keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Ku70

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645898/dna-pk-facilitates-piggybac-transposition-by-promoting-paired-end-complex-formation
#1
Yan Jin, Yaohui Chen, Shimin Zhao, Kun-Liang Guan, Yuan Zhuang, Wenhao Zhou, Xiaohui Wu, Tian Xu
The involvement of host factors is critical to our understanding of underlying mechanisms of transposition and the applications of transposon-based technologies. Modified piggyBac (PB) is one of the most potent transposon systems in mammals. However, varying transposition efficiencies of PB among different cell lines have restricted its application. We discovered that the DNA-PK complex facilitates PB transposition by binding to PB transposase (PBase) and promoting paired-end complex formation. Mass spectrometry analysis and coimmunoprecipitation revealed physical interaction between PBase and the DNA-PK components Ku70, Ku80, and DNA-PKcs Overexpression or knockdown of DNA-PK components enhances or suppresses PB transposition in tissue culture cells, respectively...
June 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641126/dna-requirements-for-interaction-of-the-c-terminal-region-of-ku80-with-the-dna-dependent-protein-kinase-catalytic-subunit-dna-pkcs
#2
Sarvan Kumar Radhakrishnan, Susan P Lees-Miller
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is the major pathway for the repair of ionizing radiation induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in human cells. Critical to NHEJ is the DNA-dependent interaction of the Ku70/80 heterodimer with the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) to form the DNA-PK holoenzyme. However, precisely how Ku recruits DNA-PKcs to DSBs ends to enhance its kinase activity has remained enigmatic, with contradictory findings reported in the literature. Here we address the role of the Ku80 C-terminal region (CTR) in the DNA-dependent interaction of Ku70/80 with DNA-PKcs using purified components and defined DNA structures...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611389/nuclear-tradd-prevents-dna-damage-mediated-death-by-facilitating-non-homologous-end-joining-repair
#3
Gi-Bang Koo, Jae-Hoon Ji, Hyeseong Cho, Michael J Morgan, You-Sun Kim
TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD) is an essential mediator of TNF receptor signaling, and serves as an adaptor to recruit other effectors. TRADD has been shown to cycle between the cytoplasm and nucleus due to its nuclear localization (NLS) and export sequences (NES). However, the underlying function of nuclear TRADD is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that cytoplasmic TRADD translocates to DNA double-strand break sites (DSBs) during the DNA damage response (DDR). Deficiency of TRADD or its sequestration in cytosol leads to accumulation of γH2AX-positive foci in response to DNA damage, which is reversed by nuclear TRADD expression...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604675/identification-of-the-elementary-structural-units-of-the-dna-damage-response
#4
Francesco Natale, Alexander Rapp, Wei Yu, Andreas Maiser, Hartmann Harz, Annina Scholl, Stephan Grulich, Tobias Anton, David Hörl, Wei Chen, Marco Durante, Gisela Taucher-Scholz, Heinrich Leonhardt, M Cristina Cardoso
Histone H2AX phosphorylation is an early signalling event triggered by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). To elucidate the elementary units of phospho-H2AX-labelled chromatin, we integrate super-resolution microscopy of phospho-H2AX during DNA repair in human cells with genome-wide sequencing analyses. Here we identify phospho-H2AX chromatin domains in the nanometre range with median length of ∼75 kb. Correlation analysis with over 60 genomic features shows a time-dependent euchromatin-to-heterochromatin repair trend...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578657/in-vivo-screening-reveals-interactions-between-drosophila-manf-and-genes-involved-in-the-mitochondria-and-the-ubiquinone-synthesis-pathway
#5
Riitta Lindström, Päivi Lindholm, Mari Palgi, Mart Saarma, Tapio I Heino
BACKGROUND: Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) and Cerebral Dopamine Neurotrophic Factor (CDNF) form an evolutionarily conserved family of neurotrophic factors. Orthologues for MANF/CDNF are the only neurotrophic factors as yet identified in invertebrates with conserved amino acid sequence. Previous studies indicate that mammalian MANF and CDNF support and protect brain dopaminergic system in non-cell-autonomous manner. However, MANF has also been shown to function intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum...
