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Calcitonin gene-related peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#1
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077715/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#2
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076465/the-effect-of-capsaicin-on-expression-patterns-of-cgrp-in-trigeminal-ganglion-and-trigeminal-nucleus-caudalis-following-experimental-tooth-movement-in-rats
#3
Zhou Yang, Long Hu, Y E Niansong, Liao Lina, Yang Xin, Jian Fan, Wang Yan, Lai Wenli
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of capsaicin on expression patterns of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) following experimental tooth movement. Material and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study and divided into small-dose capsaicin+force group, large-dose capsaicin+force group, saline+force group, and no force group. Closed coil springs were used to mimic orthodontic forces in all groups except for the no force group, in which springs were inactivated...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067416/a-novel-technique-of-delivering-viral-vectors-to-trigeminal-ganglia-in-rats
#4
Hu Long, Lina Liao, Yang Zhou, Di Shan, Meiya Gao, Renhuan Huang, Xin Yang, Wenli Lai
The objective of this study was to develop a viable and reliable technique of delivering viral vectors to rat trigeminal ganglia. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (200-300 g) were used, and lentiviral vectors containing enhanced green fluorescence protein and calcitonin gene-related peptide short hairpin RNA (shRNA) were generated. Following general anesthesia, viral vectors were delivered to rat trigeminal ganglia using the technique described in this study. Both X-ray and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) were employed to verify the position of the needles when injecting the vectors...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053042/induction-of-migraine-like-photophobic-behavior-in-mice-by-both-peripheral-and-central-cgrp-mechanisms
#5
Bianca N Mason, Eric A Kaiser, Adisa Kuburas, Maria-Cristina M Loomis, John A Latham, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Andrew F Russo
: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. Although migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the CNS, we used CGRP-induced light-aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal) injection of CGRP resulted in light-aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion seen previously after central (intracerebroventricular) injection...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049076/olfactory-identification-in-patients-with-schizophrenia%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-influence-of-%C3%AE-endorphin-and-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-concentrations
#6
M Urban-Kowalczyk, J Śmigielski, D Strzelecki
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the olfactory system and emotional processing is an area of growing interest in schizophrenia research. Both the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala are involved in the processing of olfactory information, and olfactory deficits may be also influenced by endogenous opioids and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is probably involved in dopaminergic transmission. However, the relationship between endorphins and dopaminergic transmission has not been fully explored...
December 29, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041540/-basic-mechanisms-of-migraine-and-new-methods-of-treatment
#7
Jakob Møller Hansen, Messoud Ashina
Migraine is the most prevalent disabling neurological disorder. The management of patients with migraine has been hampered by lack of effective and well-tolerated acute and preventive therapies. Based on improved insights into the basic mechanisms of migraine, new and targeted treatments are currently undergoing large-scale testing. Among the most promising agents for migraine prevention are humanized antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or the CGRP receptor. If proven effective, these new treatments may emerge to improve the lives of millions of individuals worldwide disabled by migraine...
December 19, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030866/increase-of-mast-cell-nerve-association-and-neuropeptide-receptor-expression-on-mast-cells-in-perennial-allergic-rhinitis
#8
Duc Dung Le, David Schmit, Sebastian Heck, Albert Joachim Omlor, Martina Sester, Christian Herr, Bernhard Schick, François Daubeuf, Sebastian Fähndrich, Robert Bals, Nelly Frossard, Basel Al Kadah, Quoc Thai Dinh
OBJECTIVES: Mast cells (MCs) and nerves play an important role in allergic rhinitis (AR), but little is known about their crosstalk in AR. The aim of this study was to investigate MC-nerve interaction in the human nasal mucosa during AR. METHODS: The association between MCs and nerves, the expression of neuropeptide receptors (neurokinin 1 receptor [NK1R], neurokinin 2 receptor [NK2R], calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor [CGRPR], and MrgX2) on MCs, and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) and tyrosine receptor kinase A (TrkA) on nerve fibres in the human nasal mucosa were investigated with immunofluorescence and real-time PCR...
