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Calcitonin gene-related peptide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645128/-headache-news
#1
Hans-Christoph Diener, Charly Gaul, Dagny Holle-Lee, Lazaros Lazaridis, Steffen Nägel, Mark Obermann
A review of the latest and most relevant information on different disorders of head and facial pain is presented. News from epidemiologic studies regarding the relationship between migraine and patent foramen ovale, the cardiovascular risk in migraine, and migraine behavior during menopause, and the development of white matter lesions or migraine genetics are presented. Regarding pathophysiology there are very recent insights regarding the role of the hypothalamus during prodromal phase and the interplay of brain-stem and hypothalamus during the attack...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644160/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-targeted-therapies-for-migraine-and-cluster-headache-a-review
#2
Nathaniel M Schuster, Alan M Rapoport
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a signaling neuropeptide released from activated trigeminal sensory afferents in headache and facial pain disorders. There are a handful of CGRP-targeted therapies currently in phase 3 studies for migraine acute treatment or prevention. Currently, 4 monoclonal antibodies targeting either the CGRP ligand or receptor are being studied for migraine prevention: ALD403 (eptinezumab), AMG 334 (erenumab), LY2951742 (galcanezumab), and TEV-48125 (fremanezumab). Meanwhile, 1 small-molecule CGRP receptor antagonist (ubrogepant, MK-1602) is currently in phase 3 studies for the acute treatment of migraine...
June 21, 2017: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637996/the-localization-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-the-human-trigeminal-ganglion-and-masseter-muscle
#3
Yuri Azuma, Iwao Sato
The localization of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is similar to that of a neurotransmitter which indicates masticatory muscle pain in the area of the masseter fascia. CGRP is released from the trigeminal ganglion (TG). The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CGRP in the fascia of the masseter muscle (FMM) and TG in a morphometric manner, with respect to the location and density of CGRP-immunopositive reaction fiber (CGRP-IRF). A higher number of the CGRP-IRF were mainly found located around elongated blood vessels and small nerves on the origin side of the middle zone FMM in the O group (presented with occlusion)...
2017: Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627670/intermedin-improves-cardiac-function-and-sympathetic-neural-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-post-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure
#4
Bin Xu, Hao Xu, Heng Cao, Xiaoxiao Liu, Chunhuan Qin, Yanzhou Zhao, Xiaolin Han, Hongli Li
Emerging evidence has suggested that intermedin (IMD), a novel member of the calcitonin gene‑related peptide (CGRP) family, has a wide range of cardioprotective effects. The present study investigated the effects of long‑term administration of IMD on cardiac function and sympathetic neural remodeling in heart failure (HF) rats, and studied potential underlying mechanism. HF was induced in rats by myocardial infarction (MI). Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either saline or IMD (0.6 µg/kg/h) treatment groups for 4 weeks post‑MI...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627595/elevated-expression-of-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-type%C3%A2-1-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-of-rats-with-endometriosis
#5
Yu-Ling Lian, Ming-Jun Cheng, Xian-Xia Zhang, Li Wang
Pain is the most pronounced complaint of women with endometriosis, however the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood. In the present study, the authors evaluate the effect of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) on endometriosis-associated pain. A total of 36 SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group (n=9) and a Model group (n=27), accepted auto‑transplanted pieces of fat or uterus to the pelvic cavity. At 4 weeks, the Model group was randomly subdivided into the following groups: ENDO group (no treatment, n=9), BCTC group (Model + BCTC, an antagonist of TRPV1, n=9), Vehicle group (Model + cyclodextrin, the vehicle of BCTC, n=9)...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622417/the-antimigraine-butterbur-ingredient-isopetasin-desensitises-peptidergic-nociceptors-via-the-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-channel
#6
Silvia Benemei, Francesco De Logu, Simone Li Puma, Ilaria Maddalena Marone, Elisabetta Coppi, Filippo Ugolini, Wolfgang Liedtke, Pollastro Federica, Giovanni Appendino, Pierangelo Geppetti, Serena Materazzi, Romina Nassini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The mechanism of the antimigraine action of butterbur [Petasites hybridus (L.) Gaertn.] is unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of isopetasin, a major butterbur constituent, to specifically target the transient receptor ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel and to affect functional responses relevant to migraine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Single cell calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings in human and rodent TRPA1-expressing cells, neurogenic motor responses in isolated rat/mouse urinary bladder, release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from mouse spinal cord in vitro, and facial rubbing in mice and meningeal blood flow in rat were examined...
June 16, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616038/electroacupuncture-at-fengchi-gb20-inhibits-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-expression-in-the-trigeminovascular-system-of-a-rat-model-of-migraine
#7
Luo-Peng Zhao, Lu Liu, Pei Pei, Zheng-Yang Qu, Yu-Pu Zhu, Lin-Peng Wang
Most migraine patients suffer from cutaneous allodynia; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of migraine, and it is therefore, a potential therapeutic target for treating the pain. In the present study, a rat model of conscious migraine, induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus, was established and treated with electroacupuncture at Fengchi (GB20) (depth of 2-3 mm, frequency of 2/15 Hz, intensity of 0...
