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Cassandra Borges Bortolon, Taís de Campos Moreira, Luciana Signor, Bárbara Léa Guahyba, Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Maristela Ferigolo, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros
Families of substance abusers may develop maladaptive strategies, such as codependency, to address drug-related problems. It is important for families to receive specialist treatment in order to contribute to the recovery process. The Tele-intervention Model and Monitoring of Families of Drug Users (TMMFDU), based on motivational interviewing and stages of change, aims to encourage the family to change the codependents' behaviors. A randomized clinical trial was carried out to verify the change in codependent behavior after intervention with 6 months of follow-up...
October 18, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Jie Lyu, Jinfeng Cao, Peiming Zhang, Yang Liu, Hongtao Cheng
The processes governing tumor growth and angiogenesis are codependent. To study the relationship between them, we proposed a coupled hybrid continuum-discrete model. In this model, tumor cells, their microenvironment (extracellular matrixes, matrix-degrading enzymes, and tumor angiogenic factors), and their network of blood vessels, described by a series of discrete points, were considered. The results of numerical simulation reveal the process of tumor growth and the change in microenvironment from avascular to vascular stage, indicating that the network of blood vessels develops gradually as the tumor grows...
2016: PloS One
Yianzhu Liu, Wenhao Chen, Chenglin Wu, Laurie J Minze, Jacek Z Kubiak, Xian C Li, Malgorzata Kloc, Rafik M Ghobrial
BACKGROUND: The cellular and molecular mechanisms of chronic rejection of transplanted organs remain obscure; however, macrophages are known to play a critical role in the injury and repair of allografts. Among multiple factors influencing macrophage infiltration to allografts, the fractalkine chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1(CX3CL1)/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) signaling pathway and actin cytoskeleton, which is regulated by a small guanosine-5׳-triphosphatase Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA), are of the utmost importance...
August 20, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Alejandro Pezza, Lucas B Pontel, Carolina López, Fernando C Soncini
Copper homeostasis is essential for bacterial pathogen fitness and infection, and has been the focus of a number of recent studies. In Salmonella, envelope protection against copper overload and macrophage survival depends on CueP, a major copper-binding protein in the periplasm. This protein is also required to deliver the metal ion to the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase SodCII. The Salmonella-specific CueP-coding gene was originally identified as part of the Cue regulon under the transcriptional control of the cytoplasmic copper sensor CueR, but its expression differs from the rest of CueR-regulated genes...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cameron S Cowan, Jasdeep Sabharwal, Samuel M Wu
Reverse correlation methods such as spike-triggered averaging consistently identify the spatial center in the linear receptive fields (RFs) of retinal ganglion cells (GCs). However, the spatial antagonistic surround observed in classical experiments has proven more elusive. Tests for the antagonistic surround have heretofore relied on models that make questionable simplifying assumptions such as space-time separability and radial homogeneity/symmetry. We circumvented these, along with other common assumptions, and observed a linear antagonistic surround in 754 of 805 mouse GCs...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Logan W Cole
Organelles with their own distinct genomes, such as plastids and mitochondria, are found in most eukaryotic cells. As these organelles and their host cells have evolved, the partitioning of metabolic processes and the encoding of interacting gene products have created an obligate codependence. This relationship has played a role in shaping the number of organelles in cells through evolution. Factors such as stochastic evolutionary forces acting on genes involved in organelle biogenesis, organelle-nuclear gene interactions, and physical limitations may, to varying degrees, dictate the selective constraint that per-cell organelle number is under...
2016: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Ricardo Á González-Menéndez
Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications...
July 2016: MEDICC Review
A V Merinov, D I Shustov, A V Lukashuk
AIM: To explore how alcoholism of the husband impacts the dynamics of the marriage. The authors assume and justify the existence of isolated clinical/phenomenological types of marriages in these families: with permanently closed, primarily and secondary opened marriage systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: It has been examined 125 families with special questionnaire. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Demonstrated that no common scenario exists for spouses, in particular, for co-dependent reaction of the wife...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Erika T Camacho, Thierry Léveillard, José-Alain Sahel, Stephen Wirkus
Understanding the essential components and processes for coexistence of rods and cones is at the forefront of retinal research. The recent discovery on RdCVF's mechanism and mode of action for enhancing cone survival brings us a step closer to unraveling key questions of coexistence and codependence of these neurons. In this work, we build from ecological and enzyme kinetic work on functional response kinetics and present a mathematical model that allows us to investigate the role of RdCVF and its contribution to glucose intake...
July 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Jiliang Liu, Jeong Im Kim, Joanne C Cusumano, Clint Chapple, Nagarajan Venugopalan, Robert F Fischetti, Lee Makowski
BACKGROUND: Coordination of synthesis and assembly of the polymeric components of cell walls is essential for plant growth and development. Given the degree of co-mingling and cross-linking among cell wall components, cellulose organization must be dependent on the organization of other polymers such as lignin. Here we seek to identify aspects of that codependency by studying the structural organization of cellulose fibrils in stems from Arabidopsis plants harboring mutations in genes encoding enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Hsin-Hsi Lo, Hsin-Hua Lin, Amarendra Nath Maity, Shyue-Chu Ke
How a protein domain motion is coupled to the catalytic cycle is a current subject in enzymology. We render down a complicated domain motion in the 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate codependent radical enzyme, lysine 5,6-aminomutase, into dominant contributions from Lys370α and Asp298α to the critical Co-C bond cleavage trigger and open-closed cycle transitions.
