keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Cnidaria

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224050/exoskeletons-of-bougainvilliidae-and-other-hydroidolina-cnidaria-hydrozoa-structure-and-composition
#1
María A Mendoza-Becerril, José Eduardo A R Marian, Alvaro Esteves Migotto, Antonio Carlos Marques
The exoskeleton is an important source of characters for the taxonomy of Hydroidolina. It originates as epidermal secretions and, among other functions, protects the coenosarc of the polypoid stage. However, comparative studies on the exoskeletal tissue origin, development, chemical, and structural characteristics, as well as its evolution and homology, are few and fragmented. This study compares the structure and composition of the exoskeleton and underlying coenosarc in members of "Anthoathecata" and some Leptothecata, but does so mainly in bougainvilliid polyps histological analyses...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212607/a-case-of-modular-phenotypic-plasticity-in-the-depth-gradient-for-the-gorgonian-coral-antillogorgia-bipinnata-cnidaria-octocorallia
#2
Iván Calixto-Botía, Juan A Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Phenotypic plasticity, as a phenotypic response induced by the environment, has been proposed as a key factor in the evolutionary history of corals. A significant number of octocoral species show high phenotypic variation, exhibiting a strong overlap in intra- and inter-specific morphologic variation. This is the case of the gorgonian octocoral Antillogorgia bipinnata (Verrill 1864), which shows three polyphyletic morphotypes along a bathymetric gradient. This research tested the phenotypic plasticity of modular traits in A...
February 17, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187575/stalked-jellyfishes-cnidaria-staurozoa-of-south-africa-with-the-description-of-i-calvadosia-i-i-lewisi-i-sp-nov
#3
Lucília S Miranda, George M Branch, Allen G Collins, Yayoi M Hirano, Antonio C Marques, Charles L Griffiths
Stalked jellyfishes (Cnidaria: Staurozoa) are cryptic, benthic animals, known mainly from polar and temperate waters of the Northern Hemisphere. We describe a new species, Calvadosia lewisi, from South Africa and review the staurozoan fauna of the region. Three other species are previously known from South Africa: Calvadosia capensis (Carlgren, 1938); Depastromorpha africana Carlgren, 1935; and Lipkea stephensoni Carlgren, 1933, but all of these are known from very few records and have been poorly illustrated and documented to date...
February 3, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185825/amazonian-waters-harbour-an-ancient-freshwater-ceratomyxa-lineage-cnidaria-myxosporea
#4
Suellen A Zatti, Stephen D Atkinson, Jerri L Bartholomew, Antônio A M Maia, Edson A Adriano
A new species of Ceratomyxa parasitizing the gall bladder of Cichla monoculus, an endemic cichlid fish from the Amazon basin in Brazil, is described using morphological and molecular data. In the bile, both immature and mature myxospores were found floating freely or inside elongated plasmodia: length 304 (196-402) μm and width 35.7 (18.3-55.1) μm. Mature spores were elongated and only slightly crescent-shaped in frontal view with a prominent sutural line between two valve cells, which had rounded ends. Measurements of formalin-fixed myxospores: length 6...
