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Klemen Pavlic, Maja Pohar Perme
A common goal in the analysis of the long-term survival related to a specific disease is to estimate a measure that is comparable between populations with different general population mortality. When cause of death is unavailable or unreliable, as for example in cancer registry studies, relative survival methodology is used-in addition to the mortality data of the patients, we use the data on the mortality of the general population. In this article, we focus on the marginal relative survival measure that summarizes the information about the disease-specific hazard...
March 13, 2018: Biostatistics
Jianglou Huang, Jinsong Liu, Kejia Wang, Zhengang Yang, Xiaming Liu
By means of factor analysis approach, a method of molecule classification is built based on the measured terahertz absorption spectra of the molecules. A data matrix can be obtained by sampling the absorption spectra at different frequency points. The data matrix is then decomposed into the product of two matrices: a weight matrix and a characteristic matrix. By using the K-means clustering to deal with the weight matrix, these molecules can be classified. A group of samples (spirobenzopyran, indole, styrene derivatives and inorganic salts) has been prepared, and measured via a terahertz time-domain spectrometer...
March 9, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
X Bai, B Tie, J-H Schmitt, D Aubry
The correlation between ultrasonic wave propagation and polycrystalline microstructures has significant implications in nondestructive evaluation. An original numerical approach using the finite element method to quantify in both time and frequency domains the ultrasonic noise scattering due to the elastic heterogeneity of polycrystalline microstructures is presented. Based on the reciprocity theorem, it allows the scattering evaluation using mechanical data recorded only on the boundary of polycrystal instead of within its volume and is applicable to any polycrystalline aggregate regardless of its crystallographic or morphological characteristics...
February 14, 2018: Ultrasonics
Hirofumi Chiba, Yoichi Kakuta, Yoshitaka Kinouchi, Yosuke Kawai, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Munenori Nagao, Takeo Naito, Motoyuki Onodera, Rintaro Moroi, Masatake Kuroha, Yoshitake Kanazawa, Tomoya Kimura, Hisashi Shiga, Katsuya Endo, Kenichi Negoro, Masao Nagasaki, Michiaki Unno, Tooru Shimosegawa
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has an unknown etiology; however, accumulating evidence suggests that IBD is a multifactorial disease influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation in cis and cis effects on expression have been demonstrated. We hypothesized that IBD susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) regulate susceptibility gene expressions in cis by regulating DNA methylation around SNPs...
2018: PloS One
Sumona Chaudhury, Gloria K Mayondi, Paige L Williams, Jean Leidner, Roger Shapiro, Modiegi Diseko, Gbolahan Ajibola, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, George R Seage, Shahin Lockman, Betsy Kammerer
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study of child neurodevelopment, nested within two cohorts of HIV-infected mothers and their children in Botswana (one observational, one interventional)...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Bartłomiej Czech, Lampros Lamprou, Samuel McCandlish, James Sully
The Berry connection describes transformations induced by adiabatically varying Hamiltonians. We study how zero modes of the modular Hamiltonian are affected by varying the region that supplies the modular Hamiltonian. In the vacuum of a 2D conformal field theory, global conformal symmetry singles out a unique modular Berry connection, which we compute directly and in the dual three-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS_{3}) picture. In certain cases, Wilson loops of the modular Berry connection compute lengths of curves in AdS_{3}, reproducing the differential entropy formula...
March 2, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ahmed Hegazy, Hieder Al-Shami, Mohammed Fathy Adel Ali, Mohamad Fathallah, Ahmed Salah, Hashim Mohamed, Emad Ibrahim Ahmed, Haytham Hussien Mohammed Osman, Arundhati Biswas
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether adding mobilization of the outer cavernous sinus membrane as a part of the approach, in large spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus extension, would reduce bleeding and increase the extent of resection. Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial was held between February 2016 and April 2017 at Cairo University Hospitals. The study recruited 94 patients with spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus involvement...
