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Yong-Jun Ye, Xin-Tao Dai, De-Xin Ding, Ya-Li Zhao
In this study, a one-dimensional steady-state mathematical model of radon transport in fragmented uranium ore was established according to Fick's law and radon transfer theory in an air-water interface. The model was utilized to obtain an analytical solution for radon concentration in the air-water, two-phase system under steady state conditions, as well as a corresponding radon exhalation rate calculation formula. We also designed a one-dimensional experimental apparatus for simulating radon diffusion migration in the uranium ore with various water levels to verify the mathematical model...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
M Nikkhou, M Škarabot, S Čopar, I Muševič
We study topological defect annihilation on a glass fibre with homeotropic surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystal molecules. The fibre is set parallel to the nematic director of a planar cell with variable thickness and we create pairs of Saturn ring and Saturn anti-ring using the laser tweezers. In thick cells we observe in the whole region of defect separation a Coulomb-like pair attraction with no background force, [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]. In cells with thickness comparable to glass fibre diameter, we observe the Coulomb-like attraction only at small separations of the defect pair...
October 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
F -Y Lin, W S R Forrest, C R Daley, Y Chai, J A Forrest
We introduce a simple and sensitive technique for measuring extremely low solubilities with a small sample size and small solvent volume. This technique involves measuring the decrease in the thickness of a supported thin film after exposure to a drop of known volume of solvent and removal of the solution. The feasibility of measuring very small changes in film thickness directly translates to the ability to measure extremely low solubility while at the same time using only μL of solvent. We apply the technique to the case of polystyrene with Mw values in the range 2500 g/mol to 22200 g/mol in alkane solvents and show that we can easily measure a solubility of 0...
October 2016: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Sabrina Stocker, Florian Foschum, Philipp Krauter, Florian Bergmann, Ansgar Hohmann, Claudia Scalfi Happ, Alwin Kienle
Dairy products play an important role in our daily nutrition. As a turbid scattering medium with different kinds of particles and droplets, each alteration of these components changes the scattering properties of milk. The goal of this work is the determination of the amount of main scattering components, the fat droplets and the casein micelles, by understanding the light propagation in homogenized milk and in raw milk. To provide the absolute impact of these milk components, the geometrical and optical properties such as the size distribution and the refractive index (RI) of the components have to be examined...
October 21, 2016: Applied Spectroscopy
So Goto, Naoyuki Maeda, Shizuka Koh, Kazuhiko Ohnuma, Kenichi Hayashi, Ikko Iehisa, Toru Noda, Kohji Nishida
PURPOSE: To evaluate the accuracy of a new formula for predicting postoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD) with preoperative angle-to-angle (ATA) depth using anterior segment (AS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to compare it with established methods. DESIGN: Retrospective consecutive case series. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred four eyes (276 patients) implanted with acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs) were divided randomly into a training set (152 eyes) and a validation set (152 eyes)...
October 18, 2016: Ophthalmology
Chia-Yu Liu, Jui-Ying Chu, Jen-Huai Chiang, Hung-Rong Yen, Chung-Hua Hsu
BACKGROUND: To characterize the utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) among patients with hepatitis C (HC). METHODS: This study examined datasets from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. One cohort, including one million patients randomly sampled from the beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Programme from January 1 to December 31 in 2010, was chosen for this analysis. People who had at least three outpatient or inpatient records and had been diagnosed with hepatitis C virus infection from 2000 to 2010 were defined as patients with HC...
October 21, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Ying Wang, Shaoyan Si, Junli Liu, Zongye Wang, Haiying Jia, Kai Feng, Lili Sun, Shu Jun Song
AIMS: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with some disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, data about the relationships between vitamin D and lipids are inconsistent. The relationship of vitamin D and Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP), as an excellent predictor of level of small and dense LDL, has not been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D status on serum lipids in Chinese adults...