June 2, 2017: BMC Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567015/usp22-induces-cisplatin-resistance-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-by-regulating-%C3%AE-h2ax-mediated-dna-damage-repair-and-ku70-bax-mediated-apoptosis
#6
Aman Wang, Zhen Ning, Chang Lu, Wei Gao, Jinxiao Liang, Qiu Yan, Guang Tan, Jiwei Liu
Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is one of the most important reasons for treatment failure in advanced non-small cell lung cancer, but the underlying mechanism is extremely complex and unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the correlation of ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (USP22) with acquired resistance to cisplatin in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we found that overexpression of USP22 could lead to cisplatin resistance in A549 cells. USP22 and its downstream proteins γH2AX and Sirt1 levels are upregulated in the cisplatin- resistant A549/CDDP cell line...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550350/recent-advances-in-the-study-of-immunodeficiency-and-dna-damage-response
#7
REVIEW
Tomohiro Morio
DNA breaks can be induced by exogenous stimuli or by endogenous stress, but are also generated during recombination of V, D, and J genes (V(D)J recombination), immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). Among various DNA breaks generated, DNA double strand break (DSB) is the most deleterious one. DNA damage response (DDR) is initiated when DSBs are detected, leading to DNA break repair by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The process is critically important for the generation of diversity for foreign antigens; and failure to exert DNA repair leads to immunodeficiency such as severe combined immunodeficiency and hyper-IgM syndrome...
May 26, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490747/structural-basis-for-importin-%C3%AE-binding-of-the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-tat
#8
K M Smith, Z Himiari, S Tsimbalyuk, J K Forwood
HIV-1 has caused 35 million deaths globally, and approximately the same number is currently living with HIV-1. The trans-activator of transcription (Tat) protein of HIV-1 plays an important regulatory function in the virus life cycle, responsible for regulating the reverse transcription of the viral genome RNA. Tat is found in the nucleus of infected cells, but can also invade uninfected neighbouring cells. Regions within Tat responsible for these cellular localisations are overlapping and include a nuclear localisation signal (NLS) spanning (48)GRKKRR, and a cell penetrating peptide (CPP) signal spanning (48)GRKKRRQRRRAPQN...
May 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484116/highly-efficient-gene-targeting-in-aspergillus-oryzae-industrial-strains-under-ligd-mutation-introduced-by-genome-editing-strain-specific-differences-in-the-effects-of-deleting-ecdr-the-negative-regulator-of-sclerotia-formation
#9
Hidetoshi Nakamura, Takuya Katayama, Tomoya Okabe, Kazuhiro Iwashita, Wataru Fujii, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Jun-Ichi Maruyama
Numerous strains of Aspergillus oryzae are industrially used for Japanese traditional fermentation and for the production of enzymes and heterologous proteins. In A. oryzae, deletion of the ku70 or ligD genes involved in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) has allowed high gene targeting efficiency. However, this strategy has been mainly applied under the genetic background of the A. oryzae wild strain RIB40, and it would be laborious to delete the NHEJ genes in many A. oryzae industrial strains, probably due to their low gene targeting efficiency...
May 2, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471392/taking-a-bad-turn-compromised-dna-damage-response-in-leukemia
#10
REVIEW
Nadine Nilles, Birthe Fahrenkrog
Genomic integrity is of outmost importance for the survival at the cellular and the organismal level and key to human health. To ensure the integrity of their DNA, cells have evolved maintenance programs collectively known as the DNA damage response. Particularly challenging for genome integrity are DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) and defects in their repair are often associated with human disease, including leukemia. Defective DSB repair may not only be disease-causing, but further contribute to poor treatment outcome and poor prognosis in leukemia...
