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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445871/three-year-clinical-outcome-of-patients-with-coronary-disease-and-increased-event-risk-treated-with-newer-generation-drug-eluting-stents-from-the-randomized-dutch-peers-trial
#1
Liefke C van der Heijden, Marlies M Kok, Marije M Löwik, Peter W Danse, Gillian A J Jessurun, Marc Hartmann, Martin G Stoel, K Gert van Houwelingen, Raymond W M Hautvast, Gerard C Linssen, Carine J M Doggen, Clemens von Birgelen
OBJECTIVE: Limited data is available on the long-term outcome of patients with increased cardiovascular event risk, treated with newer-generation durable polymer drug-eluting stents (DES). METHODS: We therefore assessed 3-year follow-up data of high-risk versus low- to intermediate-risk patients of the randomized DUTCH PEERS trial (NCT01331707). In both risk groups we also compared patients treated with Resolute Integrity versus Promus Element DES. Patients were categorized as "high-risk" if they met ≥1 of the following criteria: (1) diabetes (17...
April 27, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444922/regulation-of-organelle-function-by-metformin
#2
REVIEW
Jeongho Kim, Young-Jai You
Metformin ameliorates hyperglycemia without the side effects of lactic acidosis or hypoglycemia. Metformin lowers the blood glucose level by decreasing hepatic glucose production in the liver and by increasing glucose uptake in the muscle. Recent studies show that metformin induces cell death in certain cancer cell lines by interfering with the metabolism of the cancer cells. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of action for metformin will provide insights into how to better treat diabetes and other metabolic disorders and also into the development of new therapeutic drugs...
April 26, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437809/reactive-rather-than-proactive-diabetes-management-in-the-perioperative-period
#3
Inge Hommel, Petra J van Gurp, Alfons A den Broeder, Hub Wollersheim, Femke Atsma, Marlies E J L Hulscher, Cees J Tack
As perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with poor postoperative patient outcomes, clinical guidelines provide recommendations for optimal perioperative glucose control. It is unclear to what extent recommended glucose levels are met in daily practice, and little is known about factors that influence these levels. We describe blood glucose levels throughout the hospital care pathway in 375 non-critically ill patients with diabetes who underwent major surgery (abdominal, cardiac, or orthopedic) in 6 hospitals, examine determinants of these levels including adherence to 9 quality indicators for optimal perioperative diabetes care, and perform qualitative interviews to identify barriers for optimal care...
April 24, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437620/american-association-of-clinical-endocrinologists-and-american-college-of-endocrinology-guidelines-for-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Paul S Jellinger, Yehuda Handelsman, Paul D Rosenblit, Zachary T Bloomgarden, Vivian A Fonseca, Alan J Garber, George Grunberger, Chris K Guerin, David S H Bell, Jeffrey I Mechanick, Rachel Pessah-Pollack, Kathleen Wyne, Donald Smith, Eliot A Brinton, Sergio Fazio, Michael Davidson
OBJECTIVE: The development of these guidelines is mandated by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Board of Directors and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Board of Trustees and adheres with published AACE protocols for the standardized production of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). METHODS: Recommendations are based on diligent reviews of the clinical evidence with transparent incorporation of subjective factors, according to established AACE/ACE guidelines for guidelines protocols...
April 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436599/metformin-as-targeted-treatment-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
Angel Belle C Dy, Flora Tassone, Marwa Eldeeb, María J Salcedo-Arellano, Nicole Tartaglia, Randi Hagerman
Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) may be affected by several comorbid conditions, both behavioral and medical. Growth findings suggest that they are at an increased risk for obesity and overeating. The Prader-Willi phenotype (PWP) of FXS occurs in less than 10% of patients but it is associated with severe hyperphagia, lack of satiation and morbid obesity. Metformin is a drug used in individuals with high risk for diabetes type 2, obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. It has had a strong safety profile in children and adults with type 2 diabetes and obesity...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436095/berberine-alleviates-oxidative-stress-in-islets-of-diabetic-mice-by-inhibiting-mir-106b-expression-and-up-regulating-sirt1
#6
Dong-Liang Chen, Ke-Ya Yang
BACKGROUND: Mounting studies have indicated the role of berberine, SIRT1 and oxidative stress in diabetes, respectively. However, few studies have demonstrated their correlation and regulation function in diabetes. Therefore, the protective effect of berberine in diabetic and the underlying core mechanism were investigated in the current study. METHODS: Diabetic mice model in vivo were established. Mouse pancreatic beta-cell line NIT-1 cells were treated with 30 mM high glucose to induce diabetic condition in vitro...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435304/comparative-effectiveness-of-glycemic-control-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-treated-with-glp-1-receptor-agonists-a-network-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-and-active-comparator-trials
#7
Michelle E Orme, Hiep Nguyen, Jackie Y Lu, Susan A Thomas
BACKGROUND: Clinical studies of patients with type 2 diabetes show that GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) improve glycemic control and promote weight loss. We conducted a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) of placebo- and active-controlled randomized trials to assess the comparative effectiveness of liraglutide, albiglutide, dulaglutide, and exenatide twice daily and once weekly, with a focus on glycemic control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library (up to December 2014) for core registration programs for US-approved GLP-1 RAs...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432748/future-challenges-and-therapeutic-opportunities-in-type-2-diabetes-changing-the-paradigm-of-current-therapy
#8
REVIEW
D R Owens, L Monnier, A H Barnett
Most algorithms for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do not recommend treatment escalation until glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) fails to reach the recommended target of 7% (53 mmol/mol) within approximately 3 months on any treatment regimen ('treat to failure'). Clinical inertia and/or poor adherence to therapy contribute to patients not reaching glycaemic targets when managed according to this paradigm. Clinical inertia exists across the entire spectrum of anti-diabetes therapies, although it is most pronounced when initiating and optimizing insulin therapy...
