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Lauren M Schiebelhut, Sarah S Abboud, Liza E Gómez Daglio, Holly F Swift, Michael N Dawson
The inclusion of next-generation sequencing technologies in population genetic and phylogenetic studies has elevated the need to balance time and cost of DNA extraction without compromising DNA quality. We tested eight extraction methods - ranging from low- to high-throughput techniques - and eight phyla: Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Chordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Ochrophyta, and Porifera. We assessed DNA yield, purity, efficacy, and cost of each method. Extraction efficacy was quantified using the proportion of successful polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of two molecular markers for metazoans (mitochondrial COI and nuclear Histone 3) and one for Ochrophyta (mitochondrial nad6) at four time points - 0...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Xikun Song, Zefeng Xiao, Cinzia Gravili, Bernhard Ruthensteiner, Melanie Mackenzie, Shaoqing Wang, Jinjing Chen, Nan Yu, Jianjun Wang
The morphological character of the hydrocladium and gonotheca origin from within the hydrothecal cavity has rarely been applied for generic diagnoses in hydrozoans. Its taxonomic value has been controversial for more than a century. The genus Fraseroscyphus Boero and Bouillon, 1993 (Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) is a relatively recently debated case and it has been distinguished from Symplectoscyphus Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890 based on this character. A review of this character in all published nominal species of the family Sertulariidae reveals that its occurrence is inconsistent at the genus level...
September 14, 2016: Zootaxa
José Ansín Agís, Fran Ramil, Dale R Calder
One new genus (Schizoplumularia) and three new species (Schizoplumularia vervoorti, S. geniculata and S. elegans) of plumulariids are recognized and described from large collections of plumularioid hydroids collected in New Caledonia and vicinity during several French expeditions. During taxonomic studies of these hydroids, colonies were compared with type material of Plumularia insignis Allman, 1883 and several other similar species-group taxa. As a result, three of the latter (P. flabellum Allman, 1883, P...
September 19, 2016: Zootaxa
Thaís P Miranda, Amanda F Cunha, Antonio C Marques
Thirty new species of benthic leptothecate hydroids were described and named from Patagonia in a 1991 PhD dissertation by Mohamed El Beshbeeshy. Although constituting nomina nuda under provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), the names of some species were used in several scientific publications between 1991 and 2011. In 2011, the dissertation of El Beshbeeshy was published in accordance with Article 8 of the ICZN. Several species-group names appearing in that work nevertheless fail to fully comply with certain articles of the code...
September 29, 2016: Zootaxa
Julio C Aguiar, Edson A Adriano, Patrick D Mathews
This study reports, for the first time, a myxosporan species of the genus Myxidium in a Neotropical turtle. Myxidium turturibus n. sp., was found in the gall bladder of Podocnemis expansa (Testudines: Podocnemididae) farmed in Brazilian Amazon. Numerous disporic pseudoplasmodia in different developmental stages, and mature spores were free in the bile. Mature myxospores were fusiform, slightly arcuate in valval view, measuring 13.6±0.4 (13.1-15.1) μm in length and 4.1±0.3 (3.4-4.6) μm in width. The two polar capsules were piriform, with 3...
September 28, 2016: Parasitology International
Thomas G Dahlgren, Helena Wiklund, Muriel Rabone, Diva J Amon, Chiho Ikebe, Les Watling, Craig R Smith, Adrian G Glover
BACKGROUND: We present data from a DNA taxonomy register of the abyssal Cnidaria collected as part of the Abyssal Baseline (ABYSSLINE) environmental survey cruise 'AB01' to the UK Seabed Resources Ltd (UKSRL) polymetallic-nodule exploration area 'UK-1' in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone (CCZ), central Pacific Ocean abyssal plain. This is the second paper in a series to provide regional taxonomic data for a region that is undergoing intense deep-sea mineral exploration for high-grade polymetallic nodules...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
Amanda F Cunha, Allen G Collins, Antonio C Marques
Overlapping variation of morphological characters can lead to misinterpretation in taxonomic diagnoses and the delimitation of different lineages. This is the case for hydrozoans that have traditionally been united in the family Campanulariidae, a group known for its wide morphological variation and complicated taxonomic history. In a recently proposed phylogenetic classification of leptothecate hydrozoans, this family was restricted to a more narrow sense while a larger clade containing most species traditionally classified in Campanulariidae, along with members of Bonneviellidae, was established as the suborder Proboscoida...
