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Non alcoholic fatty liver disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149510/transferrin-as-a-predictor-of-survival-in-cirrhosis
#1
André Viveiros, Armin Finkenstedt, Benedikt Schaefer, Mattias Mandorfer, Bernhard Scheiner, Konrad Lehner, Moritz Tobiasch, Thomas Reiberger, Herbert Tilg, Michael Edlinger, Heinz Zoller
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with cirrhosis frequently present with high serum ferritin and low transferrin concentrations, reflecting impaired liver function and inflammation. Recent studies have shown that transferrin and its saturation with iron are MELD-independent predictors of mortality in patients with acute on chronic liver failure or decompensated cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic utility of serum iron parameters in relation to markers of liver function and immune activation...
November 17, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145775/factors-predicting-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-and-advanced-fibrosis-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#2
Abbas Ali Tasneem, Nasir Hassan Luck, Zain Majid
Introduction To determine the factors predicting non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methodology All patients aged >18 years and having a fatty liver on abdominal ultrasound (US), presenting from January 2011 to January 2017, were included. A liver biopsy was performed on all the patients. Results Of 96 patients undergoing liver biopsy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 76 (79.2%) were men. On liver US, diffuse fatty liver (DFL) was noted in 68 (70...
January 1, 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144460/inflammation-induced-iga-cells-dismantle-anti-liver-cancer-immunity
#3
Shabnam Shalapour, Xue-Jia Lin, Ingmar N Bastian, John Brain, Alastair D Burt, Alexander A Aksenov, Alison F Vrbanac, Weihua Li, Andres Perkins, Takaji Matsutani, Zhenyu Zhong, Debanjan Dhar, Jose A Navas-Molina, Jun Xu, Rohit Loomba, Michael Downes, Ruth T Yu, Ronald M Evans, Pieter C Dorrestein, Rob Knight, Christopher Benner, Quentin M Anstee, Michael Karin
The role of adaptive immunity in early cancer development is controversial. Here we show that chronic inflammation and fibrosis in humans and mice with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is accompanied by accumulation of liver-resident immunoglobulin-A-producing (IgA(+)) cells. These cells also express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and interleukin-10, and directly suppress liver cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes, which prevent emergence of hepatocellular carcinoma and express a limited repertoire of T-cell receptors against tumour-associated antigens...
November 16, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144438/bioactive-components-in-moringa-oleifera-leaves-protect-against-chronic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Marcela Vergara-Jimenez, Manal Mused Almatrafi, Maria Luz Fernandez
Moringa Oleifera (MO), a plant from the family Moringacea is a major crop in Asia and Africa. MO has been studied for its health properties, attributed to the numerous bioactive components, including vitamins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, tannins and saponins, which are present in significant amounts in various components of the plant. Moringa Oleifera leaves are the most widely studied and they have shown to be beneficial in several chronic conditions, including hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic liver disease, cancer and overall inflammation...
November 16, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139555/tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-inhibits-intestinal-inflammation-and-barrier-disruption-in-nafld-mice
#5
Weijun Wang, Jinfang Zhao, Wenfang Gui, Dan Sun, Haijiang Dai, Li Xiao, Huikuan Chu, Fan Du, Qingjing Zhu, Bernd Schnabl, Kai Huang, Ling Yang, Xiaohua Hou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The gut-liver axis is associated with the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Targeting the gut-liver axis and bile acid-based pharmaceuticals are potential therapies for NAFLD. The effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a candidate medicine for NAFLD, on intestinal barrier function, intestinal inflammation, gut lipid transport and microbiota composition in a murine NAFLD model were analysed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHES: An NAFLD mouse model was established by feeding mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138984/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-and-hypertension-in-the-metabolic-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Matthew A Bailey
The metabolic syndrome describes a clustering of risk factors-visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and salt-sensitive hypertension-that increases mortality related to cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The prevalence of these concurrent comorbidities is ~ 25-30% worldwide, and metabolic syndrome therefore presents a significant global public health burden. Evidence from clinical and preclinical studies indicates that glucocorticoid excess is a key causal feature of metabolic syndrome...
