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David López-Escardó, Jordi Paps, Colomban de Vargas, Ramon Massana, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Javier Del Campo
Although animals are among the best studied organisms, we still lack a full description of their diversity, especially for microscopic taxa. This is partly due to the time-consuming and costly nature of surveying animal diversity through morphological and molecular studies of individual taxa. A powerful alternative is the use of high-throughput environmental sequencing, providing molecular data from all organisms sampled. We here address the unknown diversity of animal phyla in marine environments using an extensive dataset designed to assess eukaryotic ribosomal diversity among European coastal locations...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sneha Patra, Pavla Bartošová-Sojková, Hana Pecková, Ivan Fiala, Edit Eszterbauer, Astrid S Holzer
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa are extremely diverse microscopic parasites belonging to the Cnidaria. Their life-cycles alternate between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, predominantly in aquatic habitats. Members of the phylogenetically well-defined Sphaerospora (sensu stricto) clade predominantly infect the urinary system of marine and freshwater fishes and amphibians. Sphaerosporids are extraordinary due to their extremely long and unique insertions in the variable regions of their 18S and 28S rDNA genes and due to the formation of motile proliferative stages in the hosts' blood...
June 15, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jean-Étienne R L Morlighem, Chen Huang, Qiwen Liao, Paula Braga Gomes, Carlos Daniel Pérez, Álvaro Rossan de Brandão Prieto-da-Silva, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Marine invertebrates, such as sponges, tunicates and cnidarians (zoantharians and scleractinian corals), form functional assemblages, known as holobionts, with numerous microbes. This type of species-specific symbiotic association can be a repository of myriad valuable low molecular weight organic compounds, bioactive peptides and enzymes. The zoantharian Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) is one such example of a marine holobiont that inhabits the coastal reefs of the tropical Atlantic coast and is an interesting source of secondary metabolites and biologically active polypeptides...
June 13, 2018: Marine Drugs
Arnaud Meng, Camille Marchet, Erwan Corre, Pierre Peterlongo, Adriana Alberti, Corinne Da Silva, Patrick Wincker, Eric Pelletier, Ian Probert, Johan Decelle, Stéphane Le Crom, Fabrice Not, Lucie Bittner
BACKGROUND: Study of meta-transcriptomic datasets involving non-model organisms represents bioinformatic challenges. The production of chimeric sequences and our inability to distinguish the taxonomic origins of the sequences produced are inherent and recurrent difficulties in de novo assembly analyses. As the study of holobiont meta-transcriptomes is affected by challenges invoked above, we propose an innovative bioinformatic approach to tackle such difficulties and tested it on marine models as a proof of concept...
June 9, 2018: Microbiome
A Özer, S Okkay, C T Gürkanlı, Y Çiftçi, V Yurakhno
Members of the genus Kudoa are typically histozoic and only a few are coelozoic parasites, mainly in marine fishes. In the present study, 2 novel Kudoa species were recovered and described as Kudoa niluferi sp. nov. in the musculature of Neogobius melanostomus and Kudoa anatolica sp. nov. in the musculature, urinary bladder and kidney of Atherina hepsetus collected from the coast of Sinop on the Black Sea. Means ± SD (ranges) of mature spores of K. niluferi sp. nov. were 5.9 ± 0.1 (5.7-6.1) µm in length, 9...
June 4, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Ekaterina Pukhlyakova, Andrew J Aman, Kareem Elsayad, Ulrich Technau
Although the genetic regulation of cellular differentiation processes is well established, recent studies have revealed the role of mechanotransduction on a variety of biological processes, including regulation of gene expression. However, it remains unclear how universal and widespread mechanotransduction is in embryonic development of animals. Here, we investigate mechanosensitive gene expression during gastrulation of the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis , a cnidarian model organism. We show that the blastoporal marker gene brachyury is down-regulated by blocking myosin II-dependent gastrulation movements...
