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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890285/invertebrate-oncology-diseases-diagnostics-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Alisa L Newton, Gregory A Lewbart
Neoplasia is a documented occurrence across invertebrate taxa, but challenges remain with regard to tumor diagnosis and treatment. Literature reports of neoplasia are frequent in mollusks and insects, infrequent in Cnidaria and crustaceans, and are yet to be documented in Porifera and echinoderms. A significant contribution could be made by veterinary practitioners documenting and treating neoplasms in invertebrates. Traditional methods of veterinary diagnosis are encouraged, but the anatomy and tissue biology of each invertebrate species need to be considered...
January 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878085/stable-isotope-based-trophic-structure-of-pelagic-fish-and-jellyfish-across-natural-and-anthropogenic-landscape-gradients-in-a-fjord-estuary
#2
Sean M Naman, Correigh M Greene, Casimir A Rice, Joshua Chamberlin, Letitia Conway-Cranos, Jeffery R Cordell, Jason E Hall, Linda D Rhodes
Identifying causes of structural ecosystem shifts often requires understanding trophic structure, an important determinant of energy flow in ecological communities. In coastal pelagic ecosystems worldwide, increasing jellyfish (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) at the expense of small fish has been linked to anthropogenic alteration of basal trophic pathways. However, this hypothesis remains untested in part because baseline description of fish-jellyfish trophic dynamics, and the environmental features that influence them are lacking...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867359/physiology-and-evolution-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-early-diverging-animal-phyla-cnidaria-placozoa-porifera-and-ctenophora
#3
Adriano Senatore, Hamad Raiss, Phuong Le
Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling), gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling), pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling), regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca(2+)-sensitive ion channels...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845203/complete-mitochondrial-genome-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-turritopsis-dohrnii-the-immortal-jellyfish-with-a-reversible-life-cycle
#4
A A Lisenkova, A P Grigorenko, T V Tyazhelova, T V Andreeva, F E Gusev, A D Manakhov, A Yu Goltsov, S Piraino, M P Miglietta, E I Rogaev
Turritopsis dohrnii (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina, Anthoathecata) is the only known metazoan that is capable of reversing its life cycle via morph rejuvenation from the adult medusa stage to the juvenile polyp stage. Here, we present a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of T. dohrnii, which harbors genes for 13 proteins, two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs. The T. dohrnii mt genome is characterized by typical features of species in the Hydroidolina subclass, such as a high A+T content (71...
November 11, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842616/description-and-experimental-transmission-of-tetracapsuloides-vermiformis-n-sp-cnidaria-myxozoa-and-guidelines-for-describing-malacosporean-species-including-reinstatement-of-buddenbrockia-bryozoides-n-comb-syn-tetracapsula-bryozoides
#5
Sneha Patra, Ashlie Hartigan, David J Morris, Alena Kodádková, Astrid S Holzer
This paper provides the first detailed description of a Tetracapsuloides species, Tetracapsuloides vermiformis n. sp., with vermiform stages in the bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, and its experimental transmission from F. sultana to Cyprinus carpio. The suitability of morphological, biological and 18S rDNA sequence data for discrimination between malacosporean species is reviewed and recommendations are given for future descriptions. Presently, malacosporean species cannot be differentiated morphologically due to their cryptic nature and the lack of differential characters of spores and spore-forming stages in both hosts...
November 15, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821209/motility-morphology-and-phylogeny-of-the-plasmodial-worm-ceratomyxa-vermiformis-n-sp-cnidaria-myxozoa-myxosporea
#6
E A Adriano, B Okamura
The Myxozoa demonstrate extensive morphological simplification and miniaturization relative to their free-living cnidarian ancestors. This is particularly pronounced in the highly derived myxosporeans, which develop as plasmodia and pseudoplasmodia. To date, motility in these stages has been linked with membrane deformation (e.g. as pseudopodia and mobile folds). Here we illustrate a motile, elongate plasmodium that undergoes coordinated undulatory locomotion, revealing remarkable convergence to a functional worm at the cellular level...
November 8, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812408/comparative-internal-anatomy-of-staurozoa-cnidaria-with-functional-and-evolutionary-inferences
#7
Lucília S Miranda, Allen G Collins, Yayoi M Hirano, Claudia E Mills, Antonio C Marques
Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis was derived for Staurozoa, allowing for the first broad histological comparative study of staurozoan taxa. This study uses comparative histology to describe the body plans of nine staurozoan species, inferring functional and evolutionary aspects of internal morphology based on the current phylogeny of Staurozoa...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811803/copepods-associated-with-scleractinian-corals-a-worldwide-checklist-and-a-case-study-of-their-impact-on-the-reef-building-coral-pocillopora-damicornis-linnaeus-1758-pocilloporidae
#8
Yu Rong Cheng, Anderson B Mayfield, Pei Jie Meng, Chang Feng Dai, Rony Huys
The Cnidaria have more symbiotic copepods than any other group of invertebrates, and the greatest numbers of these associates occur on hard corals. A review of the scattered literature on the diversity and taxonomic composition of scleractinian-associated copepods and their hosts revealed a total of 148 coral species, representing 66 genera and 15 families that serve as hosts to copepods. At present, 363 copepod species, representing 99 genera, 19 families and three orders, have been recorded as associates of scleractinian corals...
