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Médecins sans frontières

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101127/mental-health-and-trauma-in-asylum-seekers-landing-in-sicily-in-2015-a-descriptive-study-of-neglected-invisible-wounds
#1
Anna Crepet, Francesco Rita, Anthony Reid, Wilma Van den Boogaard, Pina Deiana, Gaia Quaranta, Aurelia Barbieri, Francesco Bongiorno, Stefano Di Carlo
BACKGROUND: In 2015, Italy was the second most common point of entry for asylum seekers into Europe after Greece. The vast majority embarked from war-torn Libya; 80,000 people claimed asylum that year. Their medical conditions were assessed on arrival but their mental health needs were not addressed in any way, despite the likelihood of serious trauma before and during migration. Médecins sans Frontières (MSF), in agreement with the Italian Ministry of Health, provided mental health (MH) assessment and care for recently-landed asylum seekers in Sicily...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-sodium-stibogluconate-and-paromomycin-combination-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-eastern-africa-results-from-a-pharmacovigilance-programme
#2
Robert Kimutai, Ahmed M Musa, Simon Njoroge, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Asrat Hailu, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ermias Diro, Peninah Soipei, Brima Musa, Khalid Salman, Koert Ritmeijer, Francois Chappuis, Juma Rashid, Rezika Mohammed, Asfaw Jameneh, Eyasu Makonnen, Joseph Olobo, Lawrence Okello, Patrick Sagaki, Nathalie Strub, Sally Ellis, Jorge Alvar, Manica Balasegaram, Emilie Alirol, Monique Wasunna
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, WHO recommended a new first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Eastern Africa. The new treatment, a combination of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and IM paromomycin (PM) was an improvement over SSG monotherapy, the previous first-line VL treatment in the region. To monitor the new treatment's safety and effectiveness in routine clinical practice a pharmacovigilance (PV) programme was developed. METHODS: A prospective PV cohort was developed...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060846/prediction-of-under-detection-of-paediatric-tuberculosis-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo-experience-of-six-years-in-the-south-kivu-province
#3
Emmanuel André, Yvette Lufungulo Bahati, Eric Mulume Musafiri, Olivier Bahati Rusumba, Dimitri Van der Linden, Francis Zech
INTRODUCTION: In the field of tuberculosis (TB), and particularly in regard to paediatric TB (PedTB), clinical skills of health professionals play an important role in determining quality of care. In an era where novel diagnostic technologies and efficient treatment regimens are being made available for the poorest, we must not divert our attention from the importance of clinical skills, as this deliverable remains the cornerstone of individualized patient care and ultimately the best assurance for optimal use of resources...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018749/focused-training-for-humanitarian-responders-in-regional-anesthesia-techniques-for-a-planned-randomized-controlled-trial-in-a-disaster-setting
#4
Adam R Aluisio, Carrei Teicher, Tess Wiskel, Allysia Guy, Adam Levine
BACKGROUND: Lower extremity trauma during earthquakes accounts for the largest burden of geophysical disaster-related injuries. Insufficient pain management is common in disaster settings, and regional anesthesia (RA) has the potential to reduce pain in injured patients beyond current standards. To date, no prospective research has evaluated the use of RA in a disaster setting. This cross-sectional study assesses knowledge translation and skill acquisition outcomes for lower extremity RA performed with and without ultrasound guidance among a cohort of Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) volunteers who will function as proceduralists in a planned randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of RA for pain management in an earthquake setting...
