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speech signal processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335558/modeling-the-development-of-audiovisual-cue-integration-in-speech-perception
#1
Laura M Getz, Elke R Nordeen, Sarah C Vrabic, Joseph C Toscano
Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories...
March 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331007/advantages-of-comparative-studies-in-songbirds-to-understand-the-neural-basis-of-sensorimotor-integration
#2
Karagh Murphy, Logan S James, Jon T Sakata, Jonathan F Prather
Sensorimotor integration is the process through which the nervous system creates a link between motor commands and associated sensory feedback. This process allows for the acquisition and refinement of many behaviors, including learned communication behaviors like speech and birdsong. Consequently, it is important to understand fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor integration, and comparative analyses of this process can provide vital insight. Songbirds offer a powerful comparative model system to study how the nervous system links motor and sensory information for learning and control...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320627/maximal-ambient-noise-levels-and-type-of-voice-material-required-for-valid-use-of-smartphones-in-clinical-voice-research
#3
Jean Lebacq, Jean Schoentgen, Giovanna Cantarella, Franz Thomas Bruss, Claudia Manfredi, Philippe DeJonckere
PURPOSE: Smartphone technology provides new opportunities for recording standardized voice samples of patients and transmitting the audio files to the voice laboratory. This drastically improves the achievement of baseline designs, used in research on efficiency of voice treatments. However, the basic requirement is the suitability of smartphones for recording and digitizing pathologic voices (mainly characterized by period perturbations and noise) without significant distortion. In a previous article, this was tested using realistic synthesized deviant voice samples (/a:/) with three precisely known levels of jitter and of noise in all combinations...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303412/auditory-enhancement-in-cochlear-implant-users-under-simultaneous-and-forward-masking
#4
Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory enhancement is the phenomenon whereby the salience or detectability of a target sound within a masker is enhanced by the prior presentation of the masker alone. Enhancement has been demonstrated using both simultaneous and forward masking in normal-hearing listeners and may play an important role in auditory and speech perception within complex and time-varying acoustic environments. The few studies of enhancement in hearing-impaired listeners have reported reduced or absent enhancement effects under forward masking, suggesting a potentially peripheral locus of the effect...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284736/contributions-of-sensory-tuning-to-auditory-vocal-interactions-in-marmoset-auditory-cortex
#5
Steven J Eliades, Xiaoqin Wang
During speech, humans continuously listen to their own vocal output to ensure accurate communication. Such self-monitoring is thought to require the integration of information about the feedback of vocal acoustics with internal motor control signals. The neural mechanism of this auditory-vocal interaction remains largely unknown at the cellular level. Previous studies in naturally vocalizing marmosets have demonstrated diverse neural activities in auditory cortex during vocalization, dominated by a vocalization-induced suppression of neural firing...
March 8, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277212/the-effect-of-signal-to-noise-ratio-on-linguistic-processing-in-a-semantic-judgment-task-an-aging-study
#6
Nicholas Stanley, Tara Davis, Julie Estis
BACKGROUND: Aging effects on speech understanding in noise have primarily been assessed through speech recognition tasks. Recognition tasks, which focus on bottom-up, perceptual aspects of speech understanding, intentionally limit linguistic and cognitive factors by asking participants to only repeat what they have heard. On the other hand, linguistic processing tasks require bottom-up and top-down (linguistic, cognitive) processing skills and are, therefore, more reflective of speech understanding abilities used in everyday communication...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270574/mild-cognitive-impairment-is-characterized-by-deficient-brainstem-and-cortical-representations-of-speech
#7
Gavin M Bidelman, Jill E Lowther, Sunghee H Tak, Claude Alain
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is recognized as a transitional phase in the progression toward more severe forms of dementia and is an early precursor to Alzheimer's disease. Previous neuroimaging studies reveal MCI is associated with aberrant sensory-perceptual processing in cortical brain regions subserving auditory and language function. However, whether the pathophysiology of MCI extends to speech processing prior to conscious awareness (brainstem) is unknown. Using a novel electrophysiological approach, we recorded both brainstem and cortical speech-evoked brain potentials (ERPs) in older, hearing-matched human listeners who did and did not present with subtle cognitive impairment revealed through behavioral neuropsychological testing...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269103/effect-of-importance-sampling-on-robust-segmentation-of-audio-cough-events-in-noisy-environments
