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Médecins sans frontières

Andrew S Azman, Lucy A Parker, John Rumunu, Fisseha Tadesse, Francesco Grandesso, Lul L Deng, Richard Laku Lino, Bior K Bior, Michael Lasuba, Anne-Laure Page, Lameck Ontweka, Augusto E Llosa, Sandra Cohuet, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Dossou Vincent Sodjinou, Abdinasir Abubakar, Amanda K Debes, Allan M Mpairwe, Joseph F Wamala, Christine Jamet, Justin Lessler, David A Sack, Marie-Laure Quilici, Iza Ciglenecki, Francisco J Luquero
BACKGROUND: Oral cholera vaccines represent a new effective tool to fight cholera and are licensed as two-dose regimens with 2-4 weeks between doses. Evidence from previous studies suggests that a single dose of oral cholera vaccine might provide substantial direct protection against cholera. During a cholera outbreak in May, 2015, in Juba, South Sudan, the Ministry of Health, Médecins Sans Frontières, and partners engaged in the first field deployment of a single dose of oral cholera vaccine to enhance the outbreak response...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
Bérangère Gohy, Engy Ali, Rafael Van den Bergh, Erin Schillberg, Masood Nasim, Muhammad Mahmood Naimi, Sophia Cheréstal, Pauline Falipou, Eric Weerts, Peter Skelton, Catherine Van Overloop, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: In Afghanistan, Médecins Sans Frontières provided specialised trauma care in Kunduz Trauma Centre (KTC), including physiotherapy. In this study, we describe the development of an adapted functional score for patient outcome monitoring, and document the rehabilitation care provided and patient outcomes in relation to this functional score. METHODS: A descriptive cohort study was done, including all patients admitted in the KTC inpatient department (IPD) between January and June 2015...
October 13, 2016: International Health
Catrin Schulte-Hillen, Nelly Staderini, Jean-François Saint-Sauveur
MSF responds to needs for the termination of pregnancy, including on request (TPR); it is part of the organization's work aimed at reducing maternal mortality and suffering; and preventing unsafe abortions in the countries where we work. Following the publication of "Why don't humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion care?" we offer an insight into MSF's experience over the past few years. The article looks at the legal concerns and proposes that the importance of addressing maternal mortality should replace them and the operational set-up and action organized in a way that mitigates risks...
2016: Conflict and Health
Mrinalini Das, Katerina Doleckova, Rahul Shenoy, Jagadish Mahanta, Kanwar Narain, K Rekha Devi, Tongmeth Konyak, Homa Mansoor, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: One of the infections that mimic tuberculosis (TB) is paragonimiasis (PRG), a foodborne parasitic disease caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In the northeastern states of India, TB and PRG are endemic; however, PRG is rarely included in the differential diagnosis of TB. OBJECTIVE: To address limited evidence on the dual burden of TB and PRG in northeastern India, we aimed to document the prevalence of PRG among TB patients using sputum smear, stool examination for children <15 years and ELISA...
2016: Global Health Action
Jennifer Cohn, Katherine Whitehouse, Julia Tuttle, Kristin Lueck, Trang Tran
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-positive children in low-income and middle-income countries remain undiagnosed. Although HIV testing in children at health facilities is recommended by WHO, it is not well implemented. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the case-finding benefit of HIV screening in children aged 0-5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We did this systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with an a-priori protocol. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, WHO Global Index Medicus, Web of Science, Médecins Sans Frontières, Cochrane, Embase, CABS Abstracts, and LILACS databases for articles published between Jan 1, 2004, and April 30, 2016, that reported the quantitative prevalence of HIV detected through screening in four key contexts (paediatric inpatient settings, paediatric outpatient settings, nutrition centres, and expanded programme on immunisation centres) in paediatric populations in low-income and middle-income countries...
October 2016: Lancet HIV
Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes Weintraub, Mariana Gaspar Garcia, Elisa Birri, Nathalie Severy, Marie-Christine Ferir, Engy Ali, Katie Tayler-Smith, Dinah Palmera Nadera, Mark Van Ommeren
BACKGROUND: Severe mental disorders are often neglected following a disaster. Based on Médecins Sans Frontières' (MSF) experience of providing mental health (MH) care after the 2013 typhoon in the Philippines, we describe the monthly volume of MH activities and beneficiaries; characteristics of people seeking MH care; profile and outcomes of people with severe mental disorders; prescription of psychotropic medication; and factors facilitating the identification and management of individuals with severe mental disorders...
