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speech signal processing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727776/language-related-differences-of-the-sustained-response-evoked-by-natural-speech-sounds
#1
Christina Siu-Dschu Fan, Xingyu Zhu, Hans Günter Dosch, Christiane von Stutterheim, André Rupp
In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722648/perspectives-on-the-pure-tone-audiogram
#2
REVIEW
Frank E Musiek, Jennifer Shinn, Gail D Chermak, Doris-Eva Bamiou
BACKGROUND: The pure-tone audiogram, though fundamental to audiology, presents limitations, especially in the case of central auditory involvement. Advances in auditory neuroscience underscore the considerably larger role of the central auditory nervous system (CANS) in hearing and related disorders. Given the availability of behavioral audiological tests and electrophysiological procedures that can provide better insights as to the function of the various components of the auditory system, this perspective piece reviews the limitations of the pure-tone audiogram and notes some of the advantages of other tests and procedures used in tandem with the pure-tone threshold measurement...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691782/a-novel-microduplication-of-arid1b-clinical-genetic-and-proteomic-findings
#3
Catarina M Seabra, Nicholas Szoko, Serkan Erdin, Ashok Ragavendran, Alexei Stortchevoi, Patrícia Maciel, Kathleen Lundberg, Daniela Schlatzer, Janice Smith, Michael E Talkowski, James F Gusella, Marvin R Natowicz
Genetic alterations of ARID1B have been recently recognized as one of the most common mendelian causes of intellectual disability and are associated with both syndromic and non-syndromic phenotypes. The ARID1B protein, a subunit of the chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF-A, is involved in the regulation of transcription and multiple downstream cellular processes. We report here the clinical, genetic, and proteomic phenotypes of an individual with a unique apparent de novo mutation of ARID1B due to an intragenic duplication...
July 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679277/masking-release-for-hearing-impaired-listeners-the-effect-of-increased-audibility-through-reduction-of-amplitude-variability
#4
Joseph G Desloge, Charlotte M Reed, Louis D Braida, Zachary D Perez, Laura A D'Aquila
The masking release (i.e., better speech recognition in fluctuating compared to continuous noise backgrounds) observed for normal-hearing (NH) listeners is generally reduced or absent in hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. One explanation for this lies in the effects of reduced audibility: elevated thresholds may prevent HI listeners from taking advantage of signals available to NH listeners during the dips of temporally fluctuating noise where the interference is relatively weak. This hypothesis was addressed through the development of a signal-processing technique designed to increase the audibility of speech during dips in interrupted noise...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679257/a-relationship-between-processing-speech-in-noise-and-dysarthric-speech
#5
Stephanie A Borrie, Melissa Baese-Berk, Kristin Van Engen, Tessa Bent
There is substantial individual variability in understanding speech in adverse listening conditions. This study examined whether a relationship exists between processing speech in noise (environmental degradation) and dysarthric speech (source degradation), with regard to intelligibility performance and the use of metrical stress to segment the degraded speech signals. Ninety native speakers of American English transcribed speech in noise and dysarthric speech. For each type of listening adversity, transcriptions were analyzed for proportion of words correct and lexical segmentation errors indicative of stress cue utilization...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679243/impact-of-phase-estimation-on-single-channel-speech-separation-based-on-time-frequency-masking
#6
Florian Mayer, Donald S Williamson, Pejman Mowlaee, DeLiang Wang
Time-frequency masking is a common solution for the single-channel source separation (SCSS) problem where the goal is to find a time-frequency mask that separates the underlying sources from an observed mixture. An estimated mask is then applied to the mixed signal to extract the desired signal. During signal reconstruction, the time-frequency-masked spectral amplitude is combined with the mixture phase. This article considers the impact of replacing the mixture spectral phase with an estimated clean spectral phase combined with the estimated magnitude spectrum using a conventional model-based approach...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676921/electrophysiological-evidence-for-a-self-processing-advantage-during-audiovisual-speech-integration
#7
Avril Treille, Coriandre Vilain, Sonia Kandel, Marc Sato
Previous electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence for early multisensory integrative mechanisms during audiovisual speech perception. From these studies, one unanswered issue is whether hearing our own voice and seeing our own articulatory gestures facilitate speech perception, possibly through a better processing and integration of sensory inputs with our own sensory-motor knowledge. The present EEG study examined the impact of self-knowledge during the perception of auditory (A), visual (V) and audiovisual (AV) speech stimuli that were previously recorded from the participant or from a speaker he/she had never met...
