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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796903/sibling-species-of-mutualistic-symbiodinium-clade-g-from-bioeroding-sponges-in-the-western-pacific-and-western-atlantic-oceans
#1
Blake D Ramsby, Malcolm S Hill, Daniel J Thornhill, Sieuwkje F Steenhuizen, Michelle Achlatis, Allison M Lewis, Todd C Lajeunesse
Dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium associate with a broad array of metazoan and protistian hosts. Symbiodinium-based symbioses involving bioeroding sponge hosts have received less attention than those involving scleractinian hosts. Certain species of common Cliona harbor high densities of an ecologically restricted group of Symbiodinium, referred to as Clade G. The relationships of these unusual Clade G Symbiodinium with Foraminifera, sponges, and black coral (Antipatharia) are rarely studied. Nonetheless, analyses of genetic evidence indicate that Clade G likely comprises several distinct species...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783426/characterization-of-the-pirna-pathway-during-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#2
Daniela Praher, Bob Zimmermann, Grigory Genikhovich, Yaara Columbus-Shenkar, Vengamanaidu Modepalli, Reuven Aharoni, Yehu Moran, Ulrich Technau
PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and associated proteins comprise a conserved pathway for silencing transposons in metazoan germlines. piRNA pathway components are also expressed in multipotent somatic stem cells in various organisms. piRNA functions have been extensively explored in bilaterian model systems, however, comprehensive studies in non-bilaterian phyla remain limited. Here we investigate the piRNA pathway during the development of Nematostella vectensis, a well-established model system belonging to Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria...
August 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774820/identification-of-cyp443d1-cyp74-clan-of-nematostella-vectensis-as-a-first-cnidarian-epoxyalcohol-synthase-and-insights-into-its-catalytic-mechanism
#3
Yana Y Toporkova, Svetlana S Gorina, Fakhima K Mukhitova, Mats Hamberg, Tatyana M Ilyina, Lucia S Mukhtarova, Alexander N Grechkin
The CYP74 clan enzymes are responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous bioactive oxylipins in higher plants, some Proteobacteria, brown and green algae, and Metazoa. A novel putative CYP74 clan gene CYP443D1 of the starlet sea anemone (Nematostella vectensis, Cnidaria) has been cloned, and the properties of the corresponding recombinant protein have been studied in the present work. The recombinant CYP443D1 was incubated with the 9- and 13-hydroperoxides of linoleic and α-linolenic acids (9-HPOD, 13-HPOD, 9-HPOT, and 13-HPOT, respectively), as well as with the 9-hydroperoxide of γ-linolenic acid (γ-9-HPOT) and 15-hydroperoxide of eicosapentaenoic acid (15-HPEPE)...
August 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769713/search-for-mesophotic-octocorals-cnidaria-anthozoa-and-their-phylogeny-i-a-new-sclerite-free-genus-from-eilat-northern-red-sea
#4
Yehuda Benayahu, Catherine S McFadden, Erez Shoham
This communication describes a new octocoral, Altumia delicatagen. n. & sp. n. (Octocorallia: Clavulariidae), from mesophotic reefs of Eilat (northern Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea). This species lives on dead antipatharian colonies and on artificial substrates. It has been recorded from deeper than 60 m down to 140 m and is thus considered to be a lower mesophotic octocoral. It has no sclerites and features no symbiotic zooxanthellae. The new genus is compared to other known sclerite-free octocorals. Molecular phylogenetic analyses place it in a clade with members of families Clavulariidae and Acanthoaxiidae, and for now we assign it to the former, based on colony morphology...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769683/search-for-mesophotic-octocorals-cnidaria-anthozoa-and-their-phylogeny-ii-a-new-zooxanthellate-species-from-eilat-northern-red-sea
#5
Yehuda Benayahu, Catherine S McFadden, Erez Shoham, Leen P van Ofwegen
An octocoral survey conducted in the mesophotic coral ecosystem (MCE) of Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea) yielded a new species of the speciose reef-dwelling genus Sinularia. It features encrusting colony morphology with a thin, funnel-shaped polypary. Sinularia mesophoticasp. n. (family Alcyoniidae) is described and compared to the other congeners with similar morphology. Both the morphological and molecular examination justified the establishment of the new species, also assigning it to a new genetic clade within Sinularia...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760981/three-cambrian-fossils-assembled-into-an-extinct-body-plan-of-cnidarian-affinity
#6
Qiang Ou, Jian Han, Zhifei Zhang, Degan Shu, Ge Sun, Georg Mayer
The early Cambrian problematica Xianguangia sinica, Chengjiangopenna wangii, and Galeaplumosus abilus from the Chengjiang biota (Yunnan, China) have caused much controversy in the past and their phylogenetic placements remain unresolved. Here we show, based on exceptionally preserved material (85 new specimens plus type material), that specimens previously assigned to these three species are in fact parts of the same organism and propose that C. wangii and G. abilus are junior synonyms of X. sinica Our reconstruction of the complete animal reveals an extinct body plan that combines the characteristics of the three described species and is distinct from all known fossil and living taxa...
