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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051172/modelling-the-process-of-falling-behind-and-its-psychophysiological-consequences
#1
Andreas Venhorst, Dominic Micklewright, Timothy D Noakes
INTRODUCTION: A preceding article investigated the psychophysiological responses to falling behind a performance matched opponent. The following temporally linked cause-effect relationships were hypothesised: falling behind precedes deterioration in valence, deterioration in valence precedes development of an action crisis, experience of an action crisis precedes psychoneuroendocrinological distress response and non-adaptive distress response reduces conduciveness to high performance, thereby preceding performance decrement...
October 19, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049845/impact-of-the-initial-fitness-level-on-the-effects-of-a-structured-exercise-therapy-during-pediatric-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Susanne Wallek, Anna Senn-Malashonak, Lutz Vogt, Katharina Schmidt, Peter Bader, Winfried Banzer
BACKGROUND: Before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), most patients suffer from psychophysical limitations due to the treatment. Exercise interventions demonstrate beneficial effects on, for example, strength, endurance, or health-related quality of life during and after HSCT, but with a great variation among patients concerning the response to exercise. This study examines the influence of the initial fitness on the effects of an exercise therapy in pediatric HSCT...
October 19, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049052/a-cost-utility-analysis-of-nonsurgical-treatments-for-stress-urinary-incontinence-in-women
#3
Andrea N Simpson, Alaina Garbens, Fahima Dossa, Peter C Coyte, Nancy N Baxter, Colleen D McDermott
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to perform a cost-utility analysis of nonsurgical treatments for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in healthy adult women with a health system perspective over a 1-year time horizon. METHODS: A decision tree model was constructed to evaluate the following nonsurgical treatment options for SUI in a simulated healthy adult female cohort who had failed Kegel exercises: pelvic floor muscle therapy (PFMT), a disposable tampon device (Impressa), a self-fitting intravaginal incontinence device (Uresta), and a traditional incontinence pessary...
October 18, 2017: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039798/the-effect-of-taurine-on-the-recovery-from-eccentric-exercise-induced-muscle-damage-in-males
#4
Yanita McLeay, Stephen Stannard, Matthew Barnes
Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery...
October 17, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037642/rebound-boots-change-lower-limb-muscle-activation-and-kinematics-during-different-fitness-exercises
#5
Mateus Rossato, Rodolfo André Dellagrana, Juliane Cristine Lopes Dos Santos, Felipe P Carpes, Rodrigo Ghedini Gheller, De Angelys de Ceselles Seixas da Silva, Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, João Otacílio Libardoni Dos Santos
The purpose of this study was to evaluate electromyography and kinematic parameters of the lower limbs using rebound boots (RB) and barefoot during a gym workout. This information can be helpful to practitioners to schedule rehabilitation and training programs. Ten women (25 ± 9 years) volunteered for the study; inclusion criteria were as follows: subjects must have experienced the use of RB and the analyzed exercises for at least 6 months, and have no previous injuries in the lower limbs. Seven exercises were performed for 30 s with the RB and subsequently barefoot...
October 2017: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037326/%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-may-improve-recovery-and-muscle-adaptations-after-resistance-training-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Vagner R Silva, Felipe L Belozo, Thayana O Micheletti, Marcelo Conrado, Jeffrey R Stout, Gustavo D Pimentel, Adam M Gonzalez
β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) has been suggested to accelerate the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity exercise and attenuate markers of skeletal muscle damage. Herein a systematic review on the use of HMB-FA supplementation as an ergogenic aid to improve measures of muscle recovery, performance, and hypertrophy after resistance training was conducted. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials investigating the effects of HMB-FA supplementation in conjunction with resistance exercise in humans...