May 4, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451577/expression-levels-of-two-dna-repair-related-genes-under-8-gy-ionizing-radiation-and-100-mg-kg-melatonin-delivery-in-rat-peripheral-blood
#11
M Valizadeh, A Shirazi, P Izadi, J Tavakkoly Bazzaz, H Rezaeejam
BACKGROUND: After radiation therapy (RT), some health hazards including DNA damages may occur where melatonin can play a protective role due to free radical generation. On the other hand, serious accidental overexposures may occur during RT due to nuclear accidents which necessitate the need for study on exposure to high-dose radiations during treatments. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to study the expression level of two genes in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathways named Xrcc4 and Xrcc6 (Ku70) in order to examine the effect of melatonin on repair of DNA double-strand breaks (BSBs) caused by 8Gy ionizing radiation...
March 2017: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415827/camptothecin-resistance-is-determined-by-the-regulation-of-topoisomerase-i-degradation-mediated-by-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway
#12
Koji Ando, Ankur K Shah, Vibhu Sachdev, Benjamin P Kleinstiver, Julian Taylor-Parker, Moira M Welch, Yiheng Hu, Ravi Salgia, Forest M White, Jeffrey D Parvin, Al Ozonoff, Lucia E Rameh, J Keith Joung, Ajit K Bharti
Proteasomal degradation of topoisomerase I (topoI) is one of the most remarkable cellular phenomena observed in response to camptothecin (CPT). Importantly, the rate of topoI degradation is linked to CPT resistance. Formation of the topoI-DNA-CPT cleavable complex inhibits DNA re-ligation resulting in DNA-double strand break (DSB). The degradation of topoI marks the first step in the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) dependent DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we show that the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer binds with topoI, and that the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylates topoI on serine 10 (topoI-pS10), which is subsequently ubiquitinated by BRCA1...
March 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289912/production-of-%C3%AE-carotene-by-expressing-a-heterologous-multifunctional-carotene-synthase-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#13
Shuliang Gao, Yangyang Tong, Li Zhu, Mei Ge, Yu Jiang, Daijie Chen, Sheng Yang
OBJECTIVES: To obtain functional expression of a heterologous multifunctional carotene synthase containing phytoene synthase, phytoene dehydrogenase, and lycopene β-cyclase activities encoded by carS from Schizochytrium sp. in order to allow Yarrowia lipolytica to produce β-carotene. RESULTS: To increase the integration efficiency of a 3.8 kb carS under the control of P GPD promoter with a 2 kb selection marker, ura3, along with a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGS1) expression cassette (~10 kb in total), was inserted into the Y...
March 13, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267674/the-effects-of-saha-on-radiosensitivity-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-by-inducing-apoptosis-and-targeting-rad51
#14
Zhibing Wu, Saisai Jing, Yanhong Li, Yabo Gao, Shuhuan Yu, Zhitian Li, Yanyan Zhao, Jigang Piao, Shenglin Ma, Xufeng Chen
Suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is one of the most promising Histone deacetylases(HDAC) inhibitors which has shown significant anti-tumor activity for many malignancies. We explored the potential mechanism of the radiosensitivity effect of SAHA in Panc-1 cells and attempted to develop SAHA as a systemic treatment strategy for pancreatic cancer. Growth inhibition was detected by CCK-8 assay. Radiosensitizing enhancement ratio was determined by clonogenic assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis assay was detected using flow cytometry and annexin-V/PI...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254786/clinical-impact-of-tumor-dna-repair-expression-and-t-cell-infiltration-in-breast-cancers
#15
Andrew R Green, Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Reem Ali, Eleanor Grace Hodgson, Suha Atabani, Karen De Souza, Emad Rakha, Ian O Ellis, Srinivasan Madhusudan
Impaired DNA repair drives mutagenicity, which increases neoantigen load and immunogenicity. We investigated the expression of proteins involved in the DNA damage response (ATM, Chk2), double-strand break repair (BRCA1, BLM, WRN, RECQL4, RECQL5, TOPO2A, DNA-PKcs, Ku70/Ku80), nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), base excision repair (XRCC1, pol β, FEN1, PARP1), and immune responses (CD8, PD-1, PD-L1, FOXP3) in 1269 breast cancers and validated our findings in an independent estrogen receptor (ER)- cohort (n = 279)...