August 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751252/pore-forming-toxins-in-cnidaria
#7
REVIEW
Marjetka Podobnik, Gregor Anderluh
The ancient phylum of Cnidaria contains many aquatic species with peculiar lifestyle. In order to survive, these organisms have evolved attack and defense mechanisms that are enabled by specialized cells and highly developed venoms. Pore-forming toxins are an important part of their venomous arsenal. Along some other types, the most representative are examples of four protein families that are commonly found in other kingdoms of life: actinoporins, Cry-like proteins, aerolysin-like toxins and MACPF/CDC toxins...
July 24, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733226/allatoregulatory-like-systems-and-changes-in-cytosolic-ca-2-modulate-feeding-behavior-in-hydra
#8
María Eugenia Alzugaray, Jorge Rafael Ronderos
Allatotropin (AT) and allatostatin-C (AST-C) are neuropeptides originally characterized by their ability to modulate the secretion of juvenile hormones in insects. Beyond the allatoregulatory function, these neuropeptides are pleiotropic acting as myoregulators not only in insects, but also in other groups of invertebrates. We have previously proposed the existence of AT and AST-C like systems in Hydra sp., a member of the phylum Cnidaria, which is a basal group of Metazoa, sharing a common ancestor with Bilateria...
July 18, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720323/rapid-divergence-of-histones-in-hydrozoa-cnidaria-and-evolution-of-a-novel-histone-involved-in-dna-damage-response-in-hydra
#9
Puli Chandramouli Reddy, Suyog Ubhe, Neha Sirwani, Rasika Lohokare, Sanjeev Galande
Histones are fundamental components of chromatin in all eukaryotes. Hydra, an emerging model system belonging to the basal metazoan phylum Cnidaria, provides an ideal platform to understand the evolution of core histone components at the base of eumetazoan phyla. Hydra exhibits peculiar properties such as tremendous regenerative capacity, lack of organismal senescence and rarity of malignancy. In light of the role of histone modifications and histone variants in these processes it is important to understand the nature of histones themselves and their variants in hydra...
June 15, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716475/fouling-assemblage-of-benthic-plastic-debris-collected-from-mersin-bay-ne-levantine-coast-of-turkey
#10
Sedat Gündoğdu, Cem Çevik, Serkan Karaca
The Mediterranean is an ecosystem that faces more and more microplastic pollution every day. This causes the whole of the Mediterranean to face the negative effects of plastic pollution. This study examines the state of plastic debris and fouling organisms found on it in one of the areas most affected by plastic pollution, Mersin Bay. As a result, a total of 3.88kg plastic (mean=0,97kg; n=120; 2670item/km(2); 86,3kg/km(2)) was collected and based on the ATR-FTIR analysis, it was determined that this total contained 9 types of plastics...
