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Hop V Phan, Richard Wickham, Sihuang Xie, James A McDonald, Stuart J Khan, Hao H Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Long D Nghiem
A pilot-scale study was conducted to investigate the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Of the 44 TrOCs monitored, 24 were detected in all primary sludge samples. Phase distribution of TrOCs was correlated well with their hydrophobicity (>67% mass in the solid phase when LogD > 1.5). The pilot-scale anaerobic digester achieved a steady performance with a specific methane yield of 0.39-0.92 L/gVSremoved and methane composition of 63-65% despite considerable variation in the primary sludge...
February 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Vadim V Annenkov, Elena N Danilovtseva, Viktor A Pal'shin, Olga N Verkhozina, Tatyana A Shishlyannikova, Graham J Hickman, Carole C Perry
Siliceous frustules of diatom algae contain unique long-chain polyamines, including those having more than six nitrogen atoms. These polyamines participate in the formation of the siliceous frustules of the diatoms but their precise physiological role is not clear. The main hypotheses include formation of a polyamine and polyphosphate supramolecular matrix. We have synthesized novel fluorescent dyes from a synthetic oligomeric mixture of polyamines and the fluorophore 7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole. The long polyamine chain ensures the high affinity of these dyes to silica, which allows their application in the staining of siliceous materials, such as valves of diatom algae and fossilized samples from sediments...
February 17, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zekrayat J H Medras, Norhan M El-Sayed, Sawsan A Zaitone, Eman A Toraih, Manal M Sami, Yasser M Moustafa
BACKGROUND: Glutamine aminoacid regulates insulin exocytosis from pancreatic β-cells. Liraglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue that has fascinated function in inhibiting β-cell apoptosis and preserving pancreatic β-cell mass. The present study investigated the benefit of adding glutamine to a regimen of liraglutide in diabetic rats focusing on their role in increasing insulin production and upregulation of the expression of sodium-dependent neutral aminoacid transporter-2 (SNAT2)...
October 25, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Eliana V Carraça, Joreintje D Mackenbach, Jeroen Lakerveld, Harry Rutter, Jean-Michel Oppert, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Sofie Compernolle, Célina Roda, Helga Bardos, Pedro J Teixeira
A considerable proportion of European adults report little or no interest in physical activity. Identifying individual-level and environmental-level characteristics of these individuals can help designing effective interventions and policies to promote physical activity. This cross-sectional study additionally explored associations between level of interest and physical activity, after controlling for other individual and environmental variables. Measures of objective and perceived features of the physical environment of residence, self-reported physical activity and other lifestyle behaviors, barriers towards physical activity, general health, and demographics were obtained from 5205 European adults participating in the 2014 online SPOTLIGHT survey...
February 20, 2018: Preventive Medicine
V A D'Ávila, L C Reis, W F Barbosa, G C Cutler, J B Torres, R N C Guedes
Sublethal insecticide exposure may affect foraging of insects, including natural enemies, although the subject is usually neglected. The lady beetle Eriopis connexa (Germar, 1824) (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is an important predator of aphids with existing pyrethroid-resistant populations that are undergoing scrutiny for potential use in pest management systems characterized by frequent insecticide use. However, the potential effect of sublethal pyrethroid exposure on this predator's foraging activity has not yet been assessed and may compromise its use in biological control...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Nicole J Fregosi, Deslyn T G Hobson, Casey L Kinman, Jeremy T Gaskins, J Ryan Stewart, Kate V Meriwether
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the effect of frequency of pessary removal on the vaginal microenvironment. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a multicenter randomized trial of hydroxyquinoline gel in women presenting for pessary fitting. Patients had vaginal secretions analyzed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 3 months. Patients were stratified by frequency of pessary removal at least once daily, at least once weekly, and less often than once weekly...