October 11, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811739/the-polyps-of-oceania-armata-identified-by-dna-barcoding-cnidaria-hydrozoa
#9
Peter Schuchert
The polyps of the widely distributed medusa Oceania armata have never been found in nature and only the primary polyp is known from breeding experiments. The fully developed colony is so far unknown. This report shows that DNA sequence data of the medusa stage of O. armata permits to identify several hydroid colonies from different geographic origins as the most likely polyp stage of this medusa. These hydroids had previously been misidentified as Turritopsis species, a closely related genus which also produces medusae resembling Oceania armata...
October 18, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811734/new-records-of-the-deep-sea-anemone-phelliactis-callicyclus-riemann-zurneck-1973-cnidaria-actiniaria-hormathiidae-from-the-gulf-of-california-mexico
#10
M E Hendrickx, A Hinojosa-Corona, M Ayón-Parente
Specimens of a deep-sea anemone were observed in photographs and video footage taken with the Remotely Operated Vehicle JASON (WHOI Deep Submergence Laboratory) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, in May 2008. Comparison of our material with photographs and description of this species available in literature indicate that the sea anemones filmed during the JASON survey are most likely to represent Phelliactis callicyclus Riemann-Zurneck, 1973. This species has previously been reported from a locality in the Gulf of California near the present record...
October 20, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806695/insights-into-the-innate-immunome-of-actiniarians-using-a-comparative-genomic-approach
#11
Chloé A van der Burg, Peter J Prentis, Joachim M Surm, Ana Pavasovic
BACKGROUND: Innate immune genes tend to be highly conserved in metazoans, even in early divergent lineages such as Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, hydroids and sea anemones) and Porifera (sponges). However, constant and diverse selection pressures on the immune system have driven the expansion and diversification of different immune gene families in a lineage-specific manner. To investigate how the innate immune system has evolved in a subset of sea anemone species (Order: Actiniaria), we performed a comprehensive and comparative study using 10 newly sequenced transcriptomes, as well as three publically available transcriptomes, to identify the origins, expansions and contractions of candidate and novel immune gene families...
November 2, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803185/the-origin-of-mucosal-immunity-lessons-from-the-holobiont-hydra
#12
REVIEW
Katja Schröder, Thomas C G Bosch
Historically, mucosal immunity-i.e., the portion of the immune system that protects an organism's various mucous membranes from invasion by potentially pathogenic microbes-has been studied in single-cell epithelia in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts of vertebrates. Phylogenetically, mucosal surfaces appeared for the first time about 560 million years ago in members of the phylum Cnidaria. There are remarkable similarities and shared functions of mucosal immunity in vertebrates and innate immunity in cnidarians, such as Hydra species...
November 1, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797948/the-last-common-ancestor-of-most-bilaterian-animals-possessed-at-least-9-opsins
#13
M D Ramirez, A N Pairett, M S Pankey, J M Serb, D I Speiser, A J Swafford, T H Oakley
The opsin gene family encodes key proteins animals use to sense light and has expanded dramatically since it originated early in animal evolution. Understanding the origins of opsin diversity can offer clues to how separate lineages of animals have repurposed different opsin paralogs for different light-detecting functions. However, the more we look for opsins outside of eyes and from additional animal phyla, the more opsins we uncover, suggesting we still do not know the true extent of opsin diversity, nor the ancestry of opsin diversity in animals...
October 26, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782848/morphological-and-molecular-characterisation-of-myxobolus-pronini-n-sp-myxozoa-myxobolidae-from-the-abdominal-cavity-and-visceral-serous-membranes-of-the-gibel-carp-carassius-auratus-gibelio-bloch-in-russia-and-china
#14
Xin-Hua Liu, Marina-D Batueva, Yuan-Li Zhao, Jin-Yong Zhang, Qian-Qian Zhang, Tong-Tong Li, Ai-Hua Li
BACKGROUND: Myxozoa is a well-known economically and ecologically important group of metazoan parasites, phylogenetically related to Cnidaria. High diversity of myxosporeans has been recorded in Russia and China; however, most of the species were solely morphologically characterised. Here, we identified a new gibel carp-infecting Myxobolus species and morphologically and molecularly compared the Russian and Chinese isolates of this new myxosporean. RESULTS: Myxobolus pronini n...