April 21, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432637/polluted-pathways-mechanisms-of-metabolic-disruption-by-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#9
REVIEW
Mizuho S Mimoto, Angel Nadal, Robert M Sargis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Environmental toxicants are increasingly implicated in the global decline in metabolic health. Focusing on diabetes, herein, the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which metabolism disrupting chemicals (MDCs) impair energy homeostasis are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data implicate MDC perturbations in a variety of pathways as contributors to metabolic disease pathogenesis, with effects in diverse tissues regulating fuel utilization...
April 21, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428634/lipid-droplets-and-liver-disease-from-basic-biology-to-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Nina L Gluchowski, Michel Becuwe, Tobias C Walther, Robert V Farese
Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles that store neutral lipids during times of energy excess and serve as an energy reservoir during deprivation. Many prevalent metabolic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome or obesity, often result in abnormal lipid accumulation in lipid droplets in the liver, also called hepatic steatosis. Obesity-related steatosis, or NAFLD in particular, is a major public health concern worldwide and is frequently associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here, we review the latest insights into the biology of lipid droplets and their role in maintaining lipid homeostasis in the liver...
April 21, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427304/translating-u-500r-randomized-clinical-trial-evidence-to-the-practice-setting-a-diabetes-educator-expert-prescriber-team-approach
#11
Paula M Bergen, Davida F Kruger, April D Taylor, Wael E Eid, Arti Bhan, Jeffrey A Jackson
Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide recommendations to the diabetes educator/expert prescriber team for the use of human regular U-500 insulin (U-500R) in patients with severely insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes, including its initiation and titration, by utilizing dosing charts and teaching materials translated from a recent U-500R clinical trial. Conclusions Clinically relevant recommendations and teaching materials for the optimal use and management of U-500R in clinical practice are provided based on the efficacy and safety results of and lessons learned from the U-500R clinical trial by Hood et al, current standards of practice, and the authors' clinical expertise...
April 1, 2017: Diabetes Educator
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426686/reactive-oxygen-species-are-required-for-driving-efficient-and-sustained-aerobic-glycolysis-during-cd4-t-cell-activation
#12
Dana M Previte, Erin C O'Connor, Elizabeth A Novak, Christina P Martins, Kevin P Mollen, Jon D Piganelli
The immune system is necessary for protecting against various pathogens. However, under certain circumstances, self-reactive immune cells can drive autoimmunity, like that exhibited in type 1 diabetes (T1D). CD4+ T cells are major contributors to the immunopathology in T1D, and in order to drive optimal T cell activation, third signal reactive oxygen species (ROS) must be present. However, the role ROS play in mediating this process remains to be further understood. Recently, cellular metabolic programs have been shown to dictate the function and fate of immune cells, including CD4+ T cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413978/advances-and-challenges-in-drug-design-of-ppar%C3%AE-ligands
#13
Vinicius Gonçalves Maltarollo, Thales Kronenberger, Björn Windshügel, Carsten Wrenger, Gustavo Henrique Goulart Trossini, Kathia Maria Honorio
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear receptors activated by endogenous fatty acids and prostaglandins that are classified into three types: α, γ and δ, which have different functions and tissue distribution. PPAR modulators have been exploited to the treatment of important metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, which are considered relevant epidemic diseases currently. Along the last decades, several studies have reported structural differences between the three PPAR subtypes associated with the discovery of selective ligands, dual and pan-agonists...
April 14, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410617/treatment-with-high-dose-n-3-pufas-has-no-effect-on-platelet-function-coagulation-metabolic-status-or-inflammation-in-patients-with-atherosclerosis-and-type-2-diabetes
#14
Malgorzata Poreba, Magdalena Mostowik, Aleksander Siniarski, Renata Golebiowska-Wiatrak, Krzysztof Piotr Malinowski, Maciej Haberka, Ewa Konduracka, Jadwiga Nessler, Anetta Undas, Grzegorz Gajos
BACKGROUND: Despite numerous studies on cardioprotective effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), there is limited evidence for n-3 PUFA-mediated effects, especially at its higher dose, on cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM2) and established atherosclerosis. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of daily treatment with a higher dose (2 g) of n-3 PUFAs on platelet function, coagulation parameters, fibrin clot properties, markers of systemic inflammation and metabolic status, in patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease and DM2 who receive optimal medical therapy...