September 2016: International Health
Salil Mehta, Mrinalini Das, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Sylvie Jonckheere, Sein Sein Thi, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Patients on linezolid-containing drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) regimen often develop adverse-events, particularly peripheral and optic neuropathy. Programmatic data and experiences of linezolid-associated optic neuropathy from high DR-TB burden settings are lacking. The study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk-factors associated with linezolid-associated optic neuropathy and document the experiences related to treatment/care of DR-TB patients on linezolid-containing regimens...
2016: PloS One
Marit de Wit, Anna L Funk, Krystel Moussally, David Aksanti Nkuba, Ruby Siddiqui, Karla Bil, Erwan Piriou, Aldert Bart, Patrick Bahizi Bizoza, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: Between 2009 and 2012, malaria cases diagnosed in a Médecins sans Frontières programme have increased fivefold in Baraka, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The cause of this increase is not known. An in vivo drug efficacy trial was conducted to determine whether increased treatment failure rates may have contributed to the apparent increase in malaria diagnoses. METHODS: In an open-randomized non-inferiority trial, the efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) was compared to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in 288 children aged 6-59 months...
2016: Malaria Journal
Julian Sheather, Kiran Jobanputra, Doris Schopper, John Pringle, Sarah Venis, Sidney Wong, Robin Vincent-Smith
Kiran Jobanputra and colleagues describe an ethics framework to support the ethics oversight of innovation projects in medical humanitarian contexts.
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
Grégoire Falq, Rafael Van Den Bergh, Martin De Smet, William Etienne, Chea Nguon, Huy Rekol, Mallika Imwong, Arjen Dondorp, Jean-Marie Kindermans
BACKGROUND: In Cambodia, elimination of artemisinin resistance through direct elimination of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite may be the only strategy. Prevalence and incidence at district and village levels were assessed in Chey Saen district, Preah Vihear province, North of Cambodia. Molecular and clinical indicators for artemisinin resistance were documented. METHODS: A cross sectional prevalence survey was conducted at village level in the district of Chey Saen from September to October 2014...
2016: Malaria Journal
Anna Kuehne, Amanda Tiffany, Estrella Lasry, Michel Janssens, Clement Besse, Chibuzo Okonta, Kwabena Larbi, Alfred C Pah, Kostas Danis, Klaudia Porten
BACKGROUND: In October 2014, during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia healthcare services were limited while malaria transmission continued. Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) implemented a mass drug administration (MDA) of malaria chemoprevention (CP) in Monrovia to reduce malaria-associated morbidity. In order to inform future interventions, we described the scale of the MDA, evaluated its acceptance and estimated the effectiveness. METHODS: MSF carried out two rounds of MDA with artesunate/amodiaquine (ASAQ) targeting four neighbourhoods of Monrovia (October to December 2014)...
2016: PloS One
Anna Kuehne, Emily Lynch, Esaie Marshall, Amanda Tiffany, Ian Alley, Luke Bawo, Moses Massaquoi, Claudia Lodesani, Philippe Le Vaillant, Klaudia Porten, Etienne Gignoux
Between March 2014 and July 2015 at least 10,500 Ebola cases including more than 4,800 deaths occurred in Liberia, the majority in Monrovia. However, official numbers may have underestimated the size of the outbreak. Closure of health facilities and mistrust in existing structures may have additionally impacted on all-cause morbidity and mortality. To quantify mortality and morbidity and describe health-seeking behaviour in Monrovia, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) conducted a mobile phone survey from December 2014 to March 2015...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kyle Rosenke, Jennifer Adjemian, Vincent J Munster, Andrea Marzi, Darryl Falzarano, Clayton O Onyango, Melvin Ochieng, Bonventure Juma, Robert J Fischer, Joseph B Prescott, David Safronetz, Victor Omballa, Collins Owuor, Thomas Hoenen, Allison Groseth, Cynthia Martellaro, Neeltje van Doremalen, Galina Zemtsova, Joshua Self, Trenton Bushmaker, Kristin McNally, Thomas Rowe, Shannon L Emery, Friederike Feldmann, Brandi N Williamson, Sonja M Best, Tolbert G Nyenswah, Allen Grolla, James E Strong, Gary Kobinger, Fatorma K Bolay, Kathryn C Zoon, Jorgen Stassijns, Ruggero Giuliani, Martin de Smet, Stuart T Nichol, Barry Fields, Armand Sprecher, Moses Massaquoi, Heinz Feldmann, Emmie de Wit
BACKGROUND: The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has resulted in 28 646 suspected, probable, and confirmed Ebola virus infections. Nevertheless, malaria remains a large public health burden in the region affected by the outbreak. A joint Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health diagnostic laboratory was established in Monrovia, Liberia, in August 2014, to provide laboratory diagnostics for Ebola virus. METHODS: All blood samples from suspected Ebola virus-infected patients admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières ELWA3 Ebola treatment unit in Monrovia were tested by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Ebola virus and Plasmodium species RNA...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Jaime Chow, Kennedy Uadiale, Agatha Bestman, Charity Kamau, Dominique A Caugant, Aminu Shehu, Jane Greig
BACKGROUND: In northwest Nigeria in 2013 and 2014, two sequential, localized outbreaks of meningitis were caused by a new strain of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (NmC). In 2015, an outbreak caused by the same novel NmC strain occurred over a wider geographical area, displaying different characteristics to the previous outbreaks. We describe cases treated by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in the 2015 outbreak.  METHODS: From February 10 to June 8, 2015, data on cerebrospinal meningitis (CSM) cases and deaths were recorded on standardized line-lists from case management sites supported by MSF...
