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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30147433/off-line-synthesis-of-evolutionarily-stable-normative-systems
#1
Javier Morales, Michael Wooldridge, Juan A Rodríguez-Aguilar, Maite López-Sánchez
Within the area of multi-agent systems, normative systems are a widely used framework for the coordination of interdependent activities. A crucial problem associated with normative systems is that of synthesising norms that will effectively accomplish a coordination task and that the agents will comply with. Many works in the literature focus on the on-line synthesis of a single, evolutionarily stable norm (convention) whose compliance forms a rational choice for the agents and that effectively coordinates them in one particular coordination situation that needs to be identified and modelled as a game in advance...
2018: Autonomous Agents and Multi-agent Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107467/relationship-between-brain-arterial-pathology-and-neurocognitive-performance-among-individuals-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#2
Jose Gutierrez, Desiree Byrd, Michael T Yin, Susan Morgello
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+) individuals have higher rates of cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease compared with uninfected populations. We hypothesize that cerebrovascular disease, specifically brain large artery disease, may play a role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Methods: Participants (N = 94) in the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank study were followed on average 32 ± 33 months with repeated neuropsychological examinations until death...
August 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074434/experiences-and-expertise-of-codependency-repetition-claim-coupling-and-enthusiasm
#3
Katarina Winter
Arenas where experts interact with publics are useful platforms for communication and interaction between actors in the field of public health: researchers, practitioners, clinicians, patients, and laypersons. Such coalitions are central to the analysis of knowledge coproduction. This study investigates an initiative for assembling expert and other significant knowledge which seeks to create better interventions and solutions to addiction-related problems, in this case codependency. But what and whose knowledge is communicated, and how? The study explores how processes of repetition, claim-coupling, and enthusiasm produce a community based on three boundary beliefs: (1) victimized codependent children failed by an impaired society; (2) the power of daring and sharing; and (3) the (brain) disease model as the scientific representative and explanation for (co)dependence...
August 3, 2018: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071289/balance-and-circumstance-the-renin-angiotensin-system-in-wound-healing-and-fibrosis
#4
REVIEW
Rocco Bernasconi, Alexander Nyström
The tissue renin angiotensin system (tRAS) is a locally-acting master-modulator of tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Through these abilities, it is emerging as an attractive target for therapies aiming to restore tissue homeostasis in conditions associated with disturbed wound healing. The tRAS can be divided into two axes - one being pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic and one being anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic. However, the division of the axes is fuzzy and imperfect as the axes are codependent and the outcome of tRAS activation is determined by the context...
November 2018: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899869/direct-molecular-dissection-of-tumor-parenchyma-from-tumor-stroma-in-tumor-xenograft-using-mass-spectrometry-based-glycoproteomics
#5
Xiaoying Ye, Brian T Luke, Bih-Rong Wei, Jan A Kaczmarczyk, Jadranka Loncarek, Jennifer E Dwyer, Donald J Johann, Richard G Saul, Dwight V Nissley, Frank McCormick, Gordon R Whiteley, Josip Blonder
The most widely used cancer animal model is the human-murine tumor xenograft. Unbiased molecular dissection of tumor parenchyma versus stroma in human-murine xenografts is critical for elucidating dysregulated protein networks/pathways and developing therapeutics that may target these two functionally codependent compartments. Although antibody-reliant technologies (e.g., immunohistochemistry, imaging mass cytometry) are capable of distinguishing tumor-proper versus stromal proteins, the breadth or extent of targets is limited...
May 29, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875853/prevalence-and-predictors-of-depression-after-stroke-results-from-a-prospective-study
#6
Danijela Vojtikiv-Samoilovska, Anita Arsovska
BACKGROUND: A depression following a stroke (Post Stoke Depression-PSD) is the most common complication of a stroke that has a negative effect on the result after the stroke. A better definition of the risk factors of the disease will provide for better prediction and treatment. AIM: To research identification of the risk factors for PSD, typical for the Macedonian population, which will help in early prediction, timely diagnosis and treatment of the disease? MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a prospective study in order to determine the prevalence and the risk factors of PSD in 100 patients treated at the hospital in Tetovo...
May 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848439/metabolic-co-dependence-drives-the-evolutionarily-ancient-hydra-chlorella-symbiosis
#7
Mayuko Hamada, Katja Schröder, Jay Bathia, Ulrich Kürn, Sebastian Fraune, Mariia Khalturina, Konstantin Khalturin, Chuya Shinzato, Nori Satoh, Thomas Cg Bosch
Many multicellular organisms rely on symbiotic associations for support of metabolic activity, protection, or energy. Understanding the mechanisms involved in controlling such interactions remains a major challenge. In an unbiased approach we identified key players that control the symbiosis between Hydra viridissima and its photosynthetic symbiont Chlorella sp. A99. We discovered significant up-regulation of Hydra genes encoding a phosphate transporter and glutamine synthetase suggesting regulated nutrition supply between host and symbionts...
