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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432496/reproductive-effects-of-life-cycle-exposure-to-difenoconazole-on-female-marine-medaka-oryzias-melastigma
#1
Xiaocui Dong, Zhenghong Zuo, Jiaojiao Guo, Hongbin Li, Lemeng Zhang, Meng Chen, Zhibin Yang, Chonggang Wang
Difenoconazole (DFZ) is a widely used triazole fungicide which has been detected in some estuaries and embayments. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DFZ on ovarian development in female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma). After 180 days exposure of the embryo to DFZ (0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/L), the gonadosomatic index and percentage of mature oocytes produced were significantly reduced in the 1, 10 and 100 ng/L treatments but not the 1000 ng/L treatment compared to the control, thus exhibiting a U-shaped dose response curve...
April 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432293/quiescence-of-adult-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-requires%C3%A2-thyroid-hormone-and-hypoxia-to-activate-runx1
#2
Yasuhito Tokumoto, Shinpei Tamaki, Yasuaki Kabe, Keiyo Takubo, Makoto Suematsu
The adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) contains a population of slowly dividing oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), i.e., adult OPCs, which supply new oligodendrocytes throughout the life of animal. While adult OPCs develop from rapidly dividing perinatal OPCs, the mechanisms underlying their quiescence remain unknown. Here, we show that perinatal rodent OPCs cultured with thyroid hormone (TH) under hypoxia become quiescent and acquire adult OPCs-like characteristics. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15/INK4b plays crucial roles in the TH-dependent cell cycle deceleration in OPCs under hypoxia...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432153/comparison-of-functional-and-anatomical-estimations-of-visual-acuity-in-two-species-of-coral-reef-fish
#3
Amira N Parker, Kerstin A Fritsches, Cait Newport, Guy Wallis, Ulrike E Siebeck
The high contrast, complex patterns typical of many reef fish serve several purposes, including providing disruptive camouflage and a basis for vision-based communication. In trying to understand the role of a specific pattern it is important to first assess the extent to which an observer can resolve the pattern, itself determined, at least in part, by the observer's visual acuity. In this study, we study the visual acuity of two species of reef fish using both anatomical and behavioural estimates. The two species in question share a common habitat but are members of different trophic levels (predator vs...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431761/-dependent-relative-effects-on-family-health
#4
M Eugenia Estrada Fernández, Ana I Gil Lacruz, Marta Gil Lacruz, Antonio Viñas López
OBJETIVES: The purpose of this work is to analyse the effects on informal caregiver's health and lifestyle when living with a dependent person at home. A comparison will be made between this situation and other situations involving commitment of time and energy, taking into account gender and age differences in each stage of the life cycle. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study analysing secondary data. SETTING: The method used for collecting information is the computer assisted personal interview carried out in selected homes by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality...
April 18, 2017: Atencion Primaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431539/pain-intervention-for-people-with-dementia-in-nursing-homes-pid-study-protocol-for-a-quasi-experimental-nurse-intervention
#5
Andrea Koppitz, Georg Bosshard, Geneviève Blanc, Hannele Hediger, Sheila Payne, Thomas Volken
BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 19 to 83% of people with dementia suffer from pain that is inadequately treated in the last months of life. A large number of healthcare workers who care for these people in nursing homes lack appropriate expertise and may therefore not always recognise, assess and treat pain in those with dementia who have complex problems on time, properly and efficiently. The aim of this intervention trial is to identify care needs of people with dementia suffering from pain living in a nursing home...
April 21, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430948/functional-relevance-of-water-and-glycerol-channels-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Farzana Sabir, Maria C Loureiro-Dias, Graça Soveral, Catarina Prista
Our understanding of the functional relevance of orthodox aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially based on phenotypic variations obtained by expression/overexpression/deletion of these MIPs in selected strains. These water/glycerol channels are considered crucial during various life-cycle phases, such as sporulation and mating and in some life-processes like rapid freeze-thaw tolerance, osmoregulation and phenomena associated with cell surface. Despite their putative functional roles not only as channels but also as sensors, their underlying mechanisms and their regulation are still poorly understood...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430103/genomic-characterization-of-recrudescent-plasmodium-malariae-after-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine
#7
Gavin G Rutledge, Ian Marr, G Khai Lin Huang, Sarah Auburn, Jutta Marfurt, Mandy Sanders, Nicholas J White, Matthew Berriman, Chris I Newbold, Nicholas M Anstey, Thomas D Otto, Ric N Price
Plasmodium malariae is the only human malaria parasite species with a 72-hour intraerythrocytic cycle and the ability to persist in the host for life. We present a case of a P. malariae infection with clinical recrudescence after directly observed administration of artemether/lumefantrine. By using whole-genome sequencing, we show that the initial infection was polyclonal and the recrudescent isolate was a single clone present at low density in the initial infection. Haplotypic analysis of the clones in the initial infection revealed that they were all closely related and were presumably recombinant progeny originating from the same infective mosquito bite...