February 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117771/inducing-complete-polyp-regeneration-from-the-aboral-physa-of-the-starlet-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#5
Patricia Bossert, Gerald H Thomsen
Cnidarians, and specifically Hydra, were the first animals shown to regenerate damaged or severed structures, and indeed such studies arguably launched modern biological inquiry through the work of Trembley more than 250 years ago. Presently the study of regeneration has seen a resurgence using both "classic" regenerative organisms, such as the Hydra, planaria and Urodeles, as well as a widening spectrum of species spanning the range of metazoa, from sponges through mammals. Besides its intrinsic interest as a biological phenomenon, understanding how regeneration works in a variety of species will inform us about whether regenerative processes share common features and/or species or context-specific cellular and molecular mechanisms...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112211/crude-venom-from-nematocysts-of-pelagia-noctiluca-cnidaria-scyphozoa-elicits-a-sodium-conductance-in-the-plasma-membrane-of-mammalian-cells
#6
Rossana Morabito, Roberta Costa, Valentina Rizzo, Alessia Remigante, Charity Nofziger, Giuseppa La Spada, Angela Marino, Markus Paulmichl, Silvia Dossena
Cnidarians may negatively impact human activities and public health but concomitantly their venom represents a rich source of bioactive substances. Pelagia noctiluca is the most venomous and abundant jellyfish of the Mediterranean Sea and possesses a venom with hemolytic and cytolytic activity for which the mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of mammalian cells to crude venom from the nematocysts of P. noctiluca profoundly alters the ion conductance of the plasma membrane, therefore affecting homeostatic functions such as the regulation and maintenance of cellular volume...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066713/sequencing-and-de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-of-anthopleura-dowii-verrill-1869-from-mexico
#7
Jorge-Tonatiuh Ayala-Sumuano, Alexei Licea-Navarro, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Estefanía Rodríguez, Claudia Rodríguez-Almazán
Next-generation technologies for determination of genomics and transcriptomics composition have a wide range of applications. Moreover, the development of tools for big data set analysis has allowed the identification of molecules and networks involved in metabolism, evolution or behavior. By natural habitats aquatic organisms have implemented molecular strategies for survival, including the production and secretion of toxic compounds for their predators; therefore these organisms are possible sources of proteins or peptides with potential biotechnological application...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030351/occurrence-of-two-novel-actinospore-types-cnidaria-myxosporea-in-brazilian-fish-farms-and-the-creation-of-a-novel-actinospore-collective-group-seisactinomyxon
#8
Tiago Milanin, Stephen D Atkinson, Márcia R M Silva, Roberto G Alves, Antônio A M Maia, Edson A Adriano
The involvement of oligochaetes in the life cycles of fresh water myxozoan parasites in Brazil was investigated. Of 333 oligochaetes collected in a fish farm in the State of São Paulo, three (0.9%) released Aurantiactinomyxon type spores. From 86 worms collected in a fish farm in Mato Grosso do Sul State, 1 (0.9%) released actinospores with a novel morphology for which we propose the name Seisactinomyxon. Infected oligochaetes were identified by morphology: all belonged to family Naididae, with Pristina americana the host for Aurantiactinomyxon and Slavina evelinae the host of Seisactinomyxon...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994119/origin-of-animal-multicellularity-precursors-causes-consequences-the-choanoflagellate-sponge-transition-neurogenesis-and-the-cambrian-explosion
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Cavalier-Smith
Evolving multicellularity is easy, especially in phototrophs and osmotrophs whose multicells feed like unicells. Evolving animals was much harder and unique; probably only one pathway via benthic 'zoophytes' with pelagic ciliated larvae allowed trophic continuity from phagocytic protozoa to gut-endowed animals. Choanoflagellate protozoa produced sponges. Converting sponge flask cells mediating larval settling to synaptically controlled nematocysts arguably made Cnidaria. I replace Haeckel's gastraea theory by a sponge/coelenterate/bilaterian pathway: Placozoa, hydrozoan diploblasty and ctenophores were secondary; stem anthozoan developmental mutations arguably independently generated coelomate bilateria and ctenophores...
February 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988700/census-of-cnidaria-medusozoa-and-ctenophora-from-south-american-marine-waters
#10
Otto M P Oliveira, Thaís P Miranda, Enilma M Araujo, Patricia Ayón, Cristina M Cedeño-Posso, Amancay A Cepeda-Mercado, Pablo Córdova, Amanda F Cunha, Gabriel N Genzano, Maria Angélica Haddad, Hermes W Mianzan, Alvaro E Migotto, Lucília S Miranda, André C Morandini, Renato M Nagata, Karine B Nascimento, Miodeli Nogueira Júnior, Sergio Palma, Javier Quiñones, Carolina S Rodriguez, Fabrizio Scarabino, Agustín Schiariti, Sérgio N Stampar, Valquíria B Tronolone, Antonio C Marques
We have compiled available records in the literature for medusozoan cnidarians and ctenophores of South America. New records of species are also included. Each entry (i.e., identified species or still as yet not determined species referred to as "sp." in the literature) includes a synonymy list for South America, taxonomical remarks, notes on habit, and information on geographical occurrence. We have listed 800 unique determined species, in 958 morphotype entries: 5 cubozoans, 905 hydrozoans, 25 scyphozoans, 3 staurozoans, and 20 ctenophores...