March 2018: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Alex V Rowlands, Deirdre M Harrington, Danielle H Bodicoat, Melanie J Davies, Lauren B Sherar, Trish Gorely, Kamlesh Khunti, Charlotte L Edwardson
PURPOSE: To determine the cross-sectional and cumulative compliance of adolescent girls to accelerometer wear at three deployment points and to identify variables associated with compliance. METHODS: Girls from 20 secondary schools were recruited: 10 schools were participating in the 'Girls Active' intervention and 10 were control schools. Physical activity was measured using the GENEActiv accelerometer worn on the non-dominant wrist 24 hours/day for up to 7-days at baseline, 7-months and 14-months...
February 23, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
L A Donovan, C E Wakefield, V Russell, Kate Hetherington, R J Cohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Death Studies
Ivan V Tereshchenko, Dmitry A Aksyonov, Oleg A Drozhzhin, Igor A Presniakov, Alexey V Sobolev, Andriy Zhugayevych, Daniil Striukov, Keith J Stevenson, Evgeny Antipov, Artem M Abakumov
Using the orthorhombic layered Na2FePO4F cathode material as a model system we identify the bonding of the alkali metal cations to the semi-labile oxygen atoms as an important factor affecting electrochemical activity of alkali cations in the polyanion structures. The semi-labile oxygens, bonded to the P and alkali cations, but not included into the FeO4F2 octahedra, experience severe undercoordination upon alkali cation deintercalation, causing an energy penalty for removing the alkali cations located in the proximity of such semi-labile oxygens...
February 23, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mark A Green, Daniel J Corsi, Ivan Mejía-Guevara, S V Subramanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
V Radosavljevic, M Adamek, V Milicevic, J Maksimovic-Zoric, D Steinhagen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 23, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
J Lim, A van Royen-Kerkhof, R E Jonkers, M V Starink, A E Voskuyl, A J van der Kooi
Idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM), commonly referred to as "myositis", is a rare but treatable auto-immune disease that is often misdiagnosed or diagnosed after significant delay. Using three clinical case reports as introductory examples, an overview is given - and pitfalls are discussed - of the diagnosis and treatment of myositis. Disease features are often extra-muscular in nature, may vary considerably between patients, and are frequently non-specific. Myositis-related morbidity is high and myositis can be fatal, mainly due to cancer and interstitial lung disease...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
M Ilie, J Benzaquen, V Hofman, S Lassalle, N Yazbeck, S Leroy, S Heeke, C Bence, B Mograbi, N Glaichenhaus, C H Marquette, P Hofman
Immunotherapy aims to amplify the anticancer immune response through reactivation of the lymphocytic response raised against several tumor neo-antigens. To obtain an effective immune response, this therapeutic approach requires that a number of immunological checkpoints be passed, such as the activation of excitatory costimulatory signals or the avoidance of coinhibitory molecules. Among the immune checkpoints, the interaction of the membrane-bound ligand PD-1 and its receptor PD-L1 has received much attention because of remarkable efficacy in numerous clinical trials for various cancer types, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
February 21, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
A H Saeidian, L Youssefian, M G Moreno Trevino, G Fortuna, H Vahidnezhad, V S Atanasova, J Uitto, J C Salas-Alanis, A P South
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB; OMIM #226600) is one of the most devastating subtypes of epidermolysis bullosa, a group of skin and mucous membrane blistering disorders often associated with extracutaneous manifestations. RDEB is caused by mutations in COL7A1, the gene encoding type VII collagen (C7), and to date over 700 different mutations in the 8835 nucleotides constituting the open reading frame or adjacent exon-intron boundaries of COL7A1 have been described. We used targeted next-generation sequencing to identify seven previously unreported mutations in a cohort of 17 Mexican patients who were diagnosed with RDEB based on clinical presentation and immunoepitope mapping...