May 21, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hiroyuki Tanaka, Shiori Ishimaru, Yasuhiro Nagatsuka, Keisuke Ohashi
Cnidaria is an animal phylum, whose members probably have the most ancestral musculature. We prepared and characterized, for the first time to our knowledge, native actomyosin from the striated myoepithelium of the adult moon jelly Aurelia sp. The actomyosin contained myosin, paramyosin-like protein, Ser/Thr-kinase, actin, and two isoforms of tropomyosin, but not troponin, which is known to activate contraction dependent on intracellular Ca2+ signaling in almost all striated muscles of bilaterians. Notably, the myosin comprised striated muscle-type heavy chain and smooth muscle-type regulatory light chains...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Naoki Kabeya, Miguel M Fonseca, David E K Ferrier, Juan C Navarro, Line K Bay, David S Francis, Douglas R Tocher, L Filipe C Castro, Óscar Monroig
Marine ecosystems are responsible for virtually all production of omega-3 (ω3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which are essential nutrients for vertebrates. Current consensus is that marine microbes account for this production, given their possession of key enzymes including methyl-end (or "ωx") desaturases. ωx desaturases have also been described in a small number of invertebrate animals, but their precise distribution has not been systematically explored. This study identifies 121 ωx desaturase sequences from 80 species within the Cnidaria, Rotifera, Mollusca, Annelida, and Arthropoda...
May 2018: Science Advances
Bo Zhang, Zemao Gu, Yang Liu
Three Myxobolus species were obtained from silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Valenciennes and bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis Richardson in China. In the present study, we supplemented their taxonomic characteristics by the morphological, histological and molecular methods. Myxobolus kiuchowensis Chen in Chen et Ma, 1998 formed small ellipsoidal plasmodia in the intestinal wall of bighead carp. Its spores appeared asymmetrical obovate in frontal view and fusiform in lateral view. Tiny mamillary protrusion in the anterior of some spores was observed...
May 1, 2018: Parasitology International
Luis Martell, Roberta Bracale, Steven A Carrion, Adriana Giangrande, Jennifer E Purcell, Marco Lezzi, Cinzia Gravili, Stefano Piraino, Ferdinando Boero
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195352.].
2018: PloS One
Elena Guerrero, Josep-Maria Gili, Jordi Grinyó, Vanesa Raya, Ana Sabatés
In the present work, possible long-term changes in the planktonic cnidarian community were investigated by analyzing (1) species and community spatial distribution patterns, (2) variations in abundance and (3) changes in species richness during three mesoscale surveys representative of the climatic and anthropogenic changes that have occurred during the last three decades (years: 1983, 2004 and 2011) in the NW Mediterranean. These surveys were conducted during the summer (June) along the Catalan coast. All surveys covered the same area, used the same sampling methodology, and taxonomic identification was conducted by the same team of experts...
2018: PloS One
Tiago Milanin, Stephen D Atkinson, Márcia R M Silva, Roberto G Alves, Luiz Eduardo R Tavares, Amanda M Ribeiro, Antonio A M Maia
We investigated the involvement of oligochaetes in the life cycles of fresh water myxozoan parasites in Brazil. In a fish farm in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we examined 192 oligochaetes and found that two (1%) released Aurantiactinomyxon type actinospores. We identified infected oligochaetes by morphology: both were Pristina synclites, from family Naididae. This is the first report of the involvement of this species in the life cycle of myxozoans. Small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of Aurantiactinomyxon type 1 (1882 nt) and Aurantiactinomyxon type 2 (1900 nt) did not match any previously sequenced myxozoan in the NCBI database, with the highest BLAST search similarities of 83% with Myxobolus batalhensis MF361090 and 93% with Henneguya maculosus KF296344, respectively, and the two aurantiactinomyxons were only 75% similar to each other (over ~ 1900 bases)...