September 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036816/sex-difference-in-aerobic-exercise-efficacy-to-improve-cognition-in-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Cindy K Barha, Ging-Yuek R Hsiung, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Janice J Eng, Claudia Jacova, Philip E Lee, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic training (AT) is a promising, non-pharmacological intervention to mitigate the deleterious effects of aging and disease on brain health. However, a large amount of variation exists in its efficacy. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial of AT in 71 older adults with subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (NCT01027858). Specifically, we investigated: 1) whether sex moderates the relationship between AT and executive functions, and 2) the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and gains in functional fitness capacity...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031474/sport-time-pressure-and-cognitive-performance
#8
Chia N Chiu, Chiao-Yun Chen, Neil G Muggleton
Sport participation, fitness, and expertise have been associated with a range of cognitive benefits in a range of populations but both the factors that confer such benefits and the nature of the resulting changes are relatively unclear. Additionally, the interactions between time pressure and cognitive performance for these groups is little studied. Using a flanker task, which measures the ability to selectively process information, and with different time limits for responding, we investigated the differences in performance for participants in (1) an unpredictable, open-skill sport (volleyball), (2) an exercise group engaged in predictable, closed-skill sports (running, swimming), and (3) nonsporting controls...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031462/effects-of-acute-high-intensity-exercise-on-cognitive-performance-in-trained-individuals-a-systematic-review
#9
Sarah E Browne, Mark J Flynn, Barry V O'Neill, Glyn Howatson, Phillip G Bell, Crystal F Haskell-Ramsay
BACKGROUND: High-intensity exercise is generally considered to have detrimental effects on cognition. However, high fitness levels are suggested to alleviate this effect. OBJECTIVES: The specific objective of this review was to evaluate the literature on the effect of acute high-intensity exercise on cognitive performance in trained individuals. METHODS: Studies were sourced through electronic databases, reference lists of retrieved articles, and manual searches of relevant reviews...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029283/trajectories-of-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-patients-with-juvenile-dermatomyositis
#10
Kiki J Blom, Tim Takken, Barbara C H Huijgen, Judith Wienke, Annet van Royen-Kerkhof, Marco van Brussel
Objectives: Previous research demonstrated decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in patients with JDM during active disease and remission. However, longitudinal data regarding trajectories of CRF are currently lacking. The objective of this study was to determine trajectories of CRF in patients with both monocyclic and chronic JDM, and to identify potential predictors of these trajectories. Methods: Thirty-six patients with JDM [median age (interquartile range) at diagnosis: 8...
September 27, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029009/the-effect-of-physical-activity-and-cardiorespiratory-fitness-on-all-cause-mortality-in-hong-kong-chinese-older-people
#11
Zhihui Lu, Jean Woo, Timothy Kwok
Background: It is unclear whether physical activity (PA) could predict all-cause mortality independently of cardiorespiratory fitness, and there are relatively few studies evaluating the combined effect of PA and cardiorespiratory fitness on mortality. Methods: We invited 1,242 Chinese older adults aged 69 to 94 years from the MrOs and MsOs cohort (Hong Kong) study for a 7-year follow-up. PA was measured by the Physical Activity Scale of the Elderly (PASE). Cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), was assessed by performing symptom-limited maximal exercise testing on an electrically braked bicycle ergometer and 6-meter walk test...
September 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994889/heart-rate-beat-to-beat-slope-change-during-six-minute-walk-test-a-useful-clinical-tool-for-estimating-fitness-level
#12
Abdulrahman Mohammed Alhowikan, Abdullah Alfaifi, Badr Almutairi, Omar Alzamil, Muath Aleid
BACKGROUND: The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is one of the most common exercise tests and is used to estimate the level of physical fitness. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of the beat-to-beat heart rate 6MWT slope (6MWTS) and recovery slope for predicting and estimating the level of physical fitness during 6MWT, instead of depending on the distance covered during the test. METHODS: Seventy healthy adult male subjects aged 18 to 27 years were recruited randomly from the general Saudi population in Riyadh...
December 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993881/maximal-rate-of-heart-rate-increase-correlates-with-fatigue-recovery-status-in-female-cyclists
#13
Maximillian J Nelson, Clint R Bellenger, Rebecca L Thomson, Eileen Y Robertson, Kade Davison, Daniela Schäfer Olstad, Jonathan D Buckley
PURPOSE: Being able to identify how an athlete is responding to training would be useful to optimise adaptation and performance. The maximal rate of heart rate increase (rHRI), a marker of heart rate acceleration has been shown to correlate with performance changes in response to changes in training load in male athletes; however, it has not been established if it also correlates with performance changes in female athletes. METHODS: rHRI and cycling performance were assessed in six female cyclists following 7 days of light training (LT), 14 days of heavy training (HT) and a 10 day taper period...