February 23, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
Upekha E Liyanage, Matthew H Law, Jue Sheng Ong, Anne E Cust, Graham J Mann, Sarah V Ward, Puya Gharahkhani, Mark M Iles, Stuart MacGregor
Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer, mainly affecting populations of European ancestry. Some observational studies suggest that particular diets reduce melanoma risk - putatively through an increase in polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption. However, interpretation of these observational findings is difficult due to residual confounding or reverse causality. To date, a randomised controlled trial has not been carried out to examine the relationship between PUFAs and melanoma. Hence, we performed a Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to evaluate the link between PUFAs and melanoma...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
A Bracke, S Schäfer, V von Bohlen Und Halbach, F Klempin, K Bente, K Bracke, D Staar, J van den Brandt, S Harzsch, M Bader, U O Wenzel, J Peters, O von Bohlen Und Halbach
The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR], also known as ATP6AP2 [ATPase 6 accessory protein 2], is highly expressed in the brain. ATP6AP2 plays a role in early brain development, adult hippocampal neurogenesis and in cognitive functions. Lack of ATP6AP2 has deleterious effects, and mutations of ATP6AP2 in humans are associated with, e.g. X-linked intellectual disability. However, little is known about the effects of over-expression of ATP6AP2 in the adult brain. We hypothesized that mice over-expressing ATP6AP2 in the brain might exhibit altered neuroanatomical features and behavioural responses...
February 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Erin J Viere, Ashley E Kuhn, Margaret H Roeder, Nicholas A Piro, W Scott Kassel, Timothy J Dudley, Jared J Paul
Attaining high oxidation states at the metal center of transition metal complexes is a key design principle for many catalytic processes. One way to support high oxidation state chemistry is to utilize ligands that are electron-donating in nature. Understanding the structural and electronic changes of metal complexes as higher oxidation states are reached is critical towards designing more robust catalysts that are able to turn over at high rates without decomposing. To this end, we report herein the changes in structural and electronic properties as [Ru(bpy)2 (44'bpy(OH)2 )]2+ is oxidized to [Ru(bpy)2 (44'bpy(OH)2 )]3+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; 44'bpy(OH)2 = 4,4'-dihydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine)...
February 23, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Felipe Flores-Santibáñez, Bárbara Cuadra, Dominique Fernández, Mariana V Rosemblatt, Sarah Núñez, Pablo Cruz, Felipe Gálvez-Cancino, J César Cárdenas, Alvaro Lladser, Mario Rosemblatt, María Rosa Bono, Daniela Sauma
Memory CD8+ T cells are ideal candidates for cancer immunotherapy because they can mediate long-term protection against tumors. However, the therapeutic potential of different in vitro -generated CD8+ T cell effector subsets to persist and become memory cells has not been fully characterized. Type 1 CD8+ T (Tc1) cells produce interferon-γ and are endowed with high cytotoxic capacity, whereas IL-17-producing CD8+ T (Tc17) cells are less cytotoxic but display enhanced self-renewal capacity. We sought to evaluate the functional properties of in vitro -generated Tc17 cells and elucidate their potential to become long lasting memory cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Daniel Castillo, Diliana Pérez-Reytor, Nicolás Plaza, Sebastián Ramírez-Araya, Carlos J Blondel, Gino Corsini, Roberto Bastías, David E Loyola, Víctor Jaña, Leonardo Pavez, Katherine García
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis worldwide. As reported in other countries, after the rise and fall of the pandemic strain in Chile, other post-pandemic strains have been associated with clinical cases, including strains lacking the major toxins TDH and TRH. Since the presence or absence of tdh and trh genes has been used for diagnostic purposes and as a proxy of the virulence of V. parahaemolyticus isolates, the understanding of virulence in V. parahaemolyticus strains lacking toxins is essential to detect these strains present in water and marine products to avoid possible food-borne infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Gerard J Marek, Brian P Ramos
5-Hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A ) receptors are enriched in layers I and Va of the rat prefrontal cortex and neocortex and their activation increases the frequency of glutamatergic excitatory post-synaptic potentials/currents (EPSP/Cs) onto layer V pyramidal cells. A number of other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are also enriched in cortical layers I and Va and either induce (α1 -adrenergic and orexin2 ) or suppress (metabotropic glutamate2 [mGlu2 ], adenosine A1 , μ-opioid) both 5-HT-induced EPSCs and head twitches or head shakes induced by the phenethylamine hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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