July 4, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672378/assessing-the-importance-of-lexical-tone-contour-to-sentence-perception-in-mandarin-speaking-children-with-normal-hearing
#8
Shufeng Zhu, Lena L N Wong, Bin Wang, Fei Chen
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of lexical tone contour and age on sentence perception in quiet and in noise conditions in Mandarin-speaking children ages 7 to 11 years with normal hearing. Method: Test materials were synthesized Mandarin sentences, each word with a manipulated lexical contour, that is, normal contour, flat contour, or a tone contour randomly selected from the four Mandarin lexical tone contours. A convenience sample of 75 Mandarin-speaking participants with normal hearing, ages 7, 9, and 11 years (25 participants in each age group), was selected...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664331/benefit-of-the-ultrazoom-beamforming-technology-in-noise-in-cochlear-implant-users
#9
Isabelle Mosnier, Nathalie Mathias, Jonathan Flament, Dorith Amar, Amelie Liagre-Callies, Stephanie Borel, Emmanuèle Ambert-Dahan, Olivier Sterkers, Daniele Bernardeschi
The objectives of the study were to demonstrate the audiological and subjective benefits of the adaptive UltraZoom beamforming technology available in the Naída CI Q70 sound processor, in cochlear-implanted adults upgraded from a previous generation sound processor. Thirty-four adults aged between 21 and 89 years (mean 53 ± 19) were prospectively included. Nine subjects were unilaterally implanted, 11 bilaterally and 14 were bimodal users. The mean duration of cochlear implant use was 7 years (range 5-15 years)...
June 29, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656807/the-influence-of-noise-reduction-on-speech-intelligibility-response-times-to-speech-and-perceived-listening-effort-in-normal-hearing-listeners
#10
Maj van den Tillaart-Haverkate, Inge de Ronde-Brons, Wouter A Dreschler, Rolph Houben
Single-microphone noise reduction leads to subjective benefit, but not to objective improvements in speech intelligibility. We investigated whether response times (RTs) provide an objective measure of the benefit of noise reduction and whether the effect of noise reduction is reflected in rated listening effort. Twelve normal-hearing participants listened to digit triplets that were either unprocessed or processed with one of two noise-reduction algorithms: an ideal binary mask (IBM) and a more realistic minimum mean square error estimator (MMSE)...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650352/the-effect-of-aging-and-priming-on-same-different-judgments-between-text-and-partially-masked-speech
#11
Richard L Freyman, Jenna Terpening, Angela C Costanzi, Karen S Helfer
OBJECTIVES: It is well known from previous research that when listeners are told what they are about to hear before a degraded or partially masked auditory signal is presented, the speech signal "pops out" of the background and becomes considerably more intelligible. The goal of this research was to explore whether this priming effect is as strong in older adults as in younger adults. DESIGN: Fifty-six adults-28 older and 28 younger-listened to "nonsense" sentences spoken by a female talker in the presence of a 2-talker speech masker (also female) or a fluctuating speech-like noise masker at 5 signal-to-noise ratios...
June 22, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642686/transcranial-random-noise-stimulation-trns-shapes-the-processing-of-rapidly-changing-auditory-information
#12
Katharina S Rufener, Philipp Ruhnau, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Tino Zaehle
Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640038/impact-of-noise-and-noise-reduction-on-processing-effort-a-pupillometry-study
#13
Dorothea Wendt, Renskje K Hietkamp, Thomas Lunner
OBJECTIVES: Speech perception in adverse listening situations can be exhausting. Hearing loss particularly affects processing demands, as it requires increased effort for successful speech perception in background noise. Signal processing in hearing aids and noise reduction (NR) schemes aim to counteract the effect of noise and reduce the effort required for speech recognition in adverse listening situations. The present study examined the benefit of NR schemes, applying a combination of a digital NR and directional microphones, for reducing the processing effort during speech recognition...