May 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614906/heterogeneous-organization-and-connectivity-of-the-chicken-auditory-thalamus-gallus-gallus
#8
Yuan Wang, Diego A R Zorio, Harvey J Karten
The auditory ascending system contains parallel pathways in vertebrate brains. In chickens (Gallus gallus), three pathways arise from nucleus laminaris (NL), nucleus angularis (NA), and regio intermedius (RI) in the brainstem, innervating three subdivisions of the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd) in the midbrain. The current study reveals the segregation of these pathways in their subsequent projections to the nucleus ovoidalis (Ov) in the thalamus. Based on cytoarchitecture and myelin distribution, we identified seven Ov subregions, including five neuronal clusters within the Ov proper, the nucleus semilunaris parovoidalis (SPO), and the circum-ovoidalis (cOv)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609318/biochemical-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-a-mice-model-of-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#9
Vaskar Das, Jeffrey S Kroin, Mario Moric, Asokumar Buvanendran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Complex regional pain syndrome is a challenging disease to treat. Recently, a mouse fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome has been developed that has many signs of the clinical syndrome. However, many aspects of the sensory neuron biochemistry and behavioral and pharmacological characterization of this model remain to be clarified. METHODS: Mice were randomly assigned to fracture/cast or control (naive) groups. Fracture/cast mice underwent a closed distal tibia facture, with hindlimb wrapped in casting tape for 3 weeks...
July 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604219/potentiation-of-nmda-receptor-mediated-synaptic-transmission-at-the-parabrachial-central-amygdala-synapses-by-cgrp-in-mice
#10
Yuya Okutsu, Yukari Takahashi, Masashi Nagase, Kei Shinohara, Ryo Ikeda, Fusao Kato
The capsular part of the central amygdala (CeC) is called the "nociceptive amygdala," as it receives nociceptive information from various pathways, including monosynaptic input from the lateral part of the parabrachial nucleus (LPB), a major target of ascending neurons in the spinal and medullary dorsal horn. LPB-CeC synaptic transmission is mediated by glutamate but the fibers from the LPB also contain calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and the CeC is rich in CGRP-binding sites. CGRP might be released in response to strong nociception and activate these CGRP receptors...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603014/distribution-of-cgrp-and-its-receptor-components-clr-and-ramp1-in-the-rat-retina
#11
Frank W Blixt, Aneta Radziwon-Balicka, Lars Edvinsson, Karin Warfvinge
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37 amino acid neuropeptide with several functions including vasodilation, the perception of painful stimuli, and inflammation. The CGRP receptor consists of two main components; calcitonin-like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1). While there is a growing recognition that CGRP plays a key role in migraine, the function of CGRP in the retina has not been fully established. This study aims to investigate the distribution of CGRP and its two receptor components in the rat retina, visually by immunohistochemistry and quantitatively using flow cytometry...
June 8, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601899/sensory-innervation-of-the-anal-canal-and-anorectal-line-in-hirschsprung-s-disease-histological-evidence-from-mouse-models
#12
Masahiro Takeda, Katsumi Miyahara, Chihiro Akazawa, Geoffrey J Lane, Atsuyuki Yamataka
AIM: We used non-Hirschsprung's disease (HD) Sox10-Venus Transgenic mice (non-HDSV-mice), an endothelin receptor-B knockout mouse model of HD (HD-mice), and C57B6C3 wild controls (C-mice) to identify the correlation between the anorectal line (ARL) and successful transanal pull-through (TAPT). METHODS: In non-HDSV-mice, intestinal neural crest-derived cells can be visualized with Venus,-a green fluorescent protein-without histochemical staining. We exposed the anal canal in each non-HDSV-mouse and marked the ARL directly with red ink...
June 10, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600329/effect-of-electroacupuncture-on-thermal-pain-threshold-and-expression-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-substance-p-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-in-the-cervical-dorsal-root-ganglion-of-rats-with-incisional-neck-pain
#13
Li-Na Qiao, Jun-Ling Liu, Lian-Hong Tan, Hai-Long Yang, Xu Zhai, Yong-Sheng Yang
OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture therapy effectively reduces post-surgical pain, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether expression of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the primary sensory neurons of cervical dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are involved in electroacupuncture (EA)-induced analgesia in a rat model of incisional neck pain. METHODS: The pain model was established by making a longitudinal midline neck incision in 60 rats...