2016: PLoS Currents
Shona Horter, Beverley Stringer, Jane Greig, Akhmet Amangeldiev, Mirzagaleb N Tillashaikhov, Nargiza Parpieva, Zinaida Tigay, Philipp du Cros
BACKGROUND: Treatment for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, has severe side effects, and raises adherence challenges. In the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and Ministry of Health (MoH) programme in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan, a region with a high burden of MDR-TB, patient loss from treatment (LFT) remains high despite adherence support strategies. While certain factors associated with LFT have been identified, there is limited understanding of why some patients are able to adhere to treatment while others are not...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Sodiomon B Sirima, Bernhards Ogutu, John P A Lusingu, Ali Mtoro, Zakayo Mrango, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Jean Baptiste Yaro, Kevin Omondi Onyango, Samwel Gesase, Ernest Mnkande, James Samwel Ngocho, Isabelle Ackermann, François Aubin, Joelle Vanraes, Nathalie Strub, Gwenaelle Carn
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends combinations of an artemisinin derivative plus an antimalarial drug of longer half-life as treatment options for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection. In Africa, artemether-lumefantrine is the most widely used artemisinin-based combination therapy, whereas artesunate-mefloquine is used infrequently because of a perceived poor tolerance to mefloquine. WHO recommends reconsideration of the use of artesunate-mefloquine in Africa. We compared the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose artesunate-mefloquine with that of artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of children younger than 5 years with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria...
October 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Miguel Trelles, Barclay T Stewart, Hamayoun Hemat, Masood Naseem, Sattar Zaheer, Mutallib Zakir, Edris Adel, Catherine Van Overloop, Adam L Kushner
BACKGROUND: On October 3, 2015, a United States airstrike hit Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders) Trauma Centre in Kunduz, Afghanistan. Our aim was to describe the care provided and estimate the health burden averted by surgical care at the hospital. We also report the benefit rendered by the Trauma Centre to the health of the local population prior to its destruction. METHODS: All operations performed in an operating theater at the Trauma Centre from its opening on August 30, 2011, to August 31, 2015, were described...
July 9, 2016: Surgery
B Stringer, K Lowton, M Tillashaikhov, N Parpieva, D Ulmasova, P du Cros, E Hasker, N Sergeeva
SETTING: The joint Médecins Sans Frontières/Ministry of Health Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Programme, Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan. OBJECTIVE: Uzbekistan has high rates of MDR-TB. We aimed to understand patients' and prescribers' attitudes to anti-tuberculosis drug prescription, regulation and drug-taking behaviour. METHODS: Participants (12 patients, 12 practitioners) were recruited purposively. Data were gathered qualitatively using field notes and in-depth interviews and analysed thematically...
August 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
G Benedetti, M Mossoko, J P Nyakio Kakusu, J Nyembo, J P Mangion, D Van Laeken, R Van den Bergh, W Van den Boogaard, M Manzi, W K Kibango, V Hermans, J Beijnsberger, V Lambert, E Kitenge
SETTING: The Democratic Republic of Congo suffers from an amalgam of disease outbreaks and other medical emergencies. An efficient response to these relies strongly on the national surveillance system. The Pool d'Urgence Congo (PUC, Congo Emergency Team) of Médecins Sans Frontières is a project that responds to emergencies in highly remote areas through short-term vertical interventions, during which it uses the opportunity of its presence to reinforce the local surveillance system...
June 21, 2016: Public Health Action
Christos Louis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
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