May 11, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Eric Hochstein
There is a long-standing debate in the philosophy of mind and philosophy of science regarding how best to interpret the relationship between neuroscience and psychology. It has traditionally been argued that either the two domains will evolve and change over time until they converge on a single unified account of human behaviour, or else that they will continue to work in isolation given that they identify properties and states that exist autonomously from one another (due to the multiple-realizability of psychological states)...
April 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
Meirav Pevsner-Fischer, Timur Tuganbaev, Mariska Meijer, Sheng-Hong Zhang, Zhi-Rong Zeng, Min-Hu Chen, Eran Elinav
"The forgotten organ", the human microbiome, comprises a community of microorganisms that colonizes various sites of the human body. Through coevolution of bacteria, archaea and fungi with the human host over thousands of years, a complex host-microbiome relationship emerged in which many functions, including metabolism and immune responses, became codependent. This coupling becomes evident when disruption in the microbiome composition, termed dysbiosis, is mirrored by the development of pathologies in the host...
April 10, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
Shih-Hua Chang
The purpose of this study was to test a model of codependency based on Bowen's concept of differentiation for college students in Taiwan. The relations between family-of-origin dysfunction, differentiation of self, codependency traits and related symptoms including low self-esteem, relationship distress and psychological adjustment problems were examined. Data were collected from 567 college students from 2 large, urban universities in northern Taiwan. Results indicated a significantly negative relationship between levels of codependency and self-differentiation and that self-differentiation partially mediated the relationship between family-of-origin dysfunction and codependency...
April 1, 2016: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
John S Runge, Jesse R Raab, Terry Magnuson
Cells utilize precise mechanisms to access genomic DNA with spatiotemporal accuracy. ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes (also known simply as "remodelers") comprise a specialized class of enzymes that is intimately involved in genomic organization and accessibility. Remodelers selectively position nucleosomes to either alleviate chromatin compaction or achieve genomic condensation locally, based on a multitude of cellular signals. By dictating nucleosome position, remodelers control local euchromatic and heterochromatic states...
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
George Hajishengallis, Richard J Lamont
Many diseases that originate on mucosal membranes ensue from the action of polymicrobial communities of indigenous organisms working in concert to disrupt homeostatic mechanisms. Multilevel physical and chemical communication systems among constituent organisms underlie polymicrobial synergy and dictate the community's pathogenic potential or nososymbiocity, that is, disease arising from living together with a susceptible host. Functional specialization of community participants, often originating from metabolic codependence, has given rise to several newly appreciated designations within the commensal-to-pathogen spectrum...
June 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Nataša Obermajer, Marc H Dahlke
Codependent development and Th17-to-FoxP3(+) T cell inter-conversion account for the enigmatic coexistence of IL17-producing and FoxP3(+) cells in tumor-associated inflammation. In addition to Treg cells, exTh17-FoxP3(+) cells present a novel subpopulation of FoxP3(+) cells. Yin-yang of IL17(+) and FoxP3(+) cells presents an important principle for improved approaches in cancer immunotherapy.
2016: Oncoimmunology
Claire Rooney, Catherine Geh, Victoria Williams, Johannes M Heuckmann, Roopika Menon, Petra Schneider, Katherine Al-Kadhimi, Michael Dymond, Neil R Smith, Dawn Baker, Tim French, Paul D Smith, Elizabeth A Harrington, J Carl Barrett, Elaine Kilgour
FGFR1 amplification occurs in ~20% of sqNSCLC and trials with FGFR inhibitors have selected FGFR1 amplified patients by FISH. Lung cancer cell lines were profiled for sensitivity to AZD4547, a potent, selective inhibitor of FGFRs 1-3. Sensitivity to FGFR inhibition was associated with but not wholly predicted by increased FGFR1 gene copy number. Additional biomarker assays evaluating expression of FGFRs and correlation between amplification and expression in clinical tissues are therefore warranted. We validated nanoString for mRNA expression analysis of 194 genes, including FGFRs, from clinical tumour tissue...
2016: PloS One
Cassandra Borges Bortolon, Luciana Signor, Taís de Campos Moreira, Luciana Rizzieri Figueiró, Mariana Canellas Benchaya, Cássio Andrade Machado, Maristela Ferigolo, Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros
UNLABELLED: Substance abuse affects both the user and the family system as a whole, yet substance abuse treatment is centered on the user, leaving the family in the background. OBJECTIVE: To identify the symptoms of codependency and health issues in the codependent family members of drug users who called a toll-free telephone counseling service. In total, 505 family members participated in this cross-sectional study. Drug users' mothers and wives who had less than 8 years of education and those who were unemployed had a greater chance of high codependency...
January 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
JoAnn M Tufariello, Jessica R Chapman, Christopher A Kerantzas, Ka-Wing Wong, Catherine Vilchèze, Christopher M Jones, Laura E Cole, Emir Tinaztepe, Victor Thompson, David Fenyö, Michael Niederweis, Beatrix Ueberheide, Jennifer A Philips, William R Jacobs
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes five type VII secretion systems (T7SS), designated ESX-1-ESX-5, that are critical for growth and pathogenesis. The best characterized is ESX-1, which profoundly impacts host cell interactions. In contrast, the ESX-3 T7SS is implicated in metal homeostasis, but efforts to define its function have been limited by an inability to recover deletion mutants. We overcame this impediment using medium supplemented with various iron complexes to recover mutants with deletions encompassing select genes within esx-3 or the entire operon...
January 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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