November 14, 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137289/lingguizhugan-decoction-improves-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-altering-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-metabolism-related-genes-a-whole-trancriptome-study-by-rna-seq
#7
Mingzhe Zhu, Shijun Hao, Tao Liu, Lili Yang, Peiyong Zheng, Li Zhang, Guang Ji
Lingguizhugan decoction, a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been used to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, the underlying mechanisms remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the phenotype of the normal rats (fed with chow diet), high-fat-diet (HFD) induced NAFLD rats and Lingguizhugan decoction (LGZG, comprises four Chinese herbs: Poria, Ramulus Cinnamomi, Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, and Radix Glycyrrhizae.) intervened rats, and detected whole genome gene expression by RNA-Seq...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136950/a-novel-sesquiterpene-glycoside-from-loquat-leaf-alleviates-oleic-acid-induced-steatosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-hepg2-cells
#8
Tunyu Jian, Yuexian Wu, Xiaoqin Ding, Han Lv, Li Ma, Yuanyuan Zuo, Bingru Ren, Lei Zhao, Bei Tong, Jian Chen, Weilin Li
Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf has displayed beneficial effect on metabolic syndrome. In our previously study, total sesquiterpene glycosides (TSG) isolated from Loquat leaf exhibited therapeutic effect on Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vivo, but the accurate active compound remains unknown. Sesquiterpene glycoside 1 (SG1) is a novel compound, which is exclusively isolated from Loquat leaf, but its biological activity has been rarely reported. The present study was designed to evaluate the pharmacological effect of SG1, the main component of TSG, in oleic acid (OA)-induced HepG2 cell model of NAFLD with its related mechanisms of action...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135945/nutritional-profile-and-dietary-patterns-of-lebanese-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-patients-a-case-control-study
#9
Nicole Fakhoury-Sayegh, Hassan Younes, Gessica N H A Heraoui, Raymond Sayegh
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common liver disease in the world. Dietary habits have a significant impact on the biological and physical profile of patients and increase the risk of NAFLD. The overall pattern of diet intake is more associated with health outcomes than nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile and the dietary patterns of Lebanese NAFLD patients and compare it with controls. During this study; 112 NAFLD Lebanese adult patients (55 men and 57 women); and 110 controls (44 men and 66 women) were recruited...
November 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129237/iron-induced-pro-oxidant-and-pro-lipogenic-responses-in-relation-to-impaired-synthesis-and-accretion-of-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-rat-hepatic-and-extrahepatic-tissues
#10
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Francisca Echeverría, Cynthia Barrera, Alejandra Espinosa, María Catalina Hernández-Rodas, Macarena Ortiz, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
OBJECTIVES: Iron is involved in processes involving oxygen transfer and utilization. Excess iron is linked to cardiovascular diseases and some types of cancer. Iron overload is associated with oxidative stress development, and may have important interactions with lipid metabolism in the liver favoring the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of the study described here was to assess the effect of high intake of iron on oxidative stress-related parameters, lipid metabolism, and levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) in liver and other tissues of the rat...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128938/liver-fibrosis-noninvasive-assessment-using-supersonic-shear-imaging-and-fib4-index-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#11
Hirohito Takeuchi, Katsutoshi Sugimoto, Hisashi Oshiro, Kunio Iwatsuka, Shin Kono, Yu Yoshimasu, Yoshitaka Kasai, Yoshihiro Furuichi, Kentaro Sakamaki, Takao Itoi
PURPOSE: Shear wave elastography (SWE) has been validated in chronic hepatitis C and B; however, limited data are available in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of SWE and FIB4 index for the diagnosis of fibrosis in a cohort of consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD, and to evaluate the effects of other histologic parameters on SWE measurement. METHODS: Written informed consent was obtained from all patients, and this study was approved by our internal review board and ethics committee...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128158/mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-regulation-in-hepatic-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Ahmed Lawan, Anton M Bennett
The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) participate in a multitude of processes that control hepatic metabolism. The liver regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, and under pathophysiological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) these processes become dysfunctional. Stress responses activate the hepatic MAPKs, and this is thought to impair insulin action and lipid metabolism. The MAPKs also activate the MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) which oppose their actions...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126901/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-protect-human-hepatoma-cells-from-developing-steatosis-through-ffa4-gpr120
#13
Saeromi Kang, Jin Huang, Bo-Kyung Lee, Young-Suk Jung, Eunok Im, Jung-Min Koh, Dong-Soon Im
Protective effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has been demonstrated. FFA4 (also known as GPR120; a G protein-coupled receptor) has been suggested to be a target of n-3 PUFA. FFA4 expression in hepatocytes has also been reported from liver biopsies in child fatty liver patients. In order to assess the functional role of FFA4 in hepatic steatosis, we used an in vitro model of liver X receptor (LXR)-mediated hepatocellular steatosis. FFA4 expression was confirmed in Hep3B and HepG2 human hepatoma cells...
