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exercise, fitness, performance

Christoph Schneider, Florian Hanakam, Thimo Wiewelhove, Alexander Döweling, Michael Kellmann, Tim Meyer, Mark Pfeiffer, Alexander Ferrauti
A comprehensive monitoring of fitness, fatigue, and performance is crucial for understanding an athlete's individual responses to training to optimize the scheduling of training and recovery strategies. Resting and exercise-related heart rate measures have received growing interest in recent decades and are considered potentially useful within multivariate response monitoring, as they provide non-invasive and time-efficient insights into the status of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and aerobic fitness. In team sports, the practical implementation of athlete monitoring systems poses a particular challenge due to the complex and multidimensional structure of game demands and player and team performance, as well as logistic reasons, such as the typically large number of players and busy training and competition schedules...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Borja Jurio-Iriarte, Peter H Brubaker, Ilargi Gorostegi-Anduaga, Pablo Corres, Aitor Martinez Aguirre-Betolaza, Sara Maldonado-Martin
The study aimed to assess whether the Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) can detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in overweight/obese people with hypertension (HTN) after an exercise intervention evaluating the equation presented in the previous research by Jurio-Iriarte et al. Participants (N= 248) performed a peak cardiorespiratory exercise test (CPET) and MSWT before and after 16-weeks of different types of aerobic exercise intervention. The formula of Jurio-Iriarte et al. was used to predict peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak )...
June 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Luis Antonio Pereira de Lima, Maxime Raison, Sofiane Achiche, Ricardo Dantas de Lucas
The human oxygen uptake (VO2 ) response to step-like increases in work rate is currently modeled by a First Order System Multi-Exponential (FOME) arrangement. Due to their first order nature, none of FOME model's exponentials is able to model an overshoot in the oxygen uptake kinetics (OVO2 K). Nevertheless, OVO2 K phenomena are observed in the fundamental component of trained individuals' step responses. We hypothesized that a Mixed Multi-Exponential (MiME) model, where the fundamental component is modeled with a second instead of a first order system, would present a better overall performance than that of the traditional FOME model in fitting VO2 on-kinetics at all work rates, either presenting or not OVO2 K...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Clint R Bellenger, Rebecca L Thomson, Kade Davison, Eileen Y Robertson, Maximillian J Nelson, Laura Karavirta, Jonathan D Buckley
PURPOSE: Correlations between fatigue-induced changes in exercise performance and maximal rate of heart rate (HR) increase (rHRI) may be affected by exercise intensity during assessment. This study evaluated the sensitivity of rHRI for tracking performance when assessed at varying exercise intensities. METHOD: Performance (time to complete a 5-km treadmill time-trial [5TTT]) and rHRI were assessed in 15 male runners following 1 week of light training, 2 weeks of heavy training (HT), and a 10-day taper (T)...
June 13, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Krisann K Oursler, John D Sorkin, Alice S Ryan, Leslie I Katzel
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected adults have increased risk for age-related diseases and low cardiorespiratory fitness that can be prevented and improved with exercise. Yet, exercise strategies have not been well studied in older adults with HIV and may require substantial adaptation to this special population. OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of aerobic exercise in older HIV-infected men in a randomized trial comparing different levels of exercise intensity...
2018: PloS One
Isolde A R Kuijlaars, Lieke Sweerts, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Romke van Balen, J Bart Staal, Nico L U van Meeteren, Thomas J Hoogeboom
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to investigate whether supervised home-based exercise therapy after hospitalization is more effective on improving functions, activities and participation in older patients after hip fracture as compared with a control intervention (including usual care). Furthermore, we aimed to account the body of evidence for therapeutic validity. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches of Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases up to 30 June 2016...