November 17, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941639/evolution-of-the-cytolytic-pore-forming-proteins-actinoporins-in-sea-anemones
#11
Jason Macrander, Marymegan Daly
Sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, and Actiniaria) use toxic peptides to incapacitate and immobilize prey and to deter potential predators. Their toxin arsenal is complex, targeting a variety of functionally important protein complexes and macromolecules involved in cellular homeostasis. Among these, actinoporins are one of the better characterized toxins; these venom proteins form a pore in cellular membranes containing sphingomyelin. We used a combined bioinformatic and phylogenetic approach to investigate how actinoporins have evolved across three superfamilies of sea anemones (Actinioidea, Metridioidea, and Actinostoloidea)...
December 8, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920595/a-new-muricea-species-cnidaria-anthozoa-octocorallia-from-the-eastern-tropical-pacific
#12
Odalisca Breedy, Hector M Guzman
The genus Muricea is considered abundant and widely distributed along the eastern Pacific. Its occurrence in shallow waters has been recognised; however species from deeper than 30 m have been rarely recorded. During the 2005 R/V Urracá expedition along the north and central Pacific coast of Costa Rica several octocoral specimens were collected by bottom trawling from 30 to 150 m yielding new species and new records. Herein we describe a new species of Muricea from deeper than 30 m. The morphological characters of the species were analysed and illustrated by optic and scanning electron microscopy...
2016: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917830/structural-analysis-of-the-bright-monomeric-yellow-green-fluorescent-protein-mneongreen-obtained-by-directed-evolution
#13
Damien Clavel, Guillaume Gotthard, David von Stetten, Daniele De Sanctis, Hélène Pasquier, Gerard G Lambert, Nathan C Shaner, Antoine Royant
Until recently, genes coding for homologues of the autofluorescent protein GFP had only been identified in marine organisms from the phyla Cnidaria and Arthropoda. New fluorescent-protein genes have now been found in the phylum Chordata, coding for particularly bright oligomeric fluorescent proteins such as the tetrameric yellow fluorescent protein lanYFP from Branchiostoma lanceolatum. A successful monomerization attempt led to the development of the bright yellow-green fluorescent protein mNeonGreen. The structures of lanYFP and mNeonGreen have been determined and compared in order to rationalize the directed evolution process leading from a bright, tetrameric to a still bright, monomeric fluorescent protein...
December 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890285/invertebrate-oncology-diseases-diagnostics-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Alisa L Newton, Gregory A Lewbart
Neoplasia is a documented occurrence across invertebrate taxa, but challenges remain with regard to tumor diagnosis and treatment. Literature reports of neoplasia are frequent in mollusks and insects, infrequent in Cnidaria and crustaceans, and are yet to be documented in Porifera and echinoderms. A significant contribution could be made by veterinary practitioners documenting and treating neoplasms in invertebrates. Traditional methods of veterinary diagnosis are encouraged, but the anatomy and tissue biology of each invertebrate species need to be considered...
January 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878085/stable-isotope-based-trophic-structure-of-pelagic-fish-and-jellyfish-across-natural-and-anthropogenic-landscape-gradients-in-a-fjord-estuary
#15
Sean M Naman, Correigh M Greene, Casimir A Rice, Joshua Chamberlin, Letitia Conway-Cranos, Jeffery R Cordell, Jason E Hall, Linda D Rhodes
Identifying causes of structural ecosystem shifts often requires understanding trophic structure, an important determinant of energy flow in ecological communities. In coastal pelagic ecosystems worldwide, increasing jellyfish (Cnidaria and Ctenophora) at the expense of small fish has been linked to anthropogenic alteration of basal trophic pathways. However, this hypothesis remains untested in part because baseline description of fish-jellyfish trophic dynamics, and the environmental features that influence them are lacking...