November 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126873/dual-role-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-1b-in-the-progression-and-reversion-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#14
Águeda González-Rodríguez, M Pilar Valdecantos, Patricia Rada, Annalisa Addante, Inés Barahona, Esther Rey, Virginia Pardo, Laura Ruiz, Laura M Laiglesia, María J Moreno-Aliaga, Carmelo García-Monzón, Aránzazu Sánchez, Ángela M Valverde
OBJECTIVES: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a negative modulator of insulin and cytokine signaling, is a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes and obesity. We investigated the impact of PTP1B deficiency during NAFLD, particularly in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: NASH features were evaluated in livers from wild-type (PTP1BWT) and PTP1B-deficient (PTP1BKO) mice fed methionine/choline-deficient diet (MCD) for 8 weeks...
October 31, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124703/vitamin-d-cardiovascular-disease-and-risk-factors
#15
Tea Skaaby, Betina H Thuesen, Allan Linneberg
Observational studies have suggested a possible protective role of vitamin D on the cardiovascular system. The available evidence does not support either cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation. This chapter provides an overview and discussion of the current knowledge of vitamin D effects from a cardiovascular health perspective. It focuses on vitamin D in relation to cardiovascular disease, i.e. ischemic heart disease, and stroke; the traditional cardiovascular risk factors hypertension, abnormal blood lipids, obesity; and the emerging risk factors hyperparathyroidism, microalbuminuria, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122967/hepatic-accumulation-of-s-adenosylmethionine-in-hamsters-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-associated-to-metabolic-syndrome-under-selenium-and-vitamin-e-deficiency
#16
Josep M Del Bas, Benjamín Rodríguez, Francesc Puiggròs, Silvia Mariné, Miguel Angel Rodríguez, David Moriña, Lluís Armengol, Antoni Caimari, Lluís Arola
Progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the context of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is only partially explored due to the lack of preclinical models. In order to study the alterations in hepatic metabolism that accompany this condition, we developed a model of MetS accompanied by the onset of steatohepatitis (NASH) by challenging golden hamsters with a high fat diet low in vitamin E and selenium (HFD), since combined deficiency results in hepatic necroinflammation in rodents. Metabolomics and transcriptomics integrated analyses of livers revealed an unexpected accumulation of hepatic S-Adenosylmethionine (SAM) when compared with healthy livers likely due to diminished methylation reactions and repression of GNMT...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122695/should-we-undertake-surveillance-for-hcc-in-patients-with-nafld
#17
REVIEW
Ramy Younes, Elisabetta Bugianesi
The pandemic of obesity and its related complications is rapidly changing the epidemiology of many types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a major cause of HCC, with a steadily rising trend compared to viral or alcohol-induced chronic hepatitis. The much greater prevalence of the underlying liver disease in the general population and the chance of HCC occurrence in non-cirrhotic liver are the most worrisome aspects of HCC in NAFLD. Effective screening programmes are currently hampered by limited knowledge of the pathways of carcinogenesis and a lack of tools able to stratify the risk of HCC in the NAFLD population...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122694/pharmacotherapy-for-nash-current-and-emerging
#18
REVIEW
Monica A Konerman, Jacob C Jones, Stephen A Harrison
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prominent forms of chronic liver disease worldwide as a reflection of the global obesity epidemic. Those with the progressive variant of NAFLD, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are at significantly increased risk for multisystem morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no approved pharmacologic therapies for NASH. Given the disease burden, there is an important unmet need for pharmacologic treatment options for this patient population...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122391/genetics-and-epigenetics-of-nafld-and-nash-clinical-impact
#19
REVIEW
Mohammed Eslam, Luca Valenti, Stefano Romeo
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now recognised as the most common liver disease worldwide. It encompasses a broad spectrum of conditions, from simple steatosis, through non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, to fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A hallmark of NAFLD is the substantial inter-patient variation in disease progression. NAFLD is considered a complex disease trait such that interactions between the environment and a susceptible polygenic host background determine disease phenotype and influence progression...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122390/hypertension-diabetes-atherosclerosis-and-nash-cause-or-consequence
#20
REVIEW
Amedeo Lonardo, Fabio Nascimbeni, Alessandro Mantovani, Giovanni Targher
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most common forms of chronic liver disease worldwide and its prevalence is expected to continue rising. NAFLD has traditionally been considered a consequence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the link between NAFLD and MetS components, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more complex than previously thought. Indeed, the adverse effects of NAFLD extend far beyond the liver, with a large body of clinical evidence now suggesting that NAFLD may precede and/or promote the development of T2DM, HTN and atherosclerosis/CVD...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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