May 31, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779738/culture-and-art-importance-of-art-practice-not-aesthetics-to-early-human-culture
#8
Dahlia W Zaidel
Art is expressed in multiple formats in today's human cultures. Physical traces of stone tools and other archaeological landmarks suggest early nonart cultural behavior and symbolic cognition in the early Homo sapiens (HS) who emerged ~300,000-200,000 years ago in Africa. Fundamental to art expression is the neural underpinning for symbolic cognition, and material art is considered its prime example. However, prior to producing material art, HS could have exploited symbolically through art-rooted biological neural pathways for social purpose, namely, those controlling interpersonal motoric coordination and sound codependence...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610314/role-of-metabolic-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-regulating-biofilm-colony-expansion
#9
Federico Bocci, Yoko Suzuki, Mingyang Lu, José N Onuchic
Cell fate determination is typically regulated by biological networks, yet increasing evidences suggest that cell-cell communication and environmental stresses play crucial roles in the behavior of a cell population. A recent microfluidic experiment showed that the metabolic codependence of two cell populations generates a collective oscillatory dynamic during the expansion of a Bacillus subtilis biofilm. We develop a modeling framework for the spatiotemporal dynamics of the associated metabolic circuit for cells in a colony...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543371/immune-tolerance-induction-what-have-we-learned-over-time
#10
REVIEW
H-H Brackmann, G C White, E Berntorp, T Andersen, C Escuriola-Ettingshausen
Development of inhibitory antibodies to infused factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates continues to be the most serious complication of haemophilia A management. Induction of immune tolerance by administering high doses of FVIII concentrate (antigen) and prothrombin complex concentrates to control bleeding was originated in the 1970s in Bonn, Germany, by Dr Hans-Hermann Brackmann, and became known as the Bonn protocol. ITI transformed the life of the index patient, who was 19 years of age when he began treatment, and dramatically improved the medical landscape for all patients with haemophilia and inhibitors...
April 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496751/towards-a-national-genomics-medicine-service-the-challenges-facing-clinical-research-hybrid-practices-and-the-case-of-the-100-000-genomes-project
#11
Sandi Dheensa, Gabrielle Samuel, Anneke M Lucassen, Bobbie Farsides
Clinical practice and research are governed by distinct rules and regulations and have different approaches to, for example, consent and providing results. However, genomics is an example of where research and clinical practice have become codependent. The 100 000 genomes project (100kGP) is a hybrid venture where a person can obtain a clinical investigation only if he or she agrees to also participate in ongoing research-including research by industry and commercial companies. In this paper, which draws on 20 interviews with professional stakeholders involved in 100kGP, we investigate the ethical issues raised by this project's hybrid nature...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468050/functional-macronutritional-generalism-in-a-large-omnivore-the-brown-bear
#12
REVIEW
Sean C P Coogan, David Raubenheimer, Gordon B Stenhouse, Nicholas C Coops, Scott E Nielsen
We combine a recently developed framework for describing dietary generalism with compositional data analysis to examine patterns of omnivory in a large widely distributed mammal. Using the brown bear ( Ursus arctos ) as a model species, we collected and analyzed data from the literature to estimate the proportions of macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, and lipid) in the diets of bear populations. Across their range, bears consumed a diversity of foods that resulted in annual population diets that varied in macronutrient proportions, suggesting a wide fundamental macronutrient niche...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462108/disulfiram-attenuates-morphine-or-methadone-withdrawal-syndrome-in-mice
#13
Anna de Cordé, Paweł Krząścik, Renata Wolińska, Patrycja Kleczkowska, Małgorzata Filip, Magdalena Bujalska-Zadrożny
Taking opioids is often accompanied by the development of dependence. Unfortunately, treatment of opioid dependence is difficult, particularly because of codependence - for example, on alcohol or other drugs of abuse. In the presented study, we analyzed the potential influence of disulfiram, a drug used to aid the management of alcoholism, on opioid abstinence syndrome, which occurs as a result of opioid withdrawal. Opioid dependence in mice was induced by subcutaneous administration of either morphine or methadone at a dose of 48 mg/kg for 10 consecutive days...