November 16, 2016: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017403/efficacy-and-effectiveness-of-an-rvsv-vectored-vaccine-in-preventing-ebola-virus-disease-final-results-from-the-guinea-ring-vaccination-open-label-cluster-randomised-trial-ebola-%C3%A3-a-suffit
#5
Ana Maria Henao-Restrepo, Anton Camacho, Ira M Longini, Conall H Watson, W John Edmunds, Matthias Egger, Miles W Carroll, Natalie E Dean, Ibrahima Diatta, Moussa Doumbia, Bertrand Draguez, Sophie Duraffour, Godwin Enwere, Rebecca Grais, Stephan Gunther, Pierre-Stéphane Gsell, Stefanie Hossmann, Sara Viksmoen Watle, Mandy Kader Kondé, Sakoba Kéïta, Souleymane Kone, Eewa Kuisma, Myron M Levine, Sema Mandal, Thomas Mauget, Gunnstein Norheim, Ximena Riveros, Aboubacar Soumah, Sven Trelle, Andrea S Vicari, John-Arne Røttingen, Marie-Paule Kieny
BACKGROUND: rVSV-ZEBOV is a recombinant, replication competent vesicular stomatitis virus-based candidate vaccine expressing a surface glycoprotein of Zaire Ebolavirus. We tested the effect of rVSV-ZEBOV in preventing Ebola virus disease in contacts and contacts of contacts of recently confirmed cases in Guinea, west Africa. METHODS: We did an open-label, cluster-randomised ring vaccination trial (Ebola ça Suffit!) in the communities of Conakry and eight surrounding prefectures in the Basse-Guinée region of Guinea, and in Tomkolili and Bombali in Sierra Leone...
December 23, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989625/pneumonia-prevention-cost-effectiveness-analyses-of-two-vaccines-among-refugee-children-aged-under-two-years-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-containing-and-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-during-a-humanitarian-emergency-yida-camp-south-sudan
#6
Lisa M Gargano, Rana Hajjeh, Susan T Cookson
By September 2013, war between Sudan and South Sudan resulted in >70,000 Sudanese refugees and high pneumonia incidence among the 20,000 refugees in Yida camp, South Sudan. Using Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF)-provided data and modifying our decision-tree models, we estimated if administering Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-containing (pentavalent vaccine, also with diphtheria pertussis and tetanus [DPT] and hepatitis B) and pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) vaccines were cost-effective against hospitalized pneumonia...
January 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976602/-providing-a-roof-and-more-to-communities-affected-by-typhoon-haiyan-in-the-philippines-the-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-experience
#7
Engy Ali, Marie-Christine Ferir, Tony Reid, Henry Gray, Wilma Van Den Boogaard, Christopher Gonzales, Rony Zachariah
OBJECTIVES: Typhoon Haiyan hit the Philippines in November 2013 and left a trail of destruction. As part of its emergency response, Médecins Sans Frontières distributed materials for reconstructing houses and boats as standardized kits to be shared between households. Community engagement was sought and communities were empowered in deciding how to make the distributions. We aimed to answer, Was this effective and what lessons were learned? METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using a semi-structured questionnaire was conducted in May 2014 and included all community leaders and 269 households in 22 barangays (community administrative areas)...
December 15, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921381/cost-analysis-of-the-treatment-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-west-africa
#8
Sheila Isanaka, Nicolas A Menzies, Jessica Sayyad, Mudasiru Ayoola, Rebecca F Grais, Stéphane Doyon
We present an updated cost analysis to provide new estimates of the cost of providing community-based treatment for severe acute malnutrition, including expenditure shares for major cost categories. We calculated total and per child costs from a provider perspective. We categorized costs into three main activities (outpatient treatment, inpatient treatment, and management/administration) and four cost categories within each activity (personnel; therapeutic food; medical supplies; and infrastructure and logistical support)...
December 5, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810881/emergency-department-care-for-trauma-patients-in-settings-of-active-conflict-versus-urban-violence-all-of-the-same-calibre
#9
Pola Valles, Rafael Van den Bergh, Wilma van den Boogaard, Katherine Tayler-Smith, Olivia Gayraud, Bashir Ahmad Mammozai, Masood Nasim, Sophia Cheréstal, Alberta Majuste, James Philippe Charles, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: Trauma is a leading cause of death and represents a major problem in developing countries where access to good quality emergency care is limited. Médecins Sans Frontières delivered a standard package of care in two trauma emergency departments (EDs) in different violence settings: Kunduz, Afghanistan, and Tabarre, Haiti. This study aims to assess whether this standard package resulted in similar performance in these very different contexts. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using routine programme data, comparing patient characteristics and outcomes in two EDs over the course of 2014...