March 2, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238784/deacetylation-of-ku70-by-sirt6-attenuates-bax-mediated-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Na-Na Tao, Ji-Hua Ren, Hua Tang, Long-Kuan Ran, Hong-Zhong Zhou, Bo Liu, Ai-Long Huang, Juan Chen
SIRT6 is a class III histone deacetylase that has been implicated in HCC development. We previously reported that SIRT6 potentiated apoptosis evasion in hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting both Bax expression and mitochondrial translocalization. However, the mechanism underlying SIRT6-mediated inhibition of Bax mitochondrial localization remains elusive. In this study, we found that although SIRT6 had no effect on the expression level of Ku70, SIRT6 could interact with Ku70 and deacetylate it. The increased acetylation of Ku70 in SIRT6-depleted cells disrupt its interaction with Bax, which finally resulted in Bax mitochondrial translocalization...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186989/inhibiting-dna-pkcs-in-a-non-homologous-end-joining-pathway-in-response-to-dna-double-strand-breaks
#17
Jun Dong, Tian Zhang, Yufeng Ren, Zhenyu Wang, Clifton C Ling, Fuqiu He, Gloria C Li, Chengtao Wang, Bixiu Wen
DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a distinct factor in the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. We examined the crosstalk between key proteins in the DSB NHEJ repair pathway and cell cycle regulation and found that mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells deficient in DNA-PKcs or Ku70 were more vulnerable to ionizing radiation (IR) compared with wild-type cells and that DSB repair was delayed. γH2AX was associated with phospho-Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated kinase (Ser1987) and phospho-checkpoint effector kinase 1 (Ser345) foci for the arrest of cell cycle through the G2/M phase...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178195/overexpression-of-skp2-inhibits-the-radiation-induced-bystander-effects-of-esophageal-carcinoma
#18
Xiao-Chun Wang, Tie-Jun Zhang, Zi-Jian Guo, Chang-Yan Xiao, Xiao-Wen Ding, Fang Fang, Wen-Tao Sheng, Xu Shu, Jue Li
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2) expression on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in esophageal cancer (EC) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Western blot was used to detect the levels of SKP2, Rad51, and Ku70 in EC cells. Positive transfection, RNAi, micronucleus (MN), and γ-H2AX focus formation assay were used to investigate the effects of SKP2 on RIBE induced by irradiated cells. RESULTS: We found a significant negative correlation between SKP2 expression and MN frequency (p < 0...
February 6, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176781/rad52-competes-with-ku70-ku86-for-binding-to-s-region-dsb-ends-to-modulate-antibody-class-switch-dna-recombination
#19
Hong Zan, Connie Tat, Zhifang Qiu, Julia R Taylor, Justin A Guerrero, Tian Shen, Paolo Casali
Antibody class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) is initiated by AID-introduced DSBs in the switch (S) regions targeted for recombination, as effected by Ku70/Ku86-mediated NHEJ. Ku-deficient B cells, however, undergo (reduced) CSR through an alternative(A)-NHEJ pathway, which introduces microhomologies in S-S junctions. As microhomology-mediated end-joining requires annealing of single-strand DNA ends, we addressed the contribution of single-strand annealing factors HR Rad52 and translesion DNA polymerase θ to CSR...
February 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166612/acute-exercise-activates-p38-mapk-and-increases-the-expression-of-telomere-protective-genes-in-cardiac-muscle
#20
Andrew T Ludlow, Laila Gratidão, Lindsay W Ludlow, Espen E Spangenburg, Stephen M Roth
What is the central question of this study? A positive association between telomere length and exercise training has been shown in cardiac tissue of mice. It is currently unknown how each bout of exercise influences telomere-length-regulating proteins. We sought to determine how a bout of exercise altered the expression of telomere-length-regulating genes and a related signalling pathway in cardiac tissue of mice. What is the main finding and its importance? Acute exercise altered the expression of telomere-length-regulating genes in cardiac tissue and might be related to altered mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling...
April 1, 2017: Experimental Physiology
keyword
keyword
48114
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"