August 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352125/biomolecular-regulation-composition-and-nanoarchitecture-of-bone-mineral
#14
Atharva A Poundarik, Adele Boskey, Caren Gundberg, Deepak Vashishth
Tough natural nanocomposites like bone, nacre and sea sponges contain within their hierarchy, a mineral (phosphate, silicate or carbonate) phase that interacts with an organic phase. In bone, the role of mineral ultrastructure (organization, morphology, composition) is crucial to the mechanical and biological properties of the tissue. Better understanding of mineral interaction with the organic matrix, in particular non-collagenous proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN), can lead to better design of biomimetic materials...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281752/associations-among-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-fungi-and-seedlings-are-predicted-to-change-with-tree-successional-status
#15
Benedicte Bachelot, María Uriarte, Robert Muscarella, Jimena Forero-Montaña, Jill Thompson, Krista McGuire, Jess Zimmerman, Nathan G Swenson, James S Clark
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the soil may influence tropical tree dynamics and forest succession. The mechanisms are poorly understood, because the functional characteristics and abundances of tree species and AM fungi are likely to be codependent. We used generalized joint attribute modeling to evaluate if AM fungi are associated with three forest community metrics for a sub-tropical montane forest in Puerto Rico. The metrics chosen to reflect changes during forest succession are the abundance of seedlings of different successional status, the amount of foliar damage on seedlings of different successional status, and community-weighted mean functional trait values (adult specific leaf area [SLA], adult wood density, and seed mass)...
March 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195270/compositional-proteomics-effects-of-spatial-constraints-on-protein-quantification-utilizing-isobaric-tags
#16
Jonathon J O'Brien, Jeremy D O'Connell, Joao A Paulo, Sanjukta Thakurta, Christopher M Rose, Michael P Weekes, Edward L Huttlin, Steven P Gygi
Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an accessible tool for whole proteome quantitation with the ability to characterize protein expression across thousands of proteins within a single experiment. A subset of MS quantification methods (e.g., SILAC and label-free) monitor the relative intensity of intact peptides, where thousands of measurements can be made from a single mass spectrum. An alternative approach, isobaric labeling, enables precise quantification of multiple samples simultaneously through unique and sample specific mass reporter ions...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116977/the-evolving-purposes-of-medical-revalidation-in-the-united-kingdom-a-qualitative-study-of-professional-and-regulatory-narratives
#17
Abigail Tazzyman, Jane Ferguson, Kieran Walshe, Alan Boyd, John Tredinnick-Rowe, Charlotte Hillier, Samantha Regan De Bere, Julian Archer
PURPOSE: Previous research found professionalism and regulation to be competing discourses when plans for medical revalidation in the United Kingdom were being developed in 2011. The purpose of this study was to explore how these competing discourses developed and how the perceived purposes of revalidation evolved as the policy was implemented. METHOD: Seventy-one interviews with 60 UK policy makers and senior health care leaders were conducted during the development and implementation of revalidation: 31 in 2011, 26 in 2013, and 14 in 2015...
November 7, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101114/synthetic-lethal-vulnerabilities-in-kras-mutant-cancers
#18
REVIEW
Andrew J Aguirre, William C Hahn
KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human cancer. Most KRAS -mutant cancers depend on sustained expression and signaling of KRAS, thus making it a high-priority therapeutic target. Unfortunately, development of direct small molecule inhibitors of KRAS function has been challenging. An alternative therapeutic strategy for KRAS -mutant malignancies involves targeting codependent vulnerabilities or synthetic lethal partners that are preferentially essential in the setting of oncogenic KRAS. KRAS activates numerous effector pathways that mediate proliferation and survival signals...
August 1, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081909/geometric-comparison-of-the-mitral-and-tricuspid-valve-annulus-insights-from-three-dimensional-transesophageal-echocardiography
#19
Amgad N Makaryus, Haisam Ismail, John N Makaryus, Dali Fan
AIM: To apply real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D TEE) for quantitative and qualitative assessment of the mitral valve annulus (MVA) and tricuspid valve annulus (TVA) in the same patient. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study examined the MVA and TVA in 49 patients by RT3D TEE. MVA and TVA shape were examined by TEE. The MVA and TVA volume data set images were acquired in the mid esophageal 4-chamber view. The MVA and TVA were acquired separately, with optimization of each for the highest frame rate and image quality...
September 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079959/integrating-natural-language-processing-and-machine-learning-algorithms-to-categorize-oncologic-response-in-radiology-reports
#20
Po-Hao Chen, Hanna Zafar, Maya Galperin-Aizenberg, Tessa Cook
A significant volume of medical data remains unstructured. Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning (ML) techniques have shown to successfully extract insights from radiology reports. However, the codependent effects of NLP and ML in this context have not been well-studied. Between April 1, 2015 and November 1, 2016, 9418 cross-sectional abdomen/pelvis CT and MR examinations containing our internal structured reporting element for cancer were separated into four categories: Progression, Stable Disease, Improvement, or No Cancer...
April 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
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