December 29, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025021/inflammatory-pain-related-traits-of-sensory-drg-neurons-innervating-the-hip-joints
#9
Takayuki Nakajima, Seiji Ohtori, Junichi Nakamura, Takane Suzuki, Yasuchika Aoki, Atsuya Watanabe, Makoto Takazawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Hip pain is transmitted to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord via the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which contains two types of neurons with differential sensitivity to neurotrophic factors. If either type predominantly innervates the hip joint, it may represent a good target for hip joint pain treatment. METHODS: Inflammation was induced in the left hip joint of rats (n = 10) by using complete Freund's adjuvant. Fluoro-Gold (FG) was applied to the hip joint after 7 days, and T12-L6 DRGs were double-stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and isolection-IB4 1 week later...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011952/role-of-sensory-afferent-nerves-lipid-peroxidation-and-antioxidative-enzymes-in-the-carbon-monoxide-induced-gastroprotection-against-stress-ulcerogenesis
#10
S Kwiecien, K Magierowska, M Magierowski, M Surmiak, M Hubalewska-Mazgaj, R Pajdo, Z Sliwowski, A Chmura, D Wojcik, T Brzozowski
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a physiological gaseous mediator recently implicated in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense due to its vasodilatory and antioxidative properties. Small quantities of endogenous CO are produced during heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO-1), however, the involvement of the capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons releasing calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and anti-oxidative factors and mechanisms in the CO-induced gastroprotection against stress ulcerogenesis has been little studied...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006945/neonatal-capsaicin-administration-impairs-postnatal-development-of-the-cardiac-chronotropy-and-inotropy-in-rats
#11
J Kuncová, A Jirkovská, J Švíglerová, M Marková, D Meireles, M Čedíková
The present study evaluated the impact of neonatal administration of capsaicin (neurotoxin from red hot pepper used for sensory denervation) on postnatal development of the heart rate and ventricular contractility. In the rats subjected to capsaicin administration (100 mg/kg) on postnatal days 2 and 3 and their vehicle-treated controls at the ages of 10 to 90 days, function of the sympathetic innervation of the developing heart was characterized by evaluation of chronotropic responses to metipranolol and atropine, norepinephrine concentrations in the heart, and norepinephrine release from the heart atria...
December 22, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002923/tendinopathic-supraspinatus-tenocytes-may-have-a-neuroendocrine-like-function-secreting-cgrp-sp-and-vegf-a-pilot-immunohistochemistry-study
#12
R Sahemey, P Malliaras, J S Lewis, G J Michael, P Shortland, D Morrissey, N Maffulli
We wanted to observe and compare the appearance of neurovascular tissue from tendon ex vivo, in patients with and without painful rotator cuff tendinopathy. Supraspinatus tendons were biopsied from 5 participants with painful tendinopathy and normal tendon from a young male. Slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue for histological assessment. Immunohistochemical markers for general nerves (protein gene-product 9.5 and synaptophysin), sensory nerves (calcitonin gene-related peptide; substance-P) and vascularisation (vascular endothelial growth factor) were used...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001346/analgesic-microneedle-patch-for-neuropathic-pain-therapy
#13
Xi Xie, Conrado Pascual, Christopher Lieu, Seajin Oh, Ji Wang, Bende Zou, Julian Xie, Zhaohui Li, James Xie, David C Yeomans, Mei X Wu, Xinmin Simon Xie
Neuropathic pain caused by nerve injury is debilitating and difficult to treat. Current systemic pharmacological therapeutics for neuropathic pain produce limited pain relief and have undesirable side effects, while current local anesthetics tend to nonspecifically block both sensory and motor functions. Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings, appears to play a significant role in chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, an analgesic microneedle (AMN) patch was developed using dissolvable microneedles to transdermally deliver selective CGRP antagonist peptide in a painless manner for the treatment of localized neuropathic pain...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994541/localization-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-immunoreactivity-in-rat-spinal-cord
#14
Essam M Abdelalim, Jean-Pierre Bellier, Ikuo Tooyama