March 2018: Neurology India
Lawrence A Lavery, David C Lavery, Nathan A Hunt, Javier La Fontaine, Ryan D Lavery
BACKGROUND: Dialysis therapy is associated with an increased incidence of lower-extremity wounds and amputations. We compared the incidence of foot ulcers and amputations before and after the start of dialysis. METHODS: We evaluated 150 consecutive diabetic patients receiving dialysis and compared the incidence of foot complications 30 months before and after initiation of hemodialysis. We used claims data for diabetes, ulceration, and dialysis and abstracted medical records to verify diagnoses and dates of ulcers and amputations...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Mark Waldron, Luke Waldron, Craig Lawlor, Adrian Gray, Jamie Highton
PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of an acute 24-h nitrate-rich beetroot juice supplement (BR) on the energy cost, exercise efficiency and blood pressure responses to intermittent walking at different gradients. METHODS: In a double-blind, cross-over design, eight participants were provided with a total of 350 ml of nitrate-rich (~ 20.5 mmol nitrate) BR or placebo (PLA) across 24 h before completing intermittent walking at 3 km/h on treadmill at gradients of 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Suhanyaa Nitkunanantharajah, Christoph Hennersperger, Xose Luis Dean-Ben, Daniel Razansky, Nassir Navab
PURPOSE: Optoacoustic imaging provides high spatial resolution and the possibility to image specific functional parameters in real-time, therefore positioning itself as a promising modality for various applications. However, despite these advantages, the applicability of real-time optoacoustic imaging is generally limited due to a relatively small field of view. METHODS: With this work, we aim at presenting a path towards panoramic optoacoustic tomographic imaging without requiring additional sensors or position trackers...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Maolan Wang, Ronghao Liu, Xiuying Lu, Ziyi Zhu, Hailin Wang, Lei Jiang, Jingjing Liu, Zhihua Wu
Heavy metal are often added to animal fodder and accumulate in the soils with swine manure. In this study, heavy metal (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, As and Cr) concentrations were determined in agricultural soils irrigated with swine manure in Jiangxi Province, China. Results showed that the average concentrations of Cu, Zn, As and Cr (32.8, 93.7, 21.3 and 75.8 mg/kg, respectively) were higher than the background values, while Pb and Cd (15.2 and 0.090 mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the background values. Contamination factors [Formula: see text] indicated that they were generally moderate for Cu, Zn, As and Cr and generally low for Pb and Cd...
March 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Rafael Leite Rubim, Margarida Abrantes Barros, Thomas Missègue, Kévin Bougis, Laurence Navailles, Frédéric Nallet
Since the discovery of graphene oxide (GO), the most accessible of the precursors of graphene, this material has been widely studied for applications in science and technology. In this work, we describe a procedure to obtain GO dispersions in water at high concentrations, these highly dehydrated dispersions being in addition fully redispersible by dilution. With the availability of such concentrated samples, it was possible to investigate the structure of hydrated GO sheets in a previously unexplored range of concentrations, and to evidence a structural phase transition...