September 14, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Hannah Wünnemann, Astrid Sybille Holzer, Hana Pecková, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Ulrich Eskens, Michael Lierz
BACKGROUND: Wildlife repatriation represents an opportunity for parasites. Reintroduced hosts are expected to accumulate generalist parasites via spillover from reservoir hosts, whereas colonization with specialist parasites is unlikely. We address the question of how myxozoan parasites, which are characterized by a complex life-cycle alternating between annelids and fish, can invade a reintroduced fish species and determine the impact of a de novo invasion on parasite diversity. We investigated the case of the anadromous allis shad, Alosa alosa (L...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Verónica González, Alfredo F Braña, Juan J Palacios, Luis Otero, Jonathan Fernández, Axayacatl Molina, Andreas Kulik, Fernando Vázquez, José L Acuña, Luis A García, Gloria Blanco
Marine Actinobacteria are emerging as an unexplored source for natural product discovery. Eighty-seven deep-sea coral reef invertebrates were collected during an oceanographic expedition at the submarine Avilés Canyon (Asturias, Spain) in a range of 1500 to 4700 m depth. From these, 18 cultivable bioactive Actinobacteria were isolated, mainly from corals, phylum Cnidaria, and some specimens of phyla Echinodermata, Porifera, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca and Sipuncula. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, all isolates belong to the phylum Actinobacteria, mainly to the Streptomyces genus and also to Micromonospora, Pseudonocardia and Myceligenerans...
September 10, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Marta Mauri, Marieluise Kirchner, Reuven Aharoni, Camilla Ciolli Mattioli, David van den Bruck, Nadya Gutkovitch, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Matthias Selbach, Yehu Moran, Marina Chekulaeva
Our current knowledge about the mechanisms of miRNA silencing is restricted to few lineages such as vertebrates, arthropods, nematodes and land plants. miRNA-mediated silencing in bilaterian animals is dependent on the proteins of the GW182 family. Here, we dissect the function of GW182 protein in the cnidarian Nematostella, separated by 600 million years from other Metazoa. Using cultured human cells, we show that Nematostella GW182 recruits the CCR4-NOT deadenylation complexes via its tryptophan-containing motifs, thereby inhibiting translation and promoting mRNA decay...
September 6, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Anna Török, Philipp H Schiffer, Christine E Schnitzler, Kris Ford, James C Mullikin, Andreas D Baxevanis, Antony Bacic, Uri Frank, Sebastian G Gornik
BACKGROUND: Cnidarians are a group of early branching animals including corals, jellyfish and hydroids that are renowned for their high regenerative ability, growth plasticity and longevity. Because cnidarian genomes are conventional in terms of protein-coding genes, their remarkable features are likely a consequence of epigenetic regulation. To facilitate epigenetics research in cnidarians, we analysed the histone complement of the cnidarian model organism Hydractinia echinata using phylogenomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and mRNA in situ hybridisations...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
Jason S Presnell, Lauren E Vandepas, Kaitlyn J Warren, Billie J Swalla, Chris T Amemiya, William E Browne
The current paradigm of gut evolution assumes that non-bilaterian metazoan lineages either lack a gut (Porifera and Placozoa) or have a sac-like gut (Ctenophora and Cnidaria) and that a through-gut originated within Bilateria [1-8]. An important group for understanding early metazoan evolution is Ctenophora (comb jellies), which diverged very early from the animal stem lineage [9-13]. The perception that ctenophores possess a sac-like blind gut with only one major opening remains a commonly held misconception [4, 5, 7, 14, 15]...
August 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Chen Huang, Jean-Étienne Rl Morlighem, Hefeng Zhou, Érica P Lima, Paula B Gomes, Jing Cai, Inchio Lou, Carlos D Pérez, Simon Ming Lee, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Protopalythoa is a zoanthid that, together with thousands of predominantly marine species, such as hydra, jellyfish, and sea anemones, composes the oldest eumetazoan phylum, i.e., the Cnidaria. Some of these species, such as sea wasps and sea anemones, are highly venomous organisms that can produce deadly toxins for preying, for defense or for territorial disputes. Despite the fact that hundreds of organic and polypeptide toxins have been characterized from sea anemones and jellyfish, practically nothing is known about the toxin repertoire in zoanthids...