#8
Jesus Monge-Alvarez, Carlos Hoyos-Barcelo, Paul Lesso, Javier Escudero, Keshav Dahal, Pablo Casaseca-de-la-Higuera
This paper proposes a new cough detection system based on audio signals acquired from conventional smartphones. The system relies on local Hu moments to characterize cough events and a Λ-NN classifier to distinguish cough events from non-cough ones (speech, laugh, sneeze, etc.) and noisy sounds. To deal with the unbalance between classes, we employ Distinct-Borderline2 Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique and a bespoke cost matrix. The system additionally features a post-processing module to avoid isolated false negatives and, this way, increases sensitivity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269093/objective-assessment-of-listening-effort-effects-of-an-increased-task-demand
#9
Corinna Bernarding, Farah I Corona-Strauss, Ronny Hannemann, Daniel J Strauss
In demanding listening situations the individual has to exert an increased listening effort to process interesting auditory signals correctly. Especially people with hearing loss are particularly affected and require more effort to identify sounds compared to those with normal hearing. So far, a suitable objective estimate of listening effort is still not available. In previous studies, we presented an objective estimate of listening effort (OLEosc), which is based on the instantaneous phase distribution of the ongoing EEG activity...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268433/automatic-switching-between-noise-classification-and-speech-enhancement-for-hearing-aid-devices
#10
Fatemeh Saki, Nasser Kehtarnavaz
This paper presents a voice activity detector (VAD) for automatic switching between a noise classifier and a speech enhancer as part of the signal processing pipeline of hearing aid devices. The developed VAD consists of a computationally efficient feature extractor and a random forest classifier. Previously used signal features as well as two newly introduced signal features are extracted and fed into the classifier to perform automatic switching. This switching approach is compared to two popular VADs. The results obtained indicate the introduced approach outperforms these existing approaches in terms of both detection rate and processing time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268284/intelligent-hearing-aids-the-next-revolution
#11
Tao Zhang, Fred Mustiere, Christophe Micheyl
The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263637/the-effect-of-simultaneous-text-on-the-recall-of-noise-degraded-speech
#12
Irina Grossman, Ramesh Rajan
Written and spoken language utilize the same processing system, enabling text to modulate speech processing. We investigated how simultaneously presented text affected speech recall in babble noise using a retrospective recall task. Participants were presented with text-speech sentence pairs in multitalker babble noise and then prompted to recall what they heard or what they read. In Experiment 1, sentence pairs were either congruent or incongruent and they were presented in silence or at 1 of 4 noise levels...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263012/age-differences-in-the-motor-control-of-speech-an-fmri-study-of-healthy-aging
#13
Pascale Tremblay, Marc Sato, Isabelle Deschamps
Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data...
March 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262502/investigation-of-the-effects-of-speech-signal-length-on-vocal-disorder-sorting-done-via-dynamic-pattern-modeling
#14
Vida Mehdizadehfar, Farshad Almasganj, Farhad Torabinezhad
OBJECTIVES: Development of a noninvasive method for separating different vocal fold diseases is an important issue concerning vocal analysis. Due to the time variations along a pathologic vocal signal, application of dynamic pattern modeling tools is expected to help in the detection of defects that occur in the speech production mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, the hidden Markov model, which is a state space model, is employed to sort some of the vocal diseases...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260167/the-role-of-the-supplementary-motor-region-in-overt-reading-evidence-for-differential-processing-in-sma-proper-and-pre-sma-as-a-function-of-task-demands
#15
Jacqueline Cummine, Wahab Hanif, Inna Dymouriak-Tymashov, Kavya Anchuri, Stephanie Chiu, Carol A Boliek
A differentiation in function between the pre-SMA (i.e., cognitive load) and the SMA-proper (i.e., motor execution) has been described (Zhang et al., Cereb Cortex 22:99-111, 2012). These differential SMA functions may be influential in overt reading tasks. The present study examined the relationships between various segments of the SMA and overt reading through the modulation of task demands in an effort to explore the complexity of the print-to-speech network. Skilled reading adults (N = 15) took part in five overt reading tasks: pure regular word reading, pure exception word reading, mixed regular word and exception word reading, go/no-go reading with nonword foils and go/no-go reading with pseudohomophone foils...
