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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788910/infection-with-high-proportion-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-conflict-related-injuries-is-associated-with-poor-outcomes-and-excess-resource-consumption-a-cohort-study-of-syrian-patients-treated-in-jordan
#1
Andreas Älgå, Sidney Wong, Muhammad Shoaib, Kalle Lundgren, Christian G Giske, Johan von Schreeb, Jonas Malmstedt
BACKGROUND: Armed conflicts are a major contributor to injury and death globally. Conflict-related injuries are associated with a high risk of wound infection, but it is unknown to what extent infection directly relates to sustainment of life and restoration of function. The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome and resource consumption among civilians receiving acute surgical treatment due to conflict-related injuries. Patients with and without wound infections were compared...
May 22, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760768/mechanisms-of-change-for-interventions-aimed-at-improving-the-wellbeing-mental-health-and-resilience-of-children-and-adolescents-affected-by-war-and-armed-conflict-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#2
REVIEW
Tania Josiane Bosqui, Bassam Marshoud
Despite increasing research and clinical interest in delivering psychosocial interventions for children affected by war, little research has been conducted on the underlying mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. This review aimed to identify these processes in order to inform existing interventions and highlight research gaps. A systematic review of reviews was conducted drawing from academic databases (PubMed, PILOTS, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews) and field resources (e.g. Médecins Sans Frontières and the Psychosocial Centre of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), with extracted data analysed using Thematic Content Analysis...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746619/voluntary-community-human-immunodeficiency-virus-testing-linkage-and-retention-in-care-interventions-in-kenya-modeling-the-clinical-impact-and-cost-effectiveness
#3
Liem B Luong Nguyen, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, David Maman, Sitima Wanjala, Alexandra Vandenbulcke, Jianthi Price, Robert A Parker, William Hennequin, Pierre Mendiharat, Kenneth A Freedberg
Background: In southwest Kenya, the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is about 25%. Médecins Sans Frontières has implemented a voluntary community testing (VCT) program, with linkage to care and retention interventions, to achieve the Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets by 2017. We assessed the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods: We developed a time-discrete, dynamic microsimulation model to project HIV incidence over time in the adult population in Kenya...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734337/highly-targeted-cholera-vaccination-campaigns-in-urban-setting-are-feasible-the-experience-in-kalemie-democratic-republic-of-congo
#4
Louis Albert Massing, Soumah Aboubakar, Alexandre Blake, Anne-Laure Page, Sandra Cohuet, Adalbert Ngandwe, Eric Mukomena Sompwe, Romain Ramazani, Marcela Allheimen, Philippe Levaillant, Pauline Lechevalier, Marie Kashimi, Axelle de la Motte, Arielle Calmejane, Malika Bouhenia, Ernest Dabire, Didier Bompangue, Benoit Kebela, Klaudia Porten, Francisco Luquero
INTRODUCTION: Oral cholera vaccines are primarily recommended by the World Health Organization for cholera control in endemic countries. However, the number of cholera vaccines currently produced is very limited and examples of OCV use in endemic countries, and especially in urban settings, are scarce. A vaccination campaign was organized by Médecins Sans Frontières and the Ministry of Health in a highly endemic area in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This study aims to describe the vaccine coverage achieved with this highly targeted vaccination campaign and the acceptability among the vaccinated communities...
May 7, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731398/cholera-epidemic-in-yemen-2016-18-an-analysis-of-surveillance-data
#5
Anton Camacho, Malika Bouhenia, Reema Alyusfi, Abdulhakeem Alkohlani, Munna Abdulla Mohammed Naji, Xavier de Radiguès, Abdinasir M Abubakar, Abdulkareem Almoalmi, Caroline Seguin, Maria Jose Sagrado, Marc Poncin, Melissa McRae, Mohammed Musoke, Ankur Rakesh, Klaudia Porten, Christopher Haskew, Katherine E Atkins, Rosalind M Eggo, Andrew S Azman, Marije Broekhuijsen, Mehmet Akif Saatcioglu, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Marie-Laure Quilici, Abdul Rahman Al-Mesbahy, Nevio Zagaria, Francisco J Luquero
BACKGROUND: In war-torn Yemen, reports of confirmed cholera started in late September, 2016. The disease continues to plague Yemen today in what has become the largest documented cholera epidemic of modern times. We aimed to describe the key epidemiological features of this epidemic, including the drivers of cholera transmission during the outbreak. METHODS: The Yemen Health Authorities set up a national cholera surveillance system to collect information on suspected cholera cases presenting at health facilities...