November 2016: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789662/improved-neonatal-mortality-at-a-district-hospital-in-aweil-south-sudan
#10
Johanna Thomson, Myrto Schaefer, Belen Caminoa, David Kahindi, Northan Hurtado
Neonatal deaths comprise a growing proportion of global under-five mortality. However, data from the highest-burden areas is sparse. This descriptive retrospective study analyses the outcomes of all infants exiting the Médecins sans Frontières-managed neonatal unit in Aweil Hospital, rural South Sudan from 2011 to 2014. A total of 4268 patients were treated over 4 years, with annual admissions increasing from 687 to 1494. Overall mortality was 13.5% (n = 576), declining from 18.7% to 11.1% (p for trend <0...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765293/effectiveness-of-one-dose-of-oral-cholera-vaccine-in-response-to-an-outbreak-a-case-cohort-study
#11
Andrew S Azman, Lucy A Parker, John Rumunu, Fisseha Tadesse, Francesco Grandesso, Lul L Deng, Richard Laku Lino, Bior K Bior, Michael Lasuba, Anne-Laure Page, Lameck Ontweka, Augusto E Llosa, Sandra Cohuet, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Dossou Vincent Sodjinou, Abdinasir Abubakar, Amanda K Debes, Allan M Mpairwe, Joseph F Wamala, Christine Jamet, Justin Lessler, David A Sack, Marie-Laure Quilici, Iza Ciglenecki, Francisco J Luquero
BACKGROUND: Oral cholera vaccines represent a new effective tool to fight cholera and are licensed as two-dose regimens with 2-4 weeks between doses. Evidence from previous studies suggests that a single dose of oral cholera vaccine might provide substantial direct protection against cholera. During a cholera outbreak in May, 2015, in Juba, South Sudan, the Ministry of Health, Médecins Sans Frontières, and partners engaged in the first field deployment of a single dose of oral cholera vaccine to enhance the outbreak response...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738078/early-physical-and-functional-rehabilitation-of-trauma-patients-in-the-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-trauma-centre-in-kunduz-afghanistan-luxury-or-necessity
#12
Bérangère Gohy, Engy Ali, Rafael Van den Bergh, Erin Schillberg, Masood Nasim, Muhammad Mahmood Naimi, Sophia Cheréstal, Pauline Falipou, Eric Weerts, Peter Skelton, Catherine Van Overloop, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: In Afghanistan, Médecins Sans Frontières provided specialised trauma care in Kunduz Trauma Centre (KTC), including physiotherapy. In this study, we describe the development of an adapted functional score for patient outcome monitoring, and document the rehabilitation care provided and patient outcomes in relation to this functional score. METHODS: A descriptive cohort study was done, including all patients admitted in the KTC inpatient department (IPD) between January and June 2015...
November 2016: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679655/why-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-msf-provides-safe-abortion-care-and-what-that-involves
#13
Catrin Schulte-Hillen, Nelly Staderini, Jean-François Saint-Sauveur
MSF responds to needs for the termination of pregnancy, including on request (TPR); it is part of the organization's work aimed at reducing maternal mortality and suffering; and preventing unsafe abortions in the countries where we work. Following the publication of "Why don't humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion care?" we offer an insight into MSF's experience over the past few years. The article looks at the legal concerns and proposes that the importance of addressing maternal mortality should replace them and the operational set-up and action organized in a way that mitigates risks...
2016: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667815/paragonimiasis-in-tuberculosis-patients-in-nagaland-india
#14
Mrinalini Das, Katerina Doleckova, Rahul Shenoy, Jagadish Mahanta, Kanwar Narain, K Rekha Devi, Tongmeth Konyak, Homa Mansoor, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: One of the infections that mimic tuberculosis (TB) is paragonimiasis (PRG), a foodborne parasitic disease caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In the northeastern states of India, TB and PRG are endemic; however, PRG is rarely included in the differential diagnosis of TB. OBJECTIVE: To address limited evidence on the dual burden of TB and PRG in northeastern India, we aimed to document the prevalence of PRG among TB patients using sputum smear, stool examination for children <15 years and ELISA...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658876/paediatric-hiv-testing-beyond-the-context-of-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Jennifer Cohn, Katherine Whitehouse, Julia Tuttle, Kristin Lueck, Trang Tran
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-positive children in low-income and middle-income countries remain undiagnosed. Although HIV testing in children at health facilities is recommended by WHO, it is not well implemented. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the case-finding benefit of HIV screening in children aged 0-5 years in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: We did this systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with an a-priori protocol. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, WHO Global Index Medicus, Web of Science, Médecins Sans Frontières, Cochrane, Embase, CABS Abstracts, and LILACS databases for articles published between Jan 1, 2004, and April 30, 2016, that reported the quantitative prevalence of HIV detected through screening in four key contexts (paediatric inpatient settings, paediatric outpatient settings, nutrition centres, and expanded programme on immunisation centres) in paediatric populations in low-income and middle-income countries...
