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Autism Treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918504/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-disease-modeling-using-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Anita Brito, Fabiele Baldino Russo, Alysson Renato Muotri, Patricia Cristina Baleeiro Beltrão-Braga
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) represent a variety of disorders characterized as complex lifelong neurodevelopment disabilities, which may affect the ability of communication and socialization, including typical comportments like repetitive and stereotyped behavior. Other comorbidities are usually present, such as echolalia, hypotonia, intellectual disability and difficulties in processing figured speech. Furthermore, some ASD individuals may present certain abilities, such as eidetic memory, outstanding musical or painting talents and special mathematical skills, among others...
September 16, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917059/direct-modulation-of-aberrant-brain-network-connectivity-through-real-time-neurofeedback
#2
Michal Ramot, Sara Kimmich, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Vinai Roopchansingh, Haroon Popal, Emily White, Stephen J Gotts, Alex Martin
The existence of abnormal connectivity patterns between resting state networks in neuropsychiatric disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), has been well established. Traditional treatment methods in ASD are limited, and do not address the aberrant network structure. Using real-time fMRI neurofeedback, we directly trained 3 brain nodes in participants with ASD, in which the aberrant connectivity has been shown to correlate with symptom severity. Desired network connectivity patterns were reinforced in real-time, without participants' awareness of the training taking place...
September 