March 15, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Daniel Rettenwander, Reinhard Wagner, Andreas Reyer, Maximilian Bonta, Lei Cheng, Marca M Doeff, Andreas Limbeck, Martin Wilkening, Georg Amthauer
The interface stability versus Li represents a major challenge in the development of next-generation all-solid-state batteries (ASSB), which take advantage of the inherently safe ceramic electrolytes. Cubic Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 garnets represent the most promising electrolytes for this technology. The high interfacial impedance versus Li is, however, still a bottleneck toward future devices. Herein, we studied the electrochemical performance of Fe3+ -stabilized Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 (LLZO:Fe) versus Li metal and found a very high total conductivity of 1...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
Peijuan Wang, Yan Lu, Si Chen, Yue Chen, Chunping Hu, Yawei Zuo
Autoimmune abnormality is one of the main causes of premature ovarian failure (POF). Bu Shen Huo Xue formula (BSHXF), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been clinically used for the treatment of patients with POF in China. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important in the pathogenesis of autoimmune POF. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunoprotective effects of BSHXF on POF and the underlying mechanisms. An experimental autoimmune POF model was induced in B6AF1 mice with zona pellucida 3 (ZP3) fragments...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Xiulin Wang, Xiaxiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Xiao Wang, Jian Cai, Qin Zhou, Tingbo Dai, Weixing Cao, Dong Jiang
Drought is the major abiotic stress that decreases plant water status, inhibits photosynthesis, induces oxidative stress, restricts growth and finally lead to the reduction of wheat yield. It has been proven that drought priming during vegetative growth stage could enhance tolerance to drought stress at grain filling in wheat. However, whether drought priming imposed at grain filling in parental plants could induce drought tolerance in the offspring is not known. In this study, drought priming was successively applied in the first, the second and the third generation of wheat to obtain the plants of T1 (primed for one generation), T2 (primed for two generations), T3 (primed for three generations)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sergey Zhukov, Dagmar Eder-Goy, Sergey Fedosov, Bai-Xiang Xu, Heinz von Seggern
The present study is focused on tubular multi-channel arrays composed of commercial fluoropolymer (FEP) tubes with different wall thickness. After proper charging in a high electric field, such tubular structures exhibit a large piezoelectric [Formula: see text] coefficient significantly exceeding the values of classical polymer ferroelectrics and being even comparable to conventional lead-free piezoceramics. The quasistatic piezoelectric [Formula: see text] coefficient was theoretically derived and its upper limits were evaluated considering charging and mechanical properties of the arrays...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lauren G Gabra, Samir I Sayegh
This study develops a method to determine toricity ratios used by arbitrary toric intraocular lens calculators. Access to this information allows for the improvement of refractive results. We derive the Sayegh-Gabra formula, which uses input and output parameters in a toric calculator to extract toricity ratios that are typically not disclosed. We illustrate the method on a number of commercial calculators. For each calculator, high, average, and low axial length values are crossed with high, average, and low mean corneal power values to generate a 3 × 3 matrix...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xin Zhao, Jinyu Liu, Shijun Yang, Dandan Song, Chen Wang, Chen Chen, Xiaoya Li, Qiuting Wang, Shasha Ge, Runmei Yang, Xiuhua Liu, Yulin Lin, Dayong Cai
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the common cognitive disorder derived mainly from lacunar stroke (LS). The oxidative stress induced neurovascular coupling (NVC) dysfunction involves in the pathogenesis of VaD. Currently, there is no specific drug for VaD. Ling-Yang-Gou-Teng -Decoction (LG), a well-known traditional Chinese formula, has been used for preventing VaD in clinic. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of LG on VaD in rats...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Violeta González-Salvado, Cristian Abelairas-Gómez, Carlos Peña-Gil, Carmen Neiro-Rey, Roberto Barcala-Furelos, José Ramón González-Juanatey, Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez
AIM: Early basic life support is crucial to enhance survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest but rates remain low, especially in households. High-risk groups' training has been advocated, but the optimal method is unclear. The CArdiac REhabilitation and BAsic life Support (CAREBAS) project aims to compare the effectiveness of two basic life support educational strategies implemented in a cardiac rehabilitation program. METHODS: A community intervention study including consecutive patients enrolled on an exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation program after acute coronary syndrome or revascularization was conducted...
March 12, 2018: Resuscitation
Jill Demirci, Mandy Schmella, Melissa Glasser, Lisa Bodnar, Katherine P Himes
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a multi-system, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy that increases a woman's risk of later-life cardiovascular disease. Breastfeeding may counteract the negative cardiovascular sequela associated with preeclampsia; however, women who develop preeclampsia may be at-risk for suboptimal breastfeeding rates. In this case series, we present three cases of late-onset preeclampsia and one case of severe gestational hypertension that illustrate a potential association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and suboptimal breastfeeding outcomes, including delayed onset of lactogenesis II and in-hospital formula supplementation...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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