April 14, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409493/obesity-in-pregnancy-a-novel-concept-on-the-roles-of-adipokines-in-uterine-contractility
#15
REVIEW
Judit Hajagos-Tóth, Eszter Ducza, Reza Samavati, Sandor G Vari, Robert Gaspar
Obesity is a global health problem even among pregnant women. Obesity alters quality of labor, such as preterm labor, prolonged labor, and higher oxytocin requirements in pregnant women. The most important factors to play a role in the altered gestational period and serve as drug targets to treat the consequences are female sexual hormones, calcium channels, adrenergic system, oxytocin, and prostaglandins. However, we have limited information about the impact of obesity on the pregnant uterine contractility and gestation time...
April 14, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408314/targeting-endothelial-metaflammation-to-counteract-diabesity-cardiovascular-risk-current-and-perspective-therapeutic-options
#16
REVIEW
Maria Assunta Potenza, Carmela Nacci, Maria Antonietta De Salvia, Luca Sgarra, Massimo Collino, Monica Montagnani
The association of obesity and diabetes, termed "diabesity", defines a combination of primarily metabolic disorders with insulin resistance as the underlying common pathophysiology. Cardiovascular disorders associated with diabesity represent the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. This makes diabesity, with its rising impacts on both health and economics, one of the most challenging biomedical and social threats of present century. The emerging comprehension of the genes whose alteration confers inter-individual differences on risk factors for diabetes or obesity, together with the potential role of genetically determined variants on mechanisms controlling responsiveness, effectiveness and safety of anti-diabetic therapy underlines the need of additional knowledge on molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of diabesity...
April 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405619/role-of-adenylyl-cyclase-6-in-the-development-of-lithium-induced-nephrogenic-diabetes-insipidus
#17
Søren Brandt Poulsen, Tina Bøgelund Kristensen, Heddwen L Brooks, Donald E Kohan, Timo Rieg, Robert A Fenton
Psychiatric patients treated with lithium (Li(+)) may develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Although the etiology of Li(+)-induced NDI (Li-NDI) is poorly understood, it occurs partially due to reduced aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression in the kidney collecting ducts. A mechanism postulated for this is that Li(+) inhibits adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity, leading to decreased cAMP, reduced AQP2 abundance, and less membrane targeting. We hypothesized that Li-NDI would not develop in mice lacking AC6. Whole-body AC6 knockout (AC6(-/-)) mice and potentially novel connecting tubule/principal cell-specific AC6 knockout (AC6(loxloxCre)) mice had approximately 50% lower urine osmolality and doubled water intake under baseline conditions compared with controls...
April 6, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405603/mtor-inhibition-by-everolimus-does-not-impair-closure-of-punch-biopsy-wounds-in-renal-transplant-patients
#18
Shelley B Dutt, Josephine Gonzales, Megan Boyett, Anne Costanzo, Peggy P Han, Steven Steinberg, Dianne B McKay, Julie M Jameson
BACKGROUND: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are approved to prevent allograft rejection and control malignancy. Unfortunately, they are associated with adverse effects, such as wound healing complications that detract from more extensive use. There is a lack of prospective wound healing studies to monitor patients treated with mTOR inhibitors, such as everolimus or sirolimus, especially in nondiabetics. METHODS: Patients receiving everolimus with standard immunosuppressant therapy or standard immunosuppressant therapy without everolimus were administered 3-mm skin biopsy punch wounds in the left scapular region...
April 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403787/role-of-tissue-renin-angiotensin-system-and-the-chymase-angiotensin-1-12-axis-in-the-pathogenesis-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#19
Mohammad Shamsul Ola, Abdullah S Alhomida, Carlos M Ferrario, Sarfaraz Ahmad
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major diabetes complication and the leading cause for vision loss and blindness in the adult human population. Diabetes, being an endocrinological disorder dysregulate a number of hormonal systems including the renin angiotensin system (RAS), which thereby may damage both vascular and neuronal cells in the retina. Angiotensin II (Ang II), an active component of the RAS is increased in diabetic retina, and may play a significant role in neurovascular damage leading to the progression of DR...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401081/zinc-in-pancreatic-islet-biology-insulin-sensitivity-and-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Wolfgang Maret
About 20 chemical elements are nutritionally essential for humans with defined molecular functions. Several essential and nonessential biometals are either functional nutrients with antidiabetic actions or can be diabetogenic. A key question remains whether changes in the metabolism of biometals and biominerals are a consequence of diabetes or are involved in its etiology. Exploration of the roles of zinc (Zn) in this regard is most revealing because 80 years of scientific discoveries link zinc and diabetes...
March 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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