June 20, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634306/representations-of-time-varying-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-marmosets-callithrix-jacchus
#14
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Electrical stimulation of the auditory periphery organ by cochlear implant (CI) generates highly synchronized inputs to the auditory system. It has long been thought such inputs would lead to highly synchronized neural firing along the ascending auditory pathway. However, neurophysiological studies with hearing animals have shown that the central auditory system progressively converts temporal representations of time-varying sounds to firing rate-based representations. It is not clear whether this coding principle also applies to highly synchronized CI inputs...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622530/brain-network-dynamics-in-the-human-articulatory-loop
#15
Masaaki Nishida, Anna Korzeniewska, Nathan E Crone, Goichiro Toyoda, Yasuo Nakai, Noa Ofen, Erik C Brown, Eishi Asano
OBJECTIVE: The articulatory loop is a fundamental component of language function, involved in the short-term buffer of auditory information followed by its vocal reproduction. We characterized the network dynamics of the human articulatory loop, using invasive recording and stimulation. METHODS: We measured high-gamma activity70-110 Hz recorded intracranially when patients with epilepsy either only listened to, or listened to and then reproduced two successive tones by humming...
August 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620283/octopus-cells-in-the-posteroventral-cochlear-nucleus-provide-the-main-excitatory-input-to-the-superior-paraolivary-nucleus
#16
Richard A Felix Ii, Boris Gourévitch, Marcelo Gómez-Álvarez, Sara C M Leijon, Enrique Saldaña, Anna K Magnusson
Auditory streaming enables perception and interpretation of complex acoustic environments that contain competing sound sources. At early stages of central processing, sounds are segregated into separate streams representing attributes that later merge into acoustic objects. Streaming of temporal cues is critical for perceiving vocal communication, such as human speech, but our understanding of circuits that underlie this process is lacking, particularly at subcortical levels. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON), a prominent group of inhibitory neurons in the mammalian brainstem, has been implicated in processing temporal information needed for the segmentation of ongoing complex sounds into discrete events...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618817/an-algorithm-to-increase-intelligibility-for-hearing-impaired-listeners-in-the-presence-of-a-competing-talker
#17
Eric W Healy, Masood Delfarah, Jordan L Vasko, Brittney L Carter, DeLiang Wang
Individuals with hearing impairment have particular difficulty perceptually segregating concurrent voices and understanding a talker in the presence of a competing voice. In contrast, individuals with normal hearing perform this task quite well. This listening situation represents a very different problem for both the human and machine listener, when compared to perceiving speech in other types of background noise. A machine learning algorithm is introduced here to address this listening situation. A deep neural network was trained to estimate the ideal ratio mask for a male target talker in the presence of a female competing talker...
June 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602128/effect-of-energy-equalization-on-the-intelligibility-of-speech-in-fluctuating-background-interference-for-listeners-with-hearing-impairment
#18
Laura A D'Aquila, Joseph G Desloge, Charlotte M Reed, Louis D Braida
The masking release (MR; i.e., better speech recognition in fluctuating compared with continuous noise backgrounds) that is evident for listeners with normal hearing (NH) is generally reduced or absent for listeners with sensorineural hearing impairment (HI). In this study, a real-time signal-processing technique was developed to improve MR in listeners with HI and offer insight into the mechanisms influencing the size of MR. This technique compares short-term and long-term estimates of energy, increases the level of short-term segments whose energy is below the average energy, and normalizes the overall energy of the processed signal to be equivalent to that of the original long-term estimate...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601530/spectro-temporal-cues-enhance-modulation-sensitivity-in-cochlear-implant-users
#19
Yi Zheng, Monty Escabí, Ruth Y Litovsky
Although speech understanding is highly variable amongst cochlear implants (CIs) subjects, the remarkably high speech recognition performance of many CI users is unexpected and not well understood. Numerous factors, including neural health and degradation of the spectral information in the speech signal of CIs, likely contribute to speech understanding. We studied the ability to use spectro-temporal modulations, which may be critical for speech understanding and discrimination, and hypothesize that CI users adopt a different perceptual strategy than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, whereby they rely more heavily on joint spectro-temporal cues to enhance detection of auditory cues...
August 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588524/perceptual-plasticity-for-auditory-object-recognition
#20
Shannon L M Heald, Stephen C Van Hedger, Howard C Nusbaum
In our auditory environment, we rarely experience the exact acoustic waveform twice. This is especially true for communicative signals that have meaning for listeners. In speech and music, the acoustic signal changes as a function of the talker (or instrument), speaking (or playing) rate, and room acoustics, to name a few factors. Yet, despite this acoustic variability, we are able to recognize a sentence or melody as the same across various kinds of acoustic inputs and determine meaning based on listening goals, expectations, context, and experience...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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