August 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429731/the-evolutionary-life-cycle-of-the-polysaccharide-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-based-on-the-sphingomonadaceae
#8
Mengmeng Wu, Haidong Huang, Guoqiang Li, Yi Ren, Zhong Shi, Xiaoyan Li, Xiaohui Dai, Ge Gao, Mengnan Ren, Ting Ma
Although clustering of genes from the same metabolic pathway is a widespread phenomenon, the evolution of the polysaccharide biosynthetic gene cluster remains poorly understood. To determine the evolution of this pathway, we identified a scattered production pathway of the polysaccharide sanxan by Sphingomonas sanxanigenens NX02, and compared the distribution of genes between sphingan-producing and other Sphingomonadaceae strains. This allowed us to determine how the scattered sanxan pathway developed, and how the polysaccharide gene cluster evolved...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429710/life-cycle-assessment-needs-predictive-spatial-modelling-for-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-services
#9
Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Sarah Sim, Perrine Hamel, Benjamin Bryant, Ryan Noe, Carina Mueller, Giles Rigarlsford, Michal Kulak, Virginia Kowal, Richard Sharp, Julie Clavreul, Edward Price, Stephen Polasky, Mary Ruckelshaus, Gretchen Daily
International corporations in an increasingly globalized economy exert a major influence on the planet's land use and resources through their product design and material sourcing decisions. Many companies use life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate their sustainability, yet commonly-used LCA methodologies lack the spatial resolution and predictive ecological information to reveal key impacts on climate, water and biodiversity. We present advances for LCA that integrate spatially explicit modelling of land change and ecosystem services in a Land-Use Change Improved (LUCI)-LCA...
April 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429538/finding-a-partner-in-the-ocean-molecular-and-evolutionary-bases-of-the-response-to-sexual-cues-in-a-planktonic-diatom
#10
Swaraj Basu, Shrikant Patil, Daniel Mapleson, Monia Teresa Russo, Laura Vitale, Cristina Fevola, Florian Maumus, Raffaella Casotti, Thomas Mock, Mario Caccamo, Marina Montresor, Remo Sanges, Maria Immacolata Ferrante
Microalgae play a major role as primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Cell signalling regulates their interactions with the environment and other organisms, yet this process in phytoplankton is poorly defined. Using the marine planktonic diatom Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, we investigated the cell response to cues released during sexual reproduction, an event that demands strong regulatory mechanisms and impacts on population dynamics. We sequenced the genome of P. multistriata and performed phylogenomic and transcriptomic analyses, which allowed the definition of gene gains and losses, horizontal gene transfers, conservation and evolutionary rate of sex-related genes...
April 21, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429511/in-situ-construction-of-stable-tissue-directed-reinforced-bifunctional-separator-protection-film-on-lithium-anode-for-lithium-oxygen-batteries
#11
Ji-Jing Xu, Qing-Chao Liu, Yue Yu, Jin Wang, Jun-Min Yan, Xin-Bo Zhang
To achieve a high reversibility and long cycle life for Li-O2 battery system, the stable tissue-directed/reinforced bifunctional separator/protection film (TBF) is in situ fabricated on the surface of metallic lithium anode. It is shown that a Li-O2 cell composed of the TBF-modified lithium anodes exhibits an excellent anodic reversibility (300 cycles) and effectively improved cathodic long lifetime (106 cycles). The improvement is attributed to the ability of the TBF, which has chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical stability, to effectively prevent direct contact between the surface of the lithium anode and the highly reactive reduced oxygen species (Li2 O2 or its intermediate LiO2 ) in cell...