October 5, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Dennis V Lavrov, Walker Pett
Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is commonly described as a small, circular molecule that is conserved in size, gene content, and organization. Data collected in the last decade have challenged this view by revealing considerable diversity in animal mitochondrial genome organization. Much of this diversity has been found in non-bilaterian animals (phyla Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Placozoa, and Porifera), which, from a phylogenetic perspective, form the main branches of the animal tree along with Bilateria. Within these groups, mt-genomes are characterized by varying numbers of both linear and circular chromosomes, extra genes (e...
August 24, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Takuma Fujii, James Davis Reimer
A new species of free-living solitary zoantharian is described from Okinawa, Japan. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. occurs on silty seafloors in Kin Bay and Oura Bay on the east coast of Okinawa-jima Island. Sphenopus exilis sp. n. is easily distinguished from other Sphenopus species by its small polyp size and slender shape, although there were relatively few differences between Sphenopus exilis sp. n. and Sphenopus marsupialis in the molecular phylogenetic analyses. Currently, very little is known about the ecology and diversity of Sphenopus species...
2016: ZooKeys
Luciana Tartaglione, Marco Pelin, Massimo Morpurgo, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Javier Montenegro, Giuseppe Sacco, Silvio Sosa, James Davis Reimer, Patrizia Ciminiello, Aurelia Tubaro
Palytoxin (PLTX) is a lethal natural toxin often found in Palythoa zoantharians that, together with its congeners, may induce adverse effects in humans after inhalation of toxic aerosols both in open-air and domestic environments, namely in the vicinity of public and private aquaria. In this study, we describe a poisoning of an aquarium hobbyist who was hospitalized after handling a PLTXs-containing zoantharian hexacoral. Furthermore, we provide evidence for water detoxification. The zoantharian was morphologically and genetically identified as Palythoa cf...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Stefan Siebert, Celina E Juliano
Mechanisms of sex determination vary greatly among animals. Here we survey what is known in Cnidaria, the clade that forms the sister group to Bilateria and shows a broad array of sexual strategies and sexual plasticity. This observed diversity makes Cnidaria a well-suited taxon for the study of the evolution of sex determination, as closely related species can have different mechanisms, which allows for comparative studies. In this review, we survey the extensive descriptive data on sexual systems (e.g. gonochorism and hermaphroditism) and the plasticity of sex in various cnidarian taxa...
August 17, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
T A Mo, A Jørgensen
The malacosporean Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae was detected in kidneys from Atlantic salmon parr in 64 of 91 sampled Norwegian rivers. Using real-time PCR, this parasite was found to be present in Atlantic salmon parr in rivers along the whole coast, from the northernmost and southernmost areas of the country. In addition, T. bryosalmonae was found in kidneys from brown trout parr in 17 of 19 sampled rivers in south-east Norway, and in Arctic charr sampled in the River Risfjordelva, located at the northernmost edge of the European mainland...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Daphne Gail Fautin
This book inventories all available (and some unavailable) names in the family, genus, and species groups of extant members of orders Actiniaria and Corallimorpharia [cnidarian subclass Hexacorallia (Zoantharia) of class Anthozoa], providing a benchmark of names, their status, and taxon membership. I have attempted to make the compilation complete as of 2010; some names created after 2010 are included. The book is derived from a database I compiled that was available through a website. Most of the book is from the literature that defines taxa and documents their geographic distribution-primarily publications on nomenclature, taxonomy, and biogeography, but also some on ecology, pharmacology, reproductive biology, physiology, etc...
2016: Zootaxa
Takato Izumi, Kensuke Yanagi, Toshihiko Fujita
In the present study, we report the identification of a sea anemone, Antennapeachia setouchi, collected in the Seto Inland Sea, which represents a new genus and new species. This new species has unusual tentacle and mesenterial arrangements that have not been observed in other species of Haloclavidae. There are 12 regular marginal tentacles and two 'antenna tentacles,' with the latter always rising upward and located on the oral disk near the mouth; the species is also characterized by its peculiar mesenterial pairs, consisting of a macrocneme and a microcneme...
August 2016: Zoological Science
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