June 9, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593473/pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-relationship-of-erenumab-amg-334-and-capsaicin-induced-dermal-blood-flow-in-healthy-and-migraine-subjects
#14
Thuy Vu, Peiming Ma, Jiyun Sunny Chen, Jan de Hoon, Anne Van Hecken, Lucy Yan, Liviawati Sutjandra Wu, Lisa Hamilton, Gabriel Vargas
PURPOSE: Capsaicin-induced dermal blood flow (CIDBF) is a validated biomarker used to evaluate the target engagement of potential calcitonin gene-related peptide-blocking therapeutics for migraine. To characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and quantify the inhibitory effects of erenumab (AMG 334) on CIDBF, CIDBF data were pooled from a single- and a multiple-dose study in healthy and migraine subjects. METHODS: Repeated capsaicin challenges and DBF measurements were performed and serum erenumab concentrations determined...
June 7, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584969/the-effect-of-melatonin-on-gene-expression-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-some-proinflammatory-mediators-in-patients-with-pure-menstrual-migraine
#15
Mohammad Ansari, Azam Karkhaneh, Asma Kheirollahi, Solaleh Emamgholipour, Mohammad Hessam Rafiee
The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasoactive and a marker of trigeminal inflammation, has been considered as an important mediator in various types of migraine such as pure menstrual migraine. Earlier studies have shown that CGRP can modulate the synthesis and release of other inflammatory factor including nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) from trigeminal ganglion glial cells. Exogenous melatonin protects the tissues from inflammatory damages. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin on the CGRP expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity, NO, and IL-1β release in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from pure menstrual migraine patients and healthy subjects...
June 5, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581479/cancer-induced-anorexia-and-malaise-are-mediated-by-cgrp-neurons-in-the-parabrachial-nucleus
#16
Carlos A Campos, Anna J Bowen, Sung Han, Brent E Wisse, Richard D Palmiter, Michael W Schwartz
Anorexia is a common manifestation of chronic diseases, including cancer. Here we investigate the contribution to cancer anorexia made by calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) neurons in the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) that transmit anorexic signals. We show that CGRP(PBN) neurons are activated in mice implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Inactivation of CGRP(PBN) neurons before tumor implantation prevents anorexia and loss of lean mass, and their inhibition after symptom onset reverses anorexia. CGRP(PBN) neurons are also activated in Apc(min/+) mice, which develop intestinal cancer and lose weight despite the absence of reduced food intake...
June 5, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574416/richly-innervated-soft-tissues-covering-the-superficial-aspect-of-the-extensor-origin-in-patients-with-chronic-painful-tennis-elbow-implication-for-treatment
#17
C Spang, H Alfredson
BACKGROUND: Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. METHODS: Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572046/understanding-the-molecular-functions-of-the-second-extracellular-loop-ecl2-of-the-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-cgrp-receptor-using-a-comprehensive-mutagenesis-approach
#18
Michael J Woolley, John Simms, Juan Carlos Mobarec, Christopher A Reynolds, David R Poyner, Alex C Conner
The extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) region is the most conserved of the three ECL domains in family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and has a fundamental role in ligand binding and activation across the receptor super-family. ECL2 is fundamental for ligand-induced activation of the calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptor, a family B GPCR implicated in migraine and heart disease. In this study we apply a comprehensive targeted non-alanine substitution analysis method and molecular modelling to the functionally important residues of ECL2 to reveal key molecular interactions...
May 30, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565999/ryk-receptors-on-unmyelinated-nerve-fibers-mediate-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-and-ccl2-release-during-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-peripheral-nerve-injury
#19
Qing Ou Yang, Wen-Jing Yang, Jian Li, Fang-Ting Liu, Hongbin Yuan, Yue-Ping Ou Yang
Background Neuropathic pain is a major pathology of the central nervous system associated with neuroinflammation. Ryk (receptor-like tyrosine kinase) receptors act as repulsive axon-guidance molecules during development of central nervous system and neural injury. Increasing evidence suggests the potential involvement of Wnt/Ryk (wingless and Int) signaling in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Results The expression and location of Ryk receptor as well as its ligand Wnt1 were detected by qPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560541/differential-inhibitory-response-to-telcagepant-on-%C3%AE-cgrp-induced-vasorelaxation-and-intracellular-ca-2-levels-in-the-perfused-and-non-perfused-isolated-rat-middle-cerebral-artery
#20
André Erdling, Majid Sheykhzade, Lars Edvinsson
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is one of the most potent endogenous vasodilators identified to date. The present study elucidates the differential interaction of CGRP, its receptor and the effect of the CGRP-receptor antagonist telcagepant on intracellular Ca(2+) -levels and tension in rat middle cerebral arteries (MCA) by pressurized arteriography, FURA-2/wire myography and immunohistochemistry. METHODS: A pressurized arteriograph system was used to evaluate changes in MCA tension when subjected to CGRP and/or telcagepant...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
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