May 3, 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676758/learning-from-water-treatment-and-hygiene-interventions-in-response-to-a-hepatitis-e-outbreak-in-an-open-setting-in-chad
#6
Alexander Spina, David Beversluis, Andrea Irwin, Alexandra Chen, Jean Noel Nassariman, Abdelkhadir Ahamat, Idriss Noh, Jan Oosterloo, Prince Alfani, Sibylle Sang, Annick Lenglet, Dawn Louise Taylor
In September 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières responded to a hepatitis E (HEV) outbreak in Chad by implementing water treatment and hygiene interventions. To evaluate the coverage and use of these interventions, we conducted a cross-sectional study in the community. Our results showed that 99% of households interviewed had received a hygiene kit from us, aimed at improving water handling practice and personal hygiene and almost all respondents had heard messages about preventing jaundice and handwashing. Acceptance of chlorination of drinking water was also very high, although at the time of interview, we were only able to measure a safe free residual chlorine level (free chlorine residual (FRC) ≥0...
April 2018: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624584/the-impact-of-passive-case-detection-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-gambiense-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#7
Francesco Checchi, Sebastian Funk, Daniel Chandramohan, François Chappuis, Daniel T Haydon
Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne disease affecting largely rural populations in Western and Central Africa. The main method for detecting and treating cases of gambiense HAT are active screening through mobile teams and passive detection through self-referral of patients to dedicated treatment centres or hospitals. Strategies based on active case finding and treatment have drastically reduced the global incidence of the disease over recent decades. However, little is known about the coverage and transmission impact of passive case detection...
April 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581201/voices-from-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-protocol-of-primary-healthcare-interventions-within-public-health-systems-addressing-intimate-partner-violence-against-women
#8
Marcos Claudio Signorelli, Stav Hillel, Daniel Canavese de Oliveira, Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla, Kelsey Hegarty, Angela Taft
INTRODUCTION: Intimate partner violence (IPV) considerably harms the health, safety and well-being of women. In response, public health systems around the globe have been gradually implementing strategies. In particular, low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) have been developing innovative interventions in primary healthcare (PHC) addressing the problem. This paper describes a protocol for a systematic review of studies addressing the impacts and outcomes of PHC centre interventions addressing IPV against women from LMIC...
March 25, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550772/-he-who-helps-the-guilty-shares-the-crime-ingos-moral-narcissism-and-complicity-in-wrongdoing
#9
Pete Buth, Benoit de Gryse, Sean Healy, Vincent Hoedt, Tara Newell, Giovanni Pintaldi, Hernan Del Valle, Julian C Sheather, Sidney Wong
Humanitarian organisations often work alongside those responsible for serious wrongdoing. In these circumstances, accusations of moral complicity are sometimes levelled at decision makers. These accusations can carry a strong if unfocused moral charge and are frequently the source of significant moral unease. In this paper, we explore the meaning and usefulness of complicity and its relation to moral accountability. We also examine the impact of concerns about complicity on the motivation of humanitarian staff and the risk that complicity may lead to a retreat into moral narcissism...
