional control (e.g., mouse pointer movements), and 3) speech recognition for typing, all available simultaneously...
February 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373159/single-ended-prediction-of-listening-effort-using-deep-neural-networks
#19
Rainer Huber, Melanie Krüger, Bernd T Meyer
The effort required to listen to and understand noisy speech is an important factor in the evaluation of noise reduction schemes. This paper introduces a model for Listening Effort prediction from Acoustic Parameters (LEAP). The model is based on methods from automatic speech recognition, specifically on performance measures that quantify the degradation of phoneme posteriorgrams produced by a deep neural net: Noise or artifacts introduced by speech enhancement often result in a temporal smearing of phoneme representations, which is measured by comparison of phoneme vectors...
December 27, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371094/orthographic-influence-on-spoken-word-identification-behavioral-and-fmri-evidence
#20
Christine Chiarello, Kenneth I Vaden, Mark A Eckert
The current study investigated behavioral and neuroimaging evidence for orthographic influences on auditory word identification. To assess such influences, the proportion of similar sounding words (i.e. phonological neighbors) that were also spelled similarly (i.e., orthographic neighbors) was computed for each auditorily presented word as the Orthographic-to-Phonological Overlap Ratio (OPOR). Speech intelligibility was manipulated by presenting monosyllabic words in multi-talker babble at two signal-to-noise ratios: +3 and +10dB SNR...
January 22, 2018: Neuropsychologia
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