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Autism Treatment

Sarah R Rieth, Rachel Haine-Schlagel, Marilee Burgeson, Karyn Searcy, Kelsey S Dickson, Aubyn C Stahmer
Naturalistic developmental behavioral interventions include an explicit focus on coaching parents to use therapy techniques in daily routines and are considered best practice for young children with autism. Unfortunately, these approaches are not widely used in community settings, possibly due to the clinical expertise and training required. This article presents the work of the Bond, Regulate, Interact, Develop, Guide, Engage (BRIDGE Collaborative), a multidisciplinary group of service providers (including speech-language pathologists), parents, funding agency representatives, and researchers dedicated to improving the lives of young children with autism spectrum disorder and their families...
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Amy L Donaldson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Ruth E K Stein, Ellen J Silver, Marilyn C Augustyn, Nathan J Blum, Pamela High, Nancy J Roizen
BACKGROUND: It is unknown how insurance status affects elements of evaluation at developmental behavioral (DB) pediatric sites. OBJECTIVE: To compare DB referrals, evaluation, and treatment for children with Medicaid and private insurance. DESIGN/METHODS: Fifty-six developmental behavioral pediatricians at 12 sites recorded anonymous data on structured forms for ≤15 consecutive referrals. Children with Medicaid (n = 309) and private insurance (n = 393) were compared on sociodemographic factors, referral concerns, evaluation elements, and resulting diagnoses...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Nicole Ali, Gabrielle Rigney, Shelly K Weiss, Cary A Brown, Evelyn Constantin, Roger Godbout, Ana Hanlon-Dearman, Osman Ipsiroglu, Graham J Reid, Sarah Shea, Isabel M Smith, Machiel Van der Loos, Penny V Corkum
Insomnia, which is related to daytime deficits and is a common problem for children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), is often successfully treated with behavioral strategies. However, there are barriers to accessing these treatments, and there has been little research examining what these interventions need to be usable and effective. The goal of this study was to gain consensus from experts in the field on the key components of an eHealth, parent-implemented, intervention program aimed at improving sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cerebral palsy, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Jin Hwan Lee, James Ya Zhang, Zheng Zachory Wei, Shan Ping Yu
The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD), whose unique clinical hallmark is a constellation of impaired social and/or cognitive behaviors. GluN3A (NR3A) is a unique inhibitory subunit in the NMDAR complex. The role of GluN3A in social behavioral activities is obscure. In this study, we sought to evaluate altered social activities in adult GluN3A knockout (KO) mice...
March 16, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Boram Lee, Jihong Lee, Jin-Hong Cheon, Hyun-Kyung Sung, Seung-Hun Cho, Gyu Tae Chang
Objectives. We aimed to summarize and critically evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods. We searched 13 databases for studies published up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture for children with ASD were included. Outcome measures were the overall scores on scales evaluating the core symptoms of ASD and the scores for each symptom, such as social communication ability and skills, stereotypies, language ability, and cognitive function...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Lieke A M W Wijnhoven, Daan H M Creemers, Ad A Vermulst, Isabela Granic
Anxiety is highly prevalent in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there is inconsistency in studies investigating the prevalence and risk factors of anxiety in children with ASD. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to give an overview of the prevalence of anxiety symptoms in a clinical Dutch sample of children with ASD. The second aim was to investigate age, gender, ASD subtype, and IQ as potential risk factors for anxiety in this sample. In total, 172 children with ASD (age, 8-15 years) and their parents participated in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Guro E Løseth, Marie Eikemo, Peder Isager, Jostein Holmgren, Bruno Laeng, Vigdis Vindenes, Trine Hjørnevik, Siri Leknes
The μ-opioid system modulates responses to pain and psychosocial stress and mediates non-social and social reward. In humans, the μ-opioid agonist morphine can increase overt attention to the eye-region and visual exploration of faces with neutral expressions. However, little is known about how the human μ-opioid system influences sensitivity to and appraisal of subtle and explicit cues of social threats and reward. Here, we examined the effects of selective μ-opioid stimulation on perception of anger and happiness in faces with explicit, neutral or implicit emotion expressions...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Tao Tan, Wei Wang, Haitao Xu, Zhilin Huang, Yu Tian Wang, Zhifang Dong
Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display abnormalities in neuronal development, synaptic function and neural circuits. The imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) synaptic transmission has been proposed to cause the main behavioral characteristics of ASD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly or indirectly induce excitability and synaptic plasticity changes in the brain noninvasively. However, whether rTMS can ameliorate autistic-like behaviors in animal model via regulating the balance of E/I synaptic transmission is unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Laura C Politte, Lawrence Scahill, Janet Figueroa, James T McCracken, Bryan King, Christopher J McDougle
In a prior report, we showed that extended-release guanfacine (GEXR) is safe and effective for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) accompanied by ADHD symptoms. Here, we examine the impact of GEXR on oppositional behavior, anxiety, repetitive behavior, and sleep disturbance. Sixty-two subjects with ASD (53 boys, 9 girls; ages 5-14 years) were randomly assigned to GEXR (n = 30) or placebo (n = 32) for 8 weeks. Outcomes include the Home Situation Questionnaire-Modified for ASD (HSQ-ASD), Anxiety scale of the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory (CASI), Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale-Modified for ASD (CYBOCS-ASD), and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ)...