October 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778109/a-novel-myxosporean-parasite-myxobolus-klamathellus-n-sp-cnidaria-myxosporea-from-native-blue-chub-gila-coerulea-in-klamath-lake-oregon
#15
Stephen Douglas Atkinson, Craig Randall Banner
Blue chub, Gila coerulea Girard, 1856 is a freshwater cyprinid fish native to inland drainages of western North America. It has not previously been recorded as a host of any myxosporean parasite (Cnidaria: Myxosporea), despite myxosporeans being cosmopolitan in freshwater and marine fishes worldwide and sympatric with this host. Herein, we describe a novel myxosporean from subcutaneous cysts in native blue chub from Klamath Lake, Oregon. Myxospores were consistent with genus Myxobolus, being obovoid but compressed in thickness, length 14...
October 25, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768245/a-comparison-of-dna-extraction-methods-for-high-throughput-dna-analyses
#16
Lauren M Schiebelhut, Sarah S Abboud, Liza E Gómez Daglio, Holly F Swift, Michael N Dawson
The inclusion of next-generation sequencing technologies in population genetic and phylogenetic studies has elevated the need to balance time and cost of DNA extraction without compromising DNA quality. We tested eight extraction methods - ranging from low- to high-throughput techniques - and eight phyla: Annelida, Arthropoda, Cnidaria, Chordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Ochrophyta, and Porifera. We assessed DNA yield, purity, efficacy, and cost of each method. Extraction efficacy was quantified using the proportion of successful polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of two molecular markers for metazoans (mitochondrial COI and nuclear Histone 3) and one for Ochrophyta (mitochondrial nad6) at four time points - 0...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701346/worldwide-revision-of-the-genus-fraseroscyphus-boero-and-bouillon-1993%C3%A2-cnidaria-hydrozoa-an-integrative-approach-to-establish-new-generic-diagnoses
#17
Xikun Song, Zefeng Xiao, Cinzia Gravili, Bernhard Ruthensteiner, Melanie Mackenzie, Shaoqing Wang, Jinjing Chen, Nan Yu, Jianjun Wang
The morphological character of the hydrocladium and gonotheca origin from within the hydrothecal cavity has rarely been applied for generic diagnoses in hydrozoans. Its taxonomic value has been controversial for more than a century. The genus Fraseroscyphus Boero and Bouillon, 1993 (Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) is a relatively recently debated case and it has been distinguished from Symplectoscyphus Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890 based on this character. A review of this character in all published nominal species of the family Sertulariidae reveals that its occurrence is inconsistent at the genus level...
September 14, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701311/one-new-genus-and-three-new-species-of-plumulariid-hydroids-cnidaria-hydrozoa-plumulariidae-from-the-western-pacific-ocean-with-a-re-examination-of-plumularia-insignis-allman-1883-and-related-taxa
#18
José Ansín Agís, Fran Ramil, Dale R Calder
One new genus (Schizoplumularia) and three new species (Schizoplumularia vervoorti, S. geniculata and S. elegans) of plumulariids are recognized and described from large collections of plumularioid hydroids collected in New Caledonia and vicinity during several French expeditions. During taxonomic studies of these hydroids, colonies were compared with type material of Plumularia insignis Allman, 1883 and several other similar species-group taxa. As a result, three of the latter (P. flabellum Allman, 1883, P...
September 19, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701221/status-of-the-names-of-some-hydroid-species-cnidaria-hydrozoa-described-from-the-atlantic-coast-of-patagonia
#19
Thaís P Miranda, Amanda F Cunha, Antonio C Marques
Thirty new species of benthic leptothecate hydroids were described and named from Patagonia in a 1991 PhD dissertation by Mohamed El Beshbeeshy. Although constituting nomina nuda under provisions of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), the names of some species were used in several scientific publications between 1991 and 2011. In 2011, the dissertation of El Beshbeeshy was published in accordance with Article 8 of the ICZN. Several species-group names appearing in that work nevertheless fail to fully comply with certain articles of the code...
September 29, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693559/morphology-and-molecular-phylogeny-of-a-new-myxidium-species-cnidaria-myxosporea-infecting-the-farmed-turtle-podocnemis-expansa-testudines-podocnemididae-in-the-brazilian-amazon
#20
Julio C Aguiar, Edson A Adriano, Patrick D Mathews
This study reports, for the first time, a myxosporan species of the genus Myxidium in a Neotropical turtle. Myxidium turturibus n. sp., was found in the gall bladder of Podocnemis expansa (Testudines: Podocnemididae) farmed in Brazilian Amazon. Numerous disporic pseudoplasmodia in different developmental stages, and mature spores were free in the bile. Mature myxospores were fusiform, slightly arcuate in valval view, measuring 13.6±0.4 (13.1-15.1) μm in length and 4.1±0.3 (3.4-4.6) μm in width. The two polar capsules were piriform, with 3...
September 28, 2016: Parasitology International
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