October 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989117/brachial-artery-blood-flow-dynamics-during-sinusoidal-leg-cycling-exercise-in-humans
#14
Yoshiyuki Fukuba, Masako Y Endo, Ayaka Kondo, Yuka Kikugawa, Kohei Miura, Hideaki Kashima, Masaki Fujimoto, Naoyuki Hayashi, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Shunsaku Koga
To explore the control of the peripheral circulation of a nonworking upper limb during leg cycling exercise, blood flow (BF) dynamics in the brachial artery (BA) were determined using a sinusoidal work rate (WR) exercise. Ten healthy subjects performed upright leg cycling exercise at a constant WR for 30 min, followed by 16 min of sinusoidal WR consisting of 4-min periods of WR fluctuating between a minimum output of 20 W and a maximum output corresponding to ventilatory threshold (VT). Throughout the protocol, pulmonary gas exchange, heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), blood velocity (BV), and cross-sectional area of the BA, forearm skin BF (SBF), and sweating rate (SR) were measured...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984177/effect-of-tai-chi-chuan-on-degeneration-of-lumbar-vertebrae-and-lumbar-discs-in-middle-aged-and-aged-people-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-magnetic-resonance-images
#15
Chenghu Deng, Wei Xia
Objective Exercise has a positive effect on physical fitness. Tai Chi Chuan is a traditional Chinese aerobic exercise. We assessed the effect of Tai Chi on the degeneration of lumbar vertebrae and lumbar discs with magnetic resonance images. Methods This retrospective cohort study involved 2 groups of participants: 27 Tai Chi practitioners with more than 4 years of experience with regular Tai Chi exercise and 24 sex- and age-matched participants without Tai Chi experience. The lumbar magnetic resonance images of all participants were collected...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975560/observational-study-of-potential-risk-factors-of-immersion-pulmonary-edema-in-healthy-divers-exercise-intensity-is-the-main-contributor
#16
A Boussuges, K Ayme, G Chaumet, E Albier, M Borgnetta, O Gavarry
BACKGROUND: The risk factors of pulmonary edema induced by diving in healthy subjects are not well known. The aim of the present study was to assess the parameters contributing to the increase in extravascular lung water after diving. METHODS: This study was carried out in a professional diving institute. All divers participating in the teaching program from June 2012 to June 2014 were included in the study. Extravascular lung water was assessed using the detection of ultrasound lung comets (ULC) by chest ultrasonography...
October 3, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967843/children-s-aerobic-trainability-and-related-questions
#17
Raffy Dotan
In response to Armstrong's recent Special Topics review of "Top 10 Research Questions Related to Youth Aerobic Fitness," this commentary revisits some of the points raised, particularly in relation to the question of whether a child‒adult trainability difference does indeed exist. Discussed are the validity of much of the existing pediatric maximal oxygen consumption data upon which trainability conclusions are drawn, why differential trainability is likely a fact rather than a doubt, a reasoned novel approach to explaining the phenomenon, and how that explanation can bear upon and answer several of the other raised questions...
October 2, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967238/500-m-and-1000-m-moderate-walks-equally-assess-cardiorespiratory-fitness-in-male-outpatients-with-cardiovascular-diseases
#18
Gianni Mazzoni, Giorgio Chiaranda, Jonathan Myers, Biagio Sassone, Giovanni Pasanisi, Simona Mandini, Stefano Volpato, Francesco Conconi, Giovanni Grazzi
BACKGROUND: The walking speed maintained during a moderate 1-km treadmill walk (1k-TWT) has been demonstrated to be a valid tool for estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), and to be inversely related to long-term survival and hospitalization in outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to examine whether 500-m and 1-k moderate treadmill-walking tests equally estimate VO2peak in male outpatients with CVD. METHODS: 142 clinically stable male outpatients with CVD, aged 34-92 years, referred to an exercise-based secondary prevention program, performed a moderate and perceptually-regulated (11-13/20 on the Borg scale) 1k- TWT...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959200/open-and-closed-skill-exercise-interventions-produce-different-neurocognitive-effects-on-executive-functions-in-the-elderly-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-Yu Pan, Fu-Chen Chen, Yu-Ting Tseng
This study aimed to explore the effects of open- and closed-skill exercise interventions on the neurocognitive performance of executive functions in the elderly. Sixty-four healthy elderly males were randomly assigned to either a closed-skill (bike riding or brisk walking/jogging, n = 22), open-skill (table tennis, n = 21), or control (n = 21) group. Various neuropsychological [e.g., accuracy rates (AR) and reaction time (RT)] and electrophysiological [e.g., event-related potential (ERP) P3 component] measures were assessed during a variant of the task-switching paradigm, as well as an N-back task at baseline and after either a 6-month exercise intervention or control period...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950400/standardized-met-value-underestimates-the-energy-cost-of-treadmill-running-in-men
#20
Helouane M Ázara, Paulo T V Farinatti, Adrian W Midgley, Fabrício Vasconcellos, Patrícia Vigário, Felipe A Cunha
The main purpose of the present study was to compare the reference metabolic equivalent (MET) value and observed resting oxygen uptake (VO2) for defining cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) and characterizing the energy cost of treadmill running. A heterogeneous cohort of 114 healthy men volunteered to participate. In Part 1 of the study, 114 men [mean±SD, age: 24±5 years; height: 177.1±7.9 cm; body mass: 75.0±10.0 kg] visited the laboratory twice for assessment of resting and maximal VO2 values to compare the reference MET value vs...
September 26, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
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