May 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549171/inter-rater-and-intrarater-reliability-of-the-south-african-triage-scale-in-low-resource-settings-of-haiti-and-afghanistan
#10
Mohammed Dalwai, Katie Tayler-Smith, Michèle Twomey, Masood Nasim, Abdul Qayum Popal, Waliul Haq Haqdost, Olivia Gayraud, Sophia Cheréstal, Lee Wallis, Pola Valles
OBJECTIVE: The South African Triage Scale (SATS) has demonstrated good validity in the EDs of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-supported sites in Afghanistan and Haiti; however, corresponding reliability in these settings has not yet been reported on. This study set out to assess the inter-rater and intrarater reliability of the SATS in four MSF-supported EDs in Afghanistan and Haiti (two trauma-only EDs and two mixed (including both medical and trauma cases) EDs). METHODS: Under classroom conditions between December 2013 and February 2014, ED nurses at each site assigned triage ratings to a set of context-specific vignettes (written case reports of ED patients)...
June 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511602/infectious-disease-risk-and-vaccination-in-northern-syria-after-5-years-of-civil-war-the-msf-experience
#11
Alan de Lima Pereira, Rosamund Southgate, Hikmet Ahmed, Penelope O'Connor, Vanessa Cramond, Annick Lenglet
Introduction: In 2015, following an influx of population into Kobanê in northern Syria, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in collaboration with the Kobanê Health Administration (KHA) initiated primary healthcare activities. A vaccination coverage survey and vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) risk analysis were undertaken to clarify the VPD risk and vaccination needs. This was followed by a measles Supplementary Immunization Activity (SIA). We describe the methods and results used for this prioritisation activity around vaccination in Kobanê in 2015...
February 2, 2018: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502905/mapping-the-burden-of-cholera-in-sub-saharan-africa-and-implications-for-control-an-analysis-of-data-across-geographical-scales
#12
Justin Lessler, Sean M Moore, Francisco J Luquero, Heather S McKay, Rebecca Grais, Myriam Henkens, Martin Mengel, Jessica Dunoyer, Maurice M'bangombe, Elizabeth C Lee, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Bertrand Sudre, Didier Bompangue, Robert S M Fraser, Abdinasir Abubakar, William Perea, Dominique Legros, Andrew S Azman
BACKGROUND: Cholera remains a persistent health problem in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. Cholera can be controlled through appropriate water and sanitation, or by oral cholera vaccination, which provides transient (∼3 years) protection, although vaccine supplies remain scarce. We aimed to map cholera burden in sub-Saharan Africa and assess how geographical targeting could lead to more efficient interventions. METHODS: We combined information on cholera incidence in sub-Saharan Africa (excluding Djibouti and Eritrea) from 2010 to 2016 from datasets from WHO, Médecins Sans Frontières, ProMED, ReliefWeb, ministries of health, and the scientific literature...
March 1, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452942/early-safety-and-efficacy-of-the-combination-of-bedaquiline-and-delamanid-for-the-treatment-of-patients-with-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-armenia-india-and-south-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Gabriella Ferlazzo, Erika Mohr, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Catherine Hewison, Jennifer Hughes, Sylvie Jonckheere, Naira Khachatryan, Virginia De Avezedo, Lusine Egazaryan, Amir Shroufi, Stobdan Kalon, Helen Cox, Jennifer Furin, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Bedaquiline and delamanid have been approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in the past 5 years. Because of theoretical safety concerns, patients have been unable to access the two drugs in combination. Médecins Sans Frontières has supported the use of combination bedaquiline and delamanid for people with few treatment options since 2016. We describe early safety and efficacy of regimens containing the bedaquiline and delamanid combination in patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Yerevan, Armenia; Mumbai, India; and Khayelitsha, South Africa...
May 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403111/implementation-research-reactive-mass-vaccination-with-single-dose-oral-cholera-vaccine-zambia
#14
Marc Poncin, Gideon Zulu, Caroline Voute, Eva Ferreras, Clara Mbwili Muleya, Kennedy Malama, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Jacob Mufunda, Hugues Robert, Florent Uzzeni, Francisco J Luquero, Elizabeth Chizema, Iza Ciglenecki
Objective: To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy - based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine - to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting. Method: In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine...