June 6, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Gioia Braun, Benjamin Hafner, Karsten Königstein, Denis Infanger, Christopher Klenk, Anja Rossmeissl, Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss, Henner Hanssen
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association of retinal microvascular health with cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak) and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In a population of 260 obesity-enriched participants we investigated the association of retinal vessel diameters with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP). Retinal vessel imaging was performed by use of a fundus camera and a semi-automated processing software, calculating the central retinal arteriolar (CRAE) and venular equivalent (CRVE) as well as the arteriolar-to-venular diameter ratio (AVR)...
June 5, 2018: Microvascular Research
Emily W Flanagan, Arlette C Perry
Body Dissatisfaction (BD) and low physical self-concept and exercise efficacy have been linked to poor physical fitness levels and adverse health outcomes in children. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between BD, physical fitness, exercise self-efficacy, and self-Perception of Physical Fitness (PFP) in Latina and Black female children. Twenty-eight Latina and Black children enrolled in an elementary afterschool program, aged 8⁻12, completed surveys evaluating body dissatisfaction, exercise efficacy, PFP, and measures of physical fitness...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jaime N Wong, Edward McAuley, Linda Trinh
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) participation and adherence among cancer survivors is low, despite research indicating numerous physical, psychological and emotional health benefits of exercise. Tailoring exercise programs specific to the PA preferences in cancer survivors has merit for increasing PA participation and adherence to accrue these benefits. This systematic review identifies and differentiates PA programming and counseling preferences of adult cancer survivors across various cancer survivor groups...
June 7, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Federica Galli, Andrea Chirico, Luca Mallia, Laura Girelli, Michelino De Laurentiis, Fabio Lucidi, Antonio Giordano, Gerardo Botti
Physical activity and exercise have been identified as behaviors to preserve physical and mental health in older adults. The aim of the present study was to test the Integrated Behavior Change model in exercise and physical activity behaviors. The study evaluated two different samples of older adults: the first engaged in exercise class, the second doing spontaneous physical activity. The key analyses relied on Variance-Based Structural Modeling, which were performed by means of WARP PLS 6.0 statistical software...
May 22, 2018: Oncotarget
Wolfgang Kemmler, Anja Weissenfels, Sebastian Willert, Mahdieh Shojaa, Simon von Stengel, Andre Filipovic, Heinz Kleinöder, Joshua Berger, Michael Fröhlich
Exercise positively affects most risk factors, diseases and disabling conditions of middle to advanced age, however the majority of middle-aged to older people fall short of the exercise doses recommended for positively affecting cardio-metabolic, musculoskeletal and neurophysiological fitness or disabling conditions. Whole-Body Electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) may be a promising exercise technology for people unable or unmotivated to exercise conventionally. However, until recently there has been a dearth of evidence with respect to WB-EMS-induced effects on health-related outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
A Mitropoulos, A Gumber, H Crank, M Akil, M Klonizakis
BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise in general and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) specifically is known to improve vascular function in a range of clinical conditions. HIIT in particular has demonstrated improvements in clinical outcomes, in conditions that have a strong macroangiopathic component. Nevertheless, the effect of HIIT on microcirculation in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients is yet to be investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to compare the effects of two HIIT protocols (cycle and arm cranking) on the microcirculation of the digital area in SSc patients...
June 5, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Gunter Kreutz, Jörg Schorer, Dominik Sojke, Judith Neugebauer, Antje Bullack
Background: Music listening is wide-spread in amateur sports. Ergometer exercise is one such activity which is often performed with loud music. Aim and Hypotheses: We investigated the effects of electronic music at different intensity levels on ergometer performance (physical performance, force on the pedal, pedaling frequency), perceived fatigue and heart rate in healthy adults. We assumed that higher sound intensity levels are associated with greater ergometer performance and less perceived effort, particularly for untrained individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Agnès Vinet, Philippe Obert, Daniel Courteix, Robert Chapier, Bruno Lesourd, Julien Verney, Frédéric Dutheil, Guillaume Walther
OBJECTIVE: To determine which modality of exercise program (endurance and/or resistance dominance) is the most effective for improving vascular function in the micro- and macrocirculation in metabolic syndrome (MetS). METHODS: Sixty-two MetS patients were enrolled in a 6-month lifestyle intervention program based on diet and exercise training. Each participant was randomly assigned to one of 3 groups categorized by exercise modality (e.g. high-intensity resistance or endurance training, or combined moderate-intensity)...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Brendon J Gurd, Jugal Patel, Brittany A Edgett, Trisha D Scribbans, Joe Quadrilatero, Steven L Fischer
BACKGROUND: Whole body sprint-interval training (WB-SIT) represents a mode of exercise training that is both time-efficient and does not require access to an exercise facility. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the feasibility of implementing a WB-SIT intervention in a workplace setting. METHODS: A total of 747 employees from a large office building were invited to participate with 31 individuals being enrolled in the study. Anthropometrics, aerobic fitness, core and upper body strength, and lower body mobility were assessed before and after a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of 2-4 training sessions per week...