July 14, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711466/comparative-proteomics-reveals-recruitment-patterns-of-some-protein-families-in-the-venoms-of-cnidaria
#11
Adrian Jaimes-Becerra, Ray Chung, André C Morandini, Andrew J Weston, Gabriel Padilla, Ranko Gacesa, Malcolm Ward, Paul F Long, Antonio C Marques
Cnidarians are probably the oldest group of animals to be venomous, yet our current picture of cnidarian venom evolution is highly imbalanced due to limited taxon sampling. High-throughput tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine venom composition of the scyphozoan Chrysaora lactea and two cubozoans Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus. Protein recruitment patterns were then compared against 5 other cnidarian venom proteomes taken from the literature. A total of 28 putative toxin protein families were identified, many for the first time in Cnidaria...
July 13, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710419/generation-of-clade-and-symbiont-specific-antibodies-to-characterize-marker-molecules-during-cnidaria-symbiodinium-endosymbiosis
#12
Kao-Jean Huang, Zi-Yu Huang, Ching-Yen Lin, Li-Hsueh Wang, Pin-Hsiang Chou, Chii-Shiarng Chen, Hsing-Hui Li
The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is responsible for the formation of coral reefs. Changes in molecules have been identified during the process of cnidaria-Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, the complexity of the molecular interaction has prevented the establishment of a mechanistic explanation of cellular regulation in this mutualistic symbiosis. To date, no marker molecules have been identified to specifically represent the symbiotic status. Because the endosymbiotic association occurs in the symbiotic gastrodermal cells (SGCs), whole cells of isolated SGCs were used as an antigen to generate monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to screen possible molecular candidates of symbiotic markers...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707028/involvement-of-aurantiactinomyxon-in-the-life-cycle-of-thelohanellus-testudineus-cnidaria-myxosporea-from-allogynogenetic-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-with-morphological-ultrastructural-and-molecular-analysis
#13
Dan Dan Zhao, Yan Hua Zhai, Yang Liu, Si Jia Wang, Ze Mao Gu
During the investigation of actinosporean fauna diversity from commercial fish ponds in Hubei Province, China, a novel aurantiactinomyxon type was found from Branchiura sowerbyi. Spore body of the aurantiactinomyxon was ellipsoidal in side view and triangular in apical view, 15.5 ± 0.5 (14.5-16.4) μm in diameter; three leaf-like caudal processes were approximately equal, measuring 13.2 ± 0.9 (11.5-16.2) μm long and 7.4 ± 0.4 (6.7-8.0) μm wide at the base; three polar capsules were located at the apex of spore body, globular in apical view, 2...
July 13, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705830/molecular-and-ultrastructural-studies-of-a-fibrillar-collagen-from-octocoral-cnidaria
#14
Joseph P R O Orgel, Ido Sella, Rama S Madhurapantula, Olga Antipova, Yael Mandelberg, Yoel Kashman, Dafna Benayahu, Yehuda Benayahu
We report here the biochemical, molecular and ultrastructural features of a unique organization of fibrillar collagen extracted from the octocoral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi Collagen, the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom, is often defined as a structural component of extra-cellular matrices in metazoans. In the present study, collagen fibers were extracted from the mesenteries of S. ehrenbergi polyps. These fibers are organized as filaments and further compacted as coiled fibers. The fibers are uniquely long, reaching an unprecedented length of tens of centimeters...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664868/observations-on-non-random-distribution-of-spores-of-henneguya-spp-cnidaria-myxosporea-myxobolidae-within-plasmodia
#15
Jorge C Eiras, Manuel Cruz, Cristina Cruz, Aurelia Saraiva, Edson A Adriano, Csaba Szekely, Kalman Molnar
Species of the cnidarian genus Henneguya Thélohan, 1892 (Myxosporea: Myxobolidae) are histozoic parasites commonly found in freshwater and, more rarely, in marine fish. The development of these parasites in fish tissues includes the formation of plasmodia within which occurs the sporogony originating spores with two caudal processes, which are usually randomly distributed within the plasmodia. In this report the authors present some cases of non-random distribution of the spores of six species of Henneguya within their plasmodia...