February 27, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Julia S Anixt, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Halley Estridge, Laura Smith, William B Brinkman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of treatment decisions to address challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Parents of children aged 4 to 15 years with ASD seen in a developmental behavioral pediatric (DBP) clinic completed validated measures to characterize their child's behaviors and their own level of stress. Parents reported their treatment priority before the visit. During the visit, we assessed shared decision making (SDM) using the Observing Patient Involvement (OPTION) scale and alignment of the clinician's treatment plan with the parent's priority...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Eli T Newcomb, Louis P Hagopian
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) present with problem behaviour at rates disproportionately higher than their typically-developing peers. Problem behaviour, such as self-injury, aggression, pica, disruption, and elopement result in a diminished quality-of-life for the individual and family. Applied behaviour analysis has a well-established research base, detailing a number of assessment and treatment methods designed to address behaviour problems in children with ASD and ID...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Kelly McGuire, Matthew Siegel
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are admitted to inpatient psychiatric units at markedly high rates. As health insurance companies and government healthcare systems and regulators seek more evidence for healthcare outcomes, it is important to learn more about the effectiveness of psychiatric inpatient admissions for children with ASD to best inform decisions on provision and access to this level of care. Evidence for models of inpatient treatment for youth with ASD is presented, and key characteristics and consensus recommendations for care are discussed...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Rebecca J Landa
With advances in the field's ability to identify autism spectrum disorders (ASD) at younger ages, the need for information about the evidence-base for early intervention continues to rise. This review of the ASD early intervention (EI) literature focuses on efficacy studies published within the past 15 years. The neurodevelopmental context for early intervention, timing of initiating intervention, primary intervention approaches, and predictors of treatment outcomes are discussed. The evidence indicates that young children with ASD benefit from EI, and their parents learn to implement child-responsive engagement strategies when a parent-coaching intervention is provided...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Alan S Lewis, Gerrit Ian van Schalkwyk, Mayra Ortiz Lopez, Fred R Volkmar, Marina R Picciotto, Denis G Sukhodolsky
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), particularly the α7 nAChR, are implicated in the pathophysiology of both autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and aggressive behavior. We explored the feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of targeting nAChRs using transdermal nicotine to reduce aggressive symptoms in adults with ASD. Eight subjects were randomized in a double-blind crossover trial of 7 mg transdermal nicotine or placebo, each for 1 week. All participants tolerated nicotine treatment well...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jihong Lee, Sun Haeng Lee, Boram Lee, In Jun Yang, Gyu Tae Chang
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate autism spectrum disorder (ASD) clinical practice patterns of Korean medicine doctors (KMDs) through questionnaire survey. METHODS: Questionnaires on Korean medicine (KM) treatment for ASD were distributed to 255 KMDs on December 5, 2016. The KMDs were psychiatrists, pediatricians, or general practitioners, who treated patients with ASD. The questionnaire covered items on treatment methods, aims of treatment, KM syndrome differentiation, diagnostic tools, and sociodemographic characteristics...
March 13, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Luye Qin, Kaijie Ma, Zi-Jun Wang, Zihua Hu, Emmanuel Matas, Jing Wei, Zhen Yan
Haploinsufficiency of the SHANK3 gene is causally linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and ASD-associated genes are also enriched for chromatin remodelers. Here we found that brief treatment with romidepsin, a highly potent class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, alleviated social deficits in Shank3-deficient mice, which persisted for ~3 weeks. HDAC2 transcription was upregulated in these mice, and knockdown of HDAC2 in prefrontal cortex also rescued their social deficits. Nuclear localization of β-catenin, a Shank3-binding protein that regulates cell adhesion and transcription, was increased in Shank3-deficient mice, which induced HDAC2 upregulation and social deficits...
March 12, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Leif Karlsson, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
Dexamethasone (DEX) is used to prevent prenatal virilization in female fetuses with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Since treatment has to be started before the genotype of the fetus is known, 7 out of 8 fetuses will be exposed to DEX without benefit. Previously, we have observed negative effects on cognition and behavior in DEX treated children. Here we evaluated neuropsychological functions, psychopathology and autistic traits in non-CAH DEX-treated adults exposed during the first trimester of fetal life (duration 6...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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