February 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387145/provision-of-emergency-obstetric-care-at-secondary-level-in-a-conflict-setting-in-a-rural-area-of-afghanistan-is-the-hospital-fulfilling-its-role
#15
Daphne Lagrou, Rony Zachariah, Karen Bissell, Catherine Van Overloop, Masood Nasim, Hamsaya Nikyar Wagma, Shafiqa Kakar, Séverine Caluwaerts, Eva De Plecker, Renzo Fricke, Rafael Van den Bergh
Background: Provision of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (EmONC) reduces maternal mortality and should include three components: Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEmONC) offered at primary care level, Comprehensive EmONC (CEmONC) at secondary level and a good referral system in-between. In a conflict-affected province of Afghanistan (Khost), we assessed the performance of an Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) run CEmONC hospital without a primary care and referral system...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387144/hiv-associated-kaposi-s-sarcoma-in-maputo-mozambique-outcomes-in-a-specialized-treatment-center-2010-2015
#16
Vini Fardhdiani, Lucas Molfino, Ana Gabriela Zamudio, Rolanda Manuel, Gilda Luciano, Iza Ciglenecki, Barbara Rusch, Laurence Toutous Trellu, Matthew E Coldiron
Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a common HIV-associated malignancy associated with disability, pain and poor outcomes. The cornerstone of its treatment is antiretroviral therapy, but advanced disease necessitates the addition of chemotherapy. In high-income settings, this often consists of liposomal anthracyclines, but in Mozambique, the first line includes conventional doxorubicin, bleomycin and vincristine, which is poorly-tolerated. Médecins Sans Frontières supports the Ministry of Health (MOH) in a specialized HIV and KS treatment center at the Centro de Referencia de Alto Maé in Maputo...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374462/community-participation-during-two-mass-anti-malarial-administrations-in-cambodia-lessons-from-a-joint-workshop
#17
Thomas J Peto, Mark Debackere, William Etienne, Lieven Vernaeve, Rupam Tripura, Gregoire Falq, Chan Davoeung, Chea Nguon, Huy Rekol, Lorenz von Seidlein, Arjen M Dondorp, Nou Sanann, Phaik Yeong Cheah, Martin De Smet, Christopher Pell, Jean-Marie Kindermans
Two mass drug administrations (MDA) against falciparum malaria were conducted in 2015-16, one as operational research in northern Cambodia, and the other as a clinical trial in western Cambodia. During an April 2017 workshop in Phnom Penh the field teams from Médecins Sans Frontières and the Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit discussed lessons for future MDAs.
January 27, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367270/the-bmj-charity-appeal-christmas-2017-help-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-help-child-refugees-worldwide
#18
Richard Hurley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 24, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364979/navigating-the-risks-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-pmtct-of-hiv-services-in-kibera-kenya-barriers-to-engaging-and-remaining-in-care
#19
Kerry A Thomson, Barbara Telfer, Patricia Opondo Awiti, Jane Munge, Mathew Ngunga, Anthony Reid
Within the first year of implementation, 43% of women who tested HIV positive at their first antenatal care visit were no longer retained and being followed in the free prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV program offered by the Kenyan Ministry of Health and Médecins Sans Frontières in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi. This study aimed to explore barriers to enrolling and remaining engaged in PMTCT services throughout the pregnancy and postpartum periods. Qualitative data from 31 focus group discussions and 35 in-depth interviews across six stakeholder groups that included women, men, and PMTCT service providers were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334324/the-rite-of-passage-of-becoming-a-humanitarian-health-worker-experiences-of-retention-in-sweden
#20
Sara Albuquerque, Anneli Eriksson, Helle M Alvesson
BACKGROUND: Low retention of humanitarian workers poses constraints on humanitarian organisations' capacity to respond effectively to disasters. Research has focused on reasons for humanitarian workers leaving the sector, but little is known about the factors that can elucidate long-term commitment. OBJECTIVE: To understand what motivates and supports experienced humanitarian health workers to remain in the sector. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 experienced nurses who had been on at least three field missions with Médecins Sans Frontières Sweden...
2018: Global Health Action
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