April 30, 2018: Parasitology Research
Sebastian-Alexander Stamatis, Katrine Worsaae, Anders Garm
Cubozoans have the most intricate visual apparatus within Cnidaria. It comprises four identical sensory structures, the rhopalia, each of which holds six eyes of four morphological types. Two of these eyes are camera-type eyes that are, in many ways, similar to the vertebrate eye. The visual input is used to control complex behaviors, such as navigation and obstacle avoidance, and is processed by an elaborate rhopalial nervous system. Several studies have examined the rhopalial nervous system, which, despite a radial symmetric body plan, is bilaterally symmetrical, connecting the two sides of the rhopalium through commissures in an extensive neuropil...
February 2018: Biological Bulletin
Jeanette E Watson
This report adds to knowledge of the shelf hydroid fauna of the Great Australian Bight. Hydroids were collected by the South Australian Museum and Department of Primary Industries of South Australia (PIRSA). Well known species are annotated, poorly known species are redescribed and four new species are described.
April 16, 2018: Zootaxa
Odalisca Breedy, Hector M Guzman
The genus Adelogorgia is distinguished from other holaxonians in having conspicuously ornamented double-disc sclerites and leaf clubs in the coenenchyme, and non-mineralised axis cores. The two eastern Pacific species currently recognised as Adelogorgia are diagnosed and illustrated. Three new species for the genus are described from new localities and depth ranges. Analysis of external and internal characters, especially sclerite colours and sizes, and colony colour, shape and branching, allows separating the species...
January 5, 2018: Zootaxa
Zhijun Dong, Tingting Sun, Lei Wang
Blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea frequently occur in coastal waters. The increased availability of substrates for the settlement and proliferation of polyps due to the expansion of artificial structures in coastal areas has been proposed as a possible contributing factor in jellyfish blooms. This paper investigates whether a marine artificial lake (Fenghuang Lake) provides additional substrates for A. coerulea polyps and contributes to jellyfish blooms. High densities of A. coerulea ephyrae were discovered in this lake, with a mean density of 41 individuals/m3 and a maximum measured density of 128 individuals/m3 ...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Sérgio N Stampar, Suraia O El Didi, Gustav Paulay, Michael L Berumen
A new species of the genus Arachnanthus (Cnidaria: Ceriantharia), Arachnanthus lilith Stampar & El Didi, sp. n. , is described. This species is widely distributed in the Red Sea, and recorded from 2-30 m depths. Arachnanthus lilith Stampar & El Didi, sp. n. is the fifth species of the genus and the first recorded from the Red Sea. The number of labial tentacle pseudocycles, arrangement of mesenteries, and distribution of acontioids allow the differentiation of the new species from other species of the genus...
2018: ZooKeys
Vor Yiu, Ming-Luen Jeng
The first Oculogryphus species with associated males and female was found in Hong Kong and is described as new: O. chenghoiyanae sp. n. Adults of both sexes were collected live in the field and their bioluminescent behavior is reported for the first time in the genus. The captive males emit weak and continuous light from a pair of light spots on abdominal ventrite 6 or do so when disturbed. The larviform (highly paedomorphic) females can glow brightly from a pair of light-emitting organs on the abdomen. The females of Oculogryphus and Stenocladius are to date the only documented representatives of paedomorphism in ototretine fireflies...
2018: ZooKeys
Daniel J Ayala, Peter Munk, Regitze B C Lundgreen, Sachia J Traving, Cornelia Jaspers, Tue S Jørgensen, Lars H Hansen, Lasse Riemann
Limited insight into eel larvae feeding and diet prevents a holistic overview of the life-cycle of catadromous eels and an understanding of the ecological position of their early stages in marine waters. The present study evaluated the diet of larval European eel, Anguilla anguilla - a critically endangered species. Next-generation 18S rRNA gene sequencing data of Sargasso Sea eel larvae gut contents and marine snow aggregates was compared with a reference plankton database to assess the trophic relations of eel larvae...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
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