2016: PloS One
Leandro R F Lima, Alexis R Hernández, Felipe A Pinheiro, Caio Lewenkopf
Based on the investigation of the multi-terminal conductance of a system composed of two graphene nanoribbons, in which one is on top of the other and rotated by [Formula: see text], we propose a setup for a 50/50 electronic beam splitter that neither requires large magnetic fields nor ultra low temperatures. Our findings are based on an atomistic tight-binding description of the system and on the Green function method to compute the Landauer conductance. We demonstrate that this system acts as a perfect 50/50 electronic beam splitter, in which its operation can be switched on and off by varying the doping (Fermi energy)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
D V Dmitriev, V Ya Krivnov
We consider analytically and numerically an anisotropic spin-[Formula: see text] delta-chain (sawtooth chain) in which exchange interactions between apical and basal spins are ferromagnetic and those between basal spins are antiferromagnetic. In the limit of strong anisotropy of exchange interactions this model can be considered as the Ising delta chain with macroscopic degenerate ground state perturbed by transverse quantum fluctuations. These perturbations lift the ground state degeneracy and the model reduces to the basal XXZ spin chain in the magnetic field induced by static apical spins...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Rajni Porwal, Anurag Gupta, R C Budhani
The influence of YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) superconductor layer (S-layer) with a varying thickness d YBCO  =  20-50 nm on the magnetic coupling between two La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 (LCMO) ferromagnet layers (F-layer, thickness d LCMO  =  50 nm) in F/S/F heterostructures (HSs) was investigated by measuring global magnetization (M) in a temperature (T) range  =  2-300 K and a magnetic field (H) range  =  0-10 kOe. All the HSs were superconducting with the critical temperature (T C) decreasing from  =  78 to 36 K with decrease in d YBCO, whereas the ferromagnetic ordering temperature T M  =  250 K did not change much...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Piotr Stefański
We consider a model of a Josephson junction mediated by a quantum dot. An additional normal electrode coupled to the dot allows its density of states to be probed. The junction is made out of two topological superconducting wires with Majorana end states. The two of them, on each side and in the proximity of the junction, convert into a Dirac fermion inside the dot. It is shown that both the density of states of the dot and the phase-biased current through the junction can exhibit [Formula: see text] periodicity in the superconducting phase difference, when the particle-hole symmetry of the junction is broken...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Yuxuan Wang, Artem Abanov, Boris L Altshuler, Emil A Yuzbashyan, Andrey V Chubukov
Near a quantum-critical point in a metal strong fermion-fermion interaction mediated by a soft collective boson gives rise to incoherent, non-Fermi liquid behavior. It also often gives rise to superconductivity which masks the non-Fermi liquid behavior. We analyze the interplay between the tendency to pairing and fermionic incoherence for a set of quantum-critical models with effective dynamical interaction between low-energy fermions. We argue that superconducting T_{c} is nonzero even for strong incoherence and/or weak interaction due to the fact that the self-energy from dynamic critical fluctuations vanishes for the two lowest fermionic Matsubara frequencies ω_{m}=±πT...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Taner Basturk, Ozlem Sari, Yener Koc, Nezaket Eren, Mahmoud Isleem, Ekrem Kara, Mustafa Sevinc, Tamer Sakaci, Elbis Ahbap, Nuri B Hasbal, Feyza B Caglayan, Abdulkadir Unsal
BACKGROUND: Neutrophilgelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been proven to be a useful biomarker for early detection of acute kidney injury, but it is not known whether adding NGAL measurements to conventional risk factors will improve the risk assessment in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation of NGAL with early stage renal impairment in CKD and to evaluate its prognostic value in these subjects. METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study of 54 patients with early stage (stage 1-2) CKD...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Derek Richards
Data sourcesPubMed Central, CINAHL, Embase and reference lists of identified articles.Study selectionObservational and experimental studies published in English where breastfeeding was the exposure and development of caries was the outcome of interest were considered. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusionData extraction and synthesisStudy quality was assessed independently by two researchers using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale (NOS). Key data items, exposure and outcome definitions and effect estimates (odds ratios (OR), relative risks, prevalence ratios) with 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI) were abstracted where available for inclusion in a meta-analysis...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Libin Yang, Kunyang Wang, Gu Du, Wenxin Zhu, Liang Cui, Chengxiao Zhang, Xuping Sun, Abdullah M Asiri
Hydrogen has been considered as an ideal energy carrier for replacing fossil fuels to mitigate global energy crises. Hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) is simple and effective for hydrogen production but needs active and durable catalysts to accelerate the kinetics. In this paper, we demonstrate that cobalt phosphide nanowall arrays supported on carbon cloth (CoP NAs/CC) efficiently catalyze the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of NaBH4 with an activation energy of 42.1 kJ mol(-1) in alkaline media. These monolithic CoP NAs/CC show a maximum hydrogen generation rate of [Formula: see text] and are robust with superior durability and reusability...
October 21, 2016: Nanotechnology
Shiliang Wang, Qiulai Huang, Yueqin Wu, Han Huang
Single-crystalline α-Al2O3 nanobelts were synthesized by high-temperature chemical vapor deposition in a high-purity H2 atmosphere. The crystalline planes for the upper and side surfaces of the nanobelts were [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] and the orientations along height, length and width directions were [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively. The formation of such a unique structure was dependent on the strong reducing atmosphere used in the growth process, and the deactivation of the [Formula: see text] plane by hydrogen could be the primary cause...
October 21, 2016: Nanotechnology
Nadia G Kandile, Mansoura I Mohamed, Hind M Ismaeel
New compounds based on oxindole moiety were synthesized via the reaction of 5-substitued isatins 1a-e with different nucleophiles such as benzidine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine 2a,b and 2,6-diaminopyridine 3 to afford three different classes of bis-Schiff bases 4a-e, 5a-e and 6a-e, respectively. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of their FTIR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, GC/MS spectral data and elemental analysis. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the new compounds was evaluated using a broth dilution technique in terms of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against four bacterial and two fungal pathogens and anticancer activities against HELA cervix...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
Haiying Quan, Wenrui Hao, Lu Li, Ming Sun, Kuan Zhang
The whole-room indirect calorimeter is considered as important equipment for human energy expenditure measurement, but noise reduction in the system remains a challenge. A selective filtering method (SFM) was designed to improve the accuracy of the computation of O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]) and CO2 production rate ([Formula: see text]), based on two facts: (1) the rapid changes of [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and respiratory quotient (RQ) in human should be accompanied by physical activity; (2) the oxygen consumption and the carbon dioxide production should not be negative because living humans do not generate oxygen, nor consume carbon dioxide...
October 20, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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