April 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428872/are-whooping-cranes-destined-for-extinction-climate-change-imperils-recruitment-and-population-growth
#12
Matthew J Butler, Kristine L Metzger, Grant M Harris
Identifying climatic drivers of an animal population's vital rates and locating where they operate steers conservation efforts to optimize species recovery. The population growth of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) hinges on juvenile recruitment. Therefore, we identify climatic drivers (solar activity [sunspots] and weather) of whooping crane recruitment throughout the species' life cycle (breeding, migration, wintering). Our method uses a repeated cross-validated absolute shrinkage and selection operator approach to identify drivers of recruitment...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428820/regional-water-footprints-of-potential-biofuel-production-in-china
#13
Xiaomin Xie, Tingting Zhang, Liming Wang, Zhen Huang
BACKGROUND: Development of biofuels is considered as one of the important ways to replace conventional fossil energy and mitigate climate change. However, rapid increase of biofuel production could cause other environmental concerns in China such as water stress. This study is intended to evaluate the life-cycle water footprints (WF) of biofuels derived from several potential non-edible feedstocks including cassava, sweet sorghum, and Jatropha curcas in China. Different water footprint types including blue water, green water, and grey water are considered in this study...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428638/dynamic-behaviors-of-condensing-clusters-based-on-rayleigh-scattering-experiment
#14
Zhong Lan, Di Wang, Kejian Cao, Quan Xue, Xuehu Ma
Condensation is a common physical process which widely exists in natural phenomena and thermal energy systems. In a condensation process, cluster is considered as the important bridge between vapor body and condensates. However, limited by the minimum imaging dimension of traditional measurements, early experimental studies about initial stages of condensation process are not sufficient. This paper provides a powerful optical platform for the study of dynamic clusters process. Based on the Rayleigh law, optical experiments were firstly introduced to investigate the clusters spatial distribution close to and far from condensation surface...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427837/in-vitro-fatigue-tests-and-in-silico-finite-element-analysis-of-dental-implants-with-different-fixture-abutment-joint-types-using-computer-aided-design-models
#15
Satoshi Yamaguchi, Yasufumi Yamanishi, Lucas S Machado, Shuji Matsumoto, Nick Tovar, Paulo G Coelho, Van P Thompson, Satoshi Imazato
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate fatigue resistance of dental fixtures with two different fixture-abutment connections by in vitro fatigue testing and in silico three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) using original computer-aided design (CAD) models. METHODS: Dental implant fixtures with external connection (EX) or internal connection (IN) abutments were fabricated from original CAD models using grade IV titanium and step-stress accelerated life testing was performed...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427738/assessment-of-a-combined-dry-anaerobic-digestion-and-post-composting-treatment-facility-for-source-separated-organic-household-waste-using-material-and-substance-flow-analysis-and-life-cycle-inventory
#16
Morten Bang Jensen, Jacob Møller, Charlotte Scheutz
The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO3, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results with low uncertainties for non-volatile substances, while balances for nitrogen, carbon, volatile solids and total organic carbon showed larger but reasonable uncertainties, due to volatilisation and emissions into the air...
April 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426825/levels-of-hiv-1-persistence-on-antiretroviral-therapy-are-not-associated-with-markers-of-inflammation-or-activation
#17
Rajesh T Gandhi, Deborah K McMahon, Ronald J Bosch, Christina M Lalama, Joshua C Cyktor, Bernard J Macatangay, Charles R Rinaldo, Sharon A Riddler, Evelyn Hogg, Catherine Godfrey, Ann C Collier, Joseph J Eron, John W Mellors
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces levels of HIV-1 and immune activation but both can persist despite clinically effective ART. The relationships among pre-ART and on-ART levels of HIV-1 and activation are incompletely understood, in part because prior studies have been small or cross-sectional. To address these limitations, we evaluated measures of HIV-1 persistence, inflammation, T cell activation and T cell cycling in a longitudinal cohort of 101 participants who initiated ART and had well-documented sustained suppression of plasma viremia for a median of 7 years...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426655/glycosome-biogenesis-in-trypanosomes-and-the-de-novo-dilemma
#18
REVIEW
Sarah Bauer, Meredith T Morris
Trypanosomatid parasites, including Trypanosoma and Leishmania, are the causative agents of lethal diseases threatening millions of people around the world. These organisms compartmentalize glycolysis in essential, specialized peroxisomes called glycosomes. Peroxisome proliferation can occur through growth and division of existing organelles and de novo biogenesis from the endoplasmic reticulum. The level that each pathway contributes is debated. Current evidence supports the concerted contribution of both mechanisms in an equilibrium that can vary depending on environmental conditions and metabolic requirements of the cell...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426423/the-discovery-of-acanthocephalans-parasitizing-chaetognaths
#19
Horacio Lozano-Cobo, Jaime Gómez-Gutiérrez, Carmen Franco-Gordo, María Del Carmen Gómez Del Prado-Rosas
A comprehensive literature review shows that 12 types of pathogens, micropredators and parasites are reported to interact with chaetognaths, mostly digenean trematodes, cestodes and nematodes larval stages. Through analysis of 78,152 chaetognaths from a monthly zooplankton time series (Jan 1996-Dec 1998) collected in the Mexican Central Pacific twelve acanthocephalan larvae parasitizing chaetognaths were discovered. This is the first record of an acanthocephalan parasitizing chaetognaths, raising to 13 the types of symbionts known to interact with them (excluding predators)...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426410/nematode-parasites-of-the-chilean-flamingo-phoenicopterus-chilensis-phoenicopteridae-from-central-argentina-with-a-description-of-a-new-species-of-tetrameres-tetrameridae
#20
Verónica Núñez, Fabiana B Drago, María Celina Digiani, Lia I Lunaschi
During the summer of 2013, several specimens of Phoenicopterus chilensis (Phoenicopteridae) were found dead from unknown causes, in lakes from the endorheic system "Encadenadas del Oeste", Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Two species of Nematoda were recovered from the proventriculus, one of them new for science. The tetramerid Tetrameres (Tetrameres) salina n. sp. is mainly characterized by having reduced pseudolabia, lips absent, six bifid teeth, males with lateral alae, four rows of somatic spines and length ratio of spicules 1:12-32, and large females with eggs lacking polar filaments...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
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