October 2016: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620925/not-forgetting-severe-mental-disorders-in-humanitarian-emergencies-a-descriptive-study-from-the-philippines
#16
Ana Cecilia Andrade de Moraes Weintraub, Mariana Gaspar Garcia, Elisa Birri, Nathalie Severy, Marie-Christine Ferir, Engy Ali, Katie Tayler-Smith, Dinah Palmera Nadera, Mark Van Ommeren
BACKGROUND: Severe mental disorders are often neglected following a disaster. Based on Médecins Sans Frontières' (MSF) experience of providing mental health (MH) care after the 2013 typhoon in the Philippines, we describe the monthly volume of MH activities and beneficiaries; characteristics of people seeking MH care; profile and outcomes of people with severe mental disorders; prescription of psychotropic medication; and factors facilitating the identification and management of individuals with severe mental disorders...
September 2016: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611434/linezolid-associated-optic-neuropathy-in-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-mumbai-india
#17
Salil Mehta, Mrinalini Das, Chinmay Laxmeshwar, Sylvie Jonckheere, Sein Sein Thi, Petros Isaakidis
BACKGROUND: Patients on linezolid-containing drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) regimen often develop adverse-events, particularly peripheral and optic neuropathy. Programmatic data and experiences of linezolid-associated optic neuropathy from high DR-TB burden settings are lacking. The study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk-factors associated with linezolid-associated optic neuropathy and document the experiences related to treatment/care of DR-TB patients on linezolid-containing regimens...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599612/in-vivo-efficacy-of-artesunate-amodiaquine-and-artemether-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-falciparum-malaria-an-open-randomized-non-inferiority-clinical-trial-in-south-kivu-democratic-republic-of-congo
#18
Marit de Wit, Anna L Funk, Krystel Moussally, David Aksanti Nkuba, Ruby Siddiqui, Karla Bil, Erwan Piriou, Aldert Bart, Patrick Bahizi Bizoza, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: Between 2009 and 2012, malaria cases diagnosed in a Médecins sans Frontières programme have increased fivefold in Baraka, South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The cause of this increase is not known. An in vivo drug efficacy trial was conducted to determine whether increased treatment failure rates may have contributed to the apparent increase in malaria diagnoses. METHODS: In an open-randomized non-inferiority trial, the efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) was compared to artemether-lumefantrine (AL) for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in 288 children aged 6-59 months...
September 6, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597996/a-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-ethics-framework-for-humanitarian-innovation
#19
Julian Sheather, Kiran Jobanputra, Doris Schopper, John Pringle, Sarah Venis, Sidney Wong, Robin Vincent-Smith
Kiran Jobanputra and colleagues describe an ethics framework to support the ethics oversight of innovation projects in medical humanitarian contexts.
September 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585957/assessing-the-asymptomatic-reservoir-and-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-effectiveness-in-a-low-transmission-setting-threatened-by-artemisinin-resistant-plasmodium-falciparum
#20
Grégoire Falq, Rafael Van Den Bergh, Martin De Smet, William Etienne, Chea Nguon, Huy Rekol, Mallika Imwong, Arjen Dondorp, Jean-Marie Kindermans
BACKGROUND: In Cambodia, elimination of artemisinin resistance through direct elimination of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite may be the only strategy. Prevalence and incidence at district and village levels were assessed in Chey Saen district, Preah Vihear province, North of Cambodia. Molecular and clinical indicators for artemisinin resistance were documented. METHODS: A cross sectional prevalence survey was conducted at village level in the district of Chey Saen from September to October 2014...
2016: Malaria Journal
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