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exerts its functions through NP receptors. Recently, BNP has been shown to be involved in a wide range of functions. Previous studies reported BNP expression in the sensory afferent fibers in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord. However, BNP expression and function in the neurons of the central nervous system are still controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated BNP expression in the rat spinal cord in detail using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990431/spatiotemporal-changes-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-innervation-in-spinal-fusion
#15
Xiao-Yi Zhou, Xi-Ming Xu, Sui-Yi Wu, Fei Wang, Yi-Lin Yang, Ming Li, Xian-Zhao Wei
Few studies have investigated the role calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays in the process of spinal fusion. The aim of the present study is to observe the temporal and spatial changes of CGRP induced by experimental fusion surgery in rats and elucidate the role of CGRP in spinal fusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study and the specimens were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day, respectively. Then, histological and immunohistochemical analysis were applied to evaluate the fusion mass and spatiotemporal changes of CGRP chronologically...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977070/role-of-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-receptors-in-rodent-models-of-meningeal-nociception-experiments-in%C3%A2-vitro
#16
A C Denner, B Vogler, K Messlinger, R De Col
BACKGROUND: The TRP channel ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel known to be activated by environmental irritants, cold and endogenous mediators of inflammation. Activation of TRPA1 in trigeminal afferents innervating meningeal structures has recently been suggested to be involved in the generation of headaches. METHODS: Two in vitro models of meningeal nociception were employed using the hemisected rodent head preparation, (1) recording of single meningeal afferents and (2) release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the cranial dura mater...
December 15, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27970214/tct-822-effect-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-on-myocardin-expression-and-phenotypic-switch-in-the-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#17
Xianping Long, Ranzun Zhao, Jin Sheng, Bei Shi, Wenwen Deng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940069/cardiovascular-effects-of-exogenous-adrenomedullin-and-cgrp-in-ramp-and-calcrl-deficient-mice
#18
J B Pawlak, S E Wetzel-Strong, M K Dunn, K M Caron
Adrenomedullin (AM) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are potent vasodilator peptides and serve as ligands for the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR/Calcrl). Three GPCR accessory proteins called receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) modify the ligand binding affinity of the receptor such that the CLR/RAMP1 heterodimer preferably binds CGRP, while CLR/RAMP2 and CLR/RAMP3 have a stronger affinity for AM. Here we determine the contribution of each of the three RAMPs to blood pressure control in response to exogenous AM and CGRP by measuring the blood pressure of mice with genetic reduction or deletion of the receptor components...
December 8, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939448/topographic-distribution-of-serotonin-immunoreactive-urethral-endocrine-cells-and-their-relationship-with-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-immunoreactive-nerves-in-male-rats
#19
Takuya Yokoyama, Tomoyuki Saino, Nobuaki Nakamuta, Yoshio Yamamoto
We investigated the topographic distribution and morphology of serotonin (5-HT)-immunoreactive endocrine cells in the urethra of male rats, and focused on their relationship with peptidergic nerve fibers immunoreactive for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Urethral endocrine cells immunoreactive for 5-HT were densely distributed in the epithelial layers of the prostatic part, but were sparsely distributed in the membranous and spongy parts of urethra. Distribution of urethral endocrine cells with 5-HT immunoreactivity in the prostatic part was restricted from the internal urethral orifice to the region of seminal colliculus...
January 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930390/a-novel-approach-for-the-control-of-inflammatory-pain-prostaglandin-e2-complexation-by-randomly-methylated-%C3%AE-cyclodextrins
#20
Reine-Solange Sauer, Heike Lydia Rittner, Norbert Roewer, Tamás Sohajda, Sergey Shityakov, Alexander Brack, Jens-Albert Broscheit
BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, which block the formation of prostaglandin (PG) E2, are the standard treatment of inflammatory pain. These drugs, however, have serious gastrointestinal, renal, and cardiovascular side effects that limit their clinical use. Cyclodextrins are neutral glucose oligomers that form a hydrophilic outer and a hydrophobic interior cavity used to carry hydrophilic substances. Methyl-β-cyclodextrins are used currently in several drugs as enhancers and also to deliver PGs...
February 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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