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artifical intelligence

H P Lipp
The neo-Darwinian theory of evolution has difficulty in explaining the rapid evolution of mammalian brain and behavior. I shall argue that the plasticity mechanisms of the brain (i.e., system homeostasis, developmental reorganization, structural adult plasticity, and cognition and learning) have evolved primarily as genetic buffer systems which protect subtle mutations influencing brain structures from natural selection. These buffer systems permit accumulation of genetic variation in the higher system levels of the brain (simply defined as structures with late differentiation), while low-level systems are kept constant by natural selection...
December 1995: Behavioural Processes
Kristine Broka, Aldis Vidzis, Juris Grigorjevs, Janis Sokolovs, Guntis Zigurs
The main condition for speech intelligibility is the specific anatomical characteristics of the human speech apparatus and harmonious work of all organs in the human vocal apparatus. The voice quality is characterized by speech intelligibility (relationship between the voice pitch, volume, timbre and speech speed). Improper functional quality (related to retention,support, stability), inappropriate design of the prosthetic base and disposition of artificial teeth are the basic reasons for dyslalia - impairment of utterance with abnormality of external speech organs...
2013: Stomatologija
M Remzi, B Djavan
This chapter presents a detailed introduction regarding Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and their contribution to modern Urologic Oncology. It includes a description of ANNs methodology and points out the differences between Artifical Intelligence and traditional statistic models in terms of usefulness for patients and clinicians, and its advantages over current statistical analysis.
June 2007: Annales D'urologie
Heinz Fabian, Peter Lasch, Dieter Naumann
In this study we describe a semiautomatic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic methodology for the analysis of liquid serum samples, which combines simple sample introduction with high sample throughput. The applicability of this new infrared technology to the analysis of liquid serum samples from a cohort of cattle naturally infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy and from controls was explored in comparison to the conventional approach based on transmission infrared spectroscopy of dried serum films...
May 2005: Journal of Biomedical Optics
S Modgil, T J Hutton, P Hammond, J C Davenport
In a previous paper [Artif. Intell. Med. 5 (1993) 431] we described RaPiD, a knowledge-based system for designing dental prostheses. The present paper discusses how RaPiD has been extended using techniques from computer vision and logic grammars. The first employs point distribution and active shape models (ASMs) to determine dentition from images of casts of patient's jaws. This enables a design to be customized to, and visualised against, an image of a patient's dentition. The second is based on the notion of a path grammar, a form of logic grammar, to generate a path linking an ordered sequence of subcomponents...
July 2002: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
D A Garfield, C Rapp
Artificial intelligence computer simulation methods can be used to investigate psychotic or "crazy" speech. Here, symbolic reasoning algorithms establish semantic networks that schematize speech. These semantic networks consist of two main structures: case frames and object taxonomies. Node-based reasoning rules apply to object taxonomies and pathway-based reasoning rules apply to case frames. Normal listeners may recognize speech as "crazy talk" based on violations of node- and pathway-based reasoning rules...
April 1994: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
G Buller, M E Lutman
The increasing use of transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) in large neonatal hearing screening programmes makes a standardized method of response classification desirable. Until now methods have been either subjective or based on arbitrary response characteristics. This study takes an expert system approach to standardize the subjective judgements of an experienced scorer. The method that is developed comprises three stages. First, it transforms TEOAEs from waveforms in the time domain into a simplified parameter set...
August 1998: British Journal of Audiology
J Dervaderics
The article gives the outlines of all principles used in computing included the non-electrical and analog computers and the artifical intelligence followed by citing examples as well. The principles and medical utilization of virtual reality are also mentioned. There are discussed: surgical planning, image guided surgery, robotic surgery, telepresence and telesurgery, and telemedicine implemented partially via Internet.
October 26, 1997: Orvosi Hetilap
J Wertheimer, J Brull
The longitudinal method aims to point out phenomena that are bound with time. It is thus particularly fit for the study of ageing as it is proved by many large American research programs. It is also useful to follow during a limited period (short term) the natural history of pathologic entities as degenerative illnesses. After mentioning the fundamental conditions of any longitudinal approach, the program of this study on senile dementia is described. Each case is followed for 2 years, with an examination every 6 months...
1977: Archives Suisses de Neurologie, Neurochirurgie et de Psychiatrie
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