March 4, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259798/basic-neural-processing-of-sound-in-adults-is-influenced-by-bilingual-experience
#16
Erika Skoe, Emily Burakiewicz, Michael Figueiredo, Margaret Hardin
The central auditory nervous system (CANS) undergoes language-dependent tuning to enhance linguistically relevant features of sound. However, less is known about how dual-language exposure affects the CANS. Recent reports indicate that Spanish-English bilingual children and adolescents have larger neural responses to the fundamental frequency (F0) of vowels, as measured by the frequency-following response (FFR), a phase-locked response to sound. Given the cross-language significance of F0, this led us to hypothesize that enhanced neural responses to the F0 are not unique to Spanish-English bilingual children and adolescents but are instead a common feature of a CANS with significant early dual language experience...
March 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257525/foxp-in-tetrapoda-intrinsically-disordered-regions-short-linear-motifs-and-their-evolutionary-significance
#17
Lucas Henriques Viscardi, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Pamela Paré, Nelson Jurandi Rosa Fagundes, Francisco Mauro Salzano, Vanessa Rodrigues Paixão-Côrtes, Claiton Henrique Dotto Bau, Maria Cátira Bortolini
The FOXP subfamily is probably the most extensively characterized subfamily of the forkhead superfamily, playing important roles in development and homeostasis in vertebrates. Intrinsically disorder protein regions (IDRs) are protein segments that exhibit multiple physical interactions and play critical roles in various biological processes, including regulation and signaling. IDRs in proteins may play an important role in the evolvability of genetic systems. In this study, we analyzed 77 orthologous FOXP genes/proteins from Tetrapoda, regarding protein disorder content and evolutionary rate...
March 2, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253703/speaker-dependent-multipitch-tracking-using-deep-neural-networks
#18
Yuzhou Liu, DeLiang Wang
Multipitch tracking is important for speech and signal processing. However, it is challenging to design an algorithm that achieves accurate pitch estimation and correct speaker assignment at the same time. In this paper, deep neural networks (DNNs) are used to model the probabilistic pitch states of two simultaneous speakers. To capture speaker-dependent information, two types of DNN with different training strategies are proposed. The first is trained for each speaker enrolled in the system (speaker-dependent DNN), and the second is trained for each speaker pair (speaker-pair-dependent DNN)...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253684/predicting-consonant-recognition-and-confusions-in-normal-hearing-listeners
#19
Johannes Zaar, Torsten Dau
The perception of consonants in background noise has been investigated in various studies and was shown to critically depend on fine details in the stimuli. In this study, a microscopic speech perception model is proposed that represents an extension of the auditory signal processing model by Dau, Kollmeier, and Kohlrausch [(1997). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892-2905]. The model was evaluated based on the extensive consonant perception data set provided by Zaar and Dau [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1253-1267], which was obtained with normal-hearing listeners using 15 consonant-vowel combinations mixed with white noise...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253672/contribution-of-formant-frequency-information-to-vowel-perception-in-steady-state-noise-by-cochlear-implant-users
#20
Elad Sagi, Mario A Svirsky
Cochlear implant (CI) recipients have difficulty understanding speech in noise even at moderate signal-to-noise ratios. Knowing the mechanisms they use to understand speech in noise may facilitate the search for better speech processing algorithms. In the present study, a computational model is used to assess whether CI users' vowel identification in noise can be explained by formant frequency cues (F1 and F2). Vowel identification was tested with 12 unilateral CI users in quiet and in noise. Formant cues were measured from vowels in each condition, specific to each subject's speech processor...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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