June 20, 2017: Folia Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623350/multiplexed-spliced-leader-sequencing-a-high-throughput-selective-method-for-rna-seq-in-trypanosomatids
#16
Bart Cuypers, Malgorzata A Domagalska, Pieter Meysman, Géraldine de Muylder, Manu Vanaerschot, Hideo Imamura, Franck Dumetz, Thomas Wolf Verdonckt, Peter J Myler, Gowthaman Ramasamy, Kris Laukens, Jean-Claude Dujardin
High throughput sequencing techniques are poorly adapted for in vivo studies of parasites, which require prior in vitro culturing and purification. Trypanosomatids, a group of kinetoplastid protozoans, possess a distinctive feature in their transcriptional mechanism whereby a specific Spliced Leader (SL) sequence is added to the 5'end of each mRNA by trans-splicing. This allows to discriminate Trypansomatid RNA from mammalian RNA and forms the basis of our new multiplexed protocol for high-throughput, selective RNA-sequencing called SL-seq...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614409/environmental-control-of-asexual-reproduction-and-somatic-growth-of-aurelia-spp-cnidaria-scyphozoa-polyps-from-the-adriatic-sea
#17
Nathan Hubot, Cathy H Lucas, Stefano Piraino
Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A. relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21°C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind-1 week-1) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favoured under low food supply (9...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610340/myxosporea-cnidaria-myxozoa-infecting-the-saddled-seabream-oblada-melanura-l-1758-teleostei-sparidae-and-the-painted-comber-serranus-scriba%C3%A2-l-1758-teleostei-serranidae-in-tunisia
#18
Sayef Laamiri
First parasitological surveys of Myxozoa are performed on the sparid saddled seabream Oblada melanura (Linnaeus, 1758) and the serranid painted comber Serranus scriba (Linnaeus, 1758) caught from the Bay of Bizerte and the Gulf of Tunis respectively in Northeast Tunisia, Western Mediterranean. In this study, 6 bivalvulid myxosporean species belonging to the 3 genera Ceratomyxa Thélohan, 1892, Myxodavisia Zhao, Zhou, Kent & Whipps, 2008 and Zschokkella Auerbach, 1910, are isolated infecting their hosts. Two species Ceratomyxa sp...
May 19, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610031/a-new-species-of-clausophyid-calycophoran-siphonophore-cnidaria-hydrozoa-i-kephyes-i-i-hiulcus-i-sp-nov-widely-distributed-throughout-the-world-s-oceans
#19
Mary Matilda Grossmann, Dhugal John Lindsay
A new species of clausophyid siphonophore, Kephyes hiulcus sp. nov. is described. It can most easily be differentiated from its congener Kephyes ovata by the shape of the hydroecium in the anterior nectophore of the polygastric stage. This is open over the entire height of the nectophore in K. hiulcus sp. nov., and it is this character from which its specific name is derived. This species was found in the eastern and western Pacific Ocean, as well as the Celebes and Mediterranean Seas, indicating that this species is both relatively common and geographically widespread...
April 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609939/additions-to-the-hydroids-cnidaria-hydrozoa-of-the-bay-of-fundy-northeastern-north-america-with-a-checklist-of-species-reported-from-the-region
#20
Dale R Calder
Two new species of hydroids, Eudendrium bleakneyi and Halecium praeparvum, are described from the Bay of Fundy. Fourteen others, Tubularia acadiae Petersen, 1990, Coryne pusilla Gaertner, 1774, Sarsia lovenii (M. Sars, 1846), Zanclea implexa (Alder, 1856), Corydendrium dispar Kramp, 1935, Rhizogeton fusiformis L. Agassiz, 1862, Bougainvillia muscus (Allman, 1863), Rhizorhagium roseum M. Sars, in G.O. Sars, 1874, Hydractinia symbiolongicarpus Buss & Yund, 1989, Eudendrium vaginatum Allman, 1863, Tiaropsis multicirrata (M...
April 24, 2017: Zootaxa
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