May 28, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Greg Kennedy, Denny Meyer, Roy J Hardman, Helen Macpherson, Andrew B Scholey, Andrew Pipingas
BACKGROUND: Greater physical fitness is associated with reduced rates of cognitive decline in older people; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are still unclear. One potential mechanism is aortic stiffness, with increased stiffness resulting in higher pulsatile pressures reaching the brain and possibly causing progressive micro-damage. There is limited evidence that those who regularly exercise may have lower aortic stiffness. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether greater fitness and lower aortic stiffness predict better cognitive performance in older people and, if so, whether aortic stiffness mediates the relationship between fitness and cognition...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Oliver J Chrzanowski-Smith, Robert M Edinburgh, James A Betts, Keith A Stokes, Javier T Gonzalez
The maximal capacity to utilise fat (peak fat oxidation [PFO]) may have implications for health and ultra-endurance performance, and is commonly determined by incremental exercise tests employing 3-minute stages. However, 3-minute stages may be insufficient to attain steady-state gas kinetics, compromising test validity. We assessed whether 4-minute stages produce steady-state gas exchange and reliable PFO in adults with V̇O<sub>2</sub>peak <40 ml·kg<sup>-1</sup>·min<sup>-1</sup>...
May 31, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Henrique Pereira Neiva, Luís Brandão Faíl, Mikel Izquierdo, Mário C Marques, Daniel A Marinho
The main purpose of the present study was to verify the effects of a 12-week water aerobics program in a real-life context on health indicators and physical fitness in adults and older adults. Fifteen volunteers (58.80 ± 14.32 years old) were part of an experimental group (Exercise), and eight volunteers (59.00 ± 12.26 years old) were part of the control group (Control). The Exercise performed 45 min of water aerobics twice a week for 12 weeks; no physical exercise was permitted for the Control during the same period...
2018: PloS One
Ari Mänttäri, Jaana Suni, Harri Sievänen, Pauliina Husu, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Heli Valkeinen, Kari Tokola, Tommi Vasankari
BACKGROUND: The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is cost-effective and well-documented field test for assessing functional exercise capacity and response to medical interventions in diverse patient groups, and predicting cardiorespiratory fitness among healthy people. OBJECTIVE: Assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of maximal aerobic power (VO2 max) have great potential in public health monitoring to predict future health, early retirement and ability to independent living...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
Wei-Han Chen, Huey-June Wu, Shin-Liang Lo, Hui Chen, Wen-Wen Yang, Chen-Fu Huang, Chiang Liu
Chen, WH, Wu, HJ, Lo, SL, Chen, H, Yang, WW, Huang, CF, and Liu, C. Eight-week battle rope training improves multiple physical fitness dimensions and shooting accuracy in collegiate basketball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Basketball players must possess optimally developed physical fitness in multiple dimensions and shooting accuracy. This study investigated whether (battle rope [BR]) training enhances multiple physical fitness dimensions, including aerobic capacity (AC), upper-body anaerobic power (AnP), upper-body and lower-body power, agility, and core muscle endurance, and shooting accuracy in basketball players and compared its effects with those of regular training (shuttle run [SR])...
May 28, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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