November 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867359/physiology-and-evolution-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-early-diverging-animal-phyla-cnidaria-placozoa-porifera-and-ctenophora
#16
Adriano Senatore, Hamad Raiss, Phuong Le
Voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channels serve dual roles in the cell, where they can both depolarize the membrane potential for electrical excitability, and activate transient cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals. In animals, Cav channels play crucial roles including driving muscle contraction (excitation-contraction coupling), gene expression (excitation-transcription coupling), pre-synaptic and neuroendocrine exocytosis (excitation-secretion coupling), regulation of flagellar/ciliary beating, and regulation of cellular excitability, either directly or through modulation of other Ca(2+)-sensitive ion channels...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845203/complete-mitochondrial-genome-and-evolutionary-analysis-of-turritopsis-dohrnii-the-immortal-jellyfish-with-a-reversible-life-cycle
#17
A A Lisenkova, A P Grigorenko, T V Tyazhelova, T V Andreeva, F E Gusev, A D Manakhov, A Yu Goltsov, S Piraino, M P Miglietta, E I Rogaev
Turritopsis dohrnii (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina, Anthoathecata) is the only known metazoan that is capable of reversing its life cycle via morph rejuvenation from the adult medusa stage to the juvenile polyp stage. Here, we present a complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of T. dohrnii, which harbors genes for 13 proteins, two transfer RNAs, and two ribosomal RNAs. The T. dohrnii mt genome is characterized by typical features of species in the Hydroidolina subclass, such as a high A+T content (71...
November 11, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842616/description-and-experimental-transmission-of-tetracapsuloides-vermiformis-n-sp-cnidaria-myxozoa-and-guidelines-for-describing-malacosporean-species-including-reinstatement-of-buddenbrockia-bryozoides-n-comb-syn-tetracapsula-bryozoides
#18
Sneha Patra, Ashlie Hartigan, David J Morris, Alena Kodádková, Astrid S Holzer
This paper provides the first detailed description of a Tetracapsuloides species, Tetracapsuloides vermiformis n. sp., with vermiform stages in the bryozoan host, Fredericella sultana, and its experimental transmission from F. sultana to Cyprinus carpio. The suitability of morphological, biological and 18S rDNA sequence data for discrimination between malacosporean species is reviewed and recommendations are given for future descriptions. Presently, malacosporean species cannot be differentiated morphologically due to their cryptic nature and the lack of differential characters of spores and spore-forming stages in both hosts...
November 15, 2016: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821209/motility-morphology-and-phylogeny-of-the-plasmodial-worm-ceratomyxa-vermiformis-n-sp-cnidaria-myxozoa-myxosporea
#19
E A Adriano, B Okamura
The Myxozoa demonstrate extensive morphological simplification and miniaturization relative to their free-living cnidarian ancestors. This is particularly pronounced in the highly derived myxosporeans, which develop as plasmodia and pseudoplasmodia. To date, motility in these stages has been linked with membrane deformation (e.g. as pseudopodia and mobile folds). Here we illustrate a motile, elongate plasmodium that undergoes coordinated undulatory locomotion, revealing remarkable convergence to a functional worm at the cellular level...
February 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812408/comparative-internal-anatomy-of-staurozoa-cnidaria-with-functional-and-evolutionary-inferences
#20
Lucília S Miranda, Allen G Collins, Yayoi M Hirano, Claudia E Mills, Antonio C Marques
Comparative efforts to understand the body plan evolution of stalked jellyfishes are scarce. Most characters, and particularly internal anatomy, have neither been explored for the class Staurozoa, nor broadly applied in its taxonomy and classification. Recently, a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis was derived for Staurozoa, allowing for the first broad histological comparative study of staurozoan taxa. This study uses comparative histology to describe the body plans of nine staurozoan species, inferring functional and evolutionary aspects of internal morphology based on the current phylogeny of Staurozoa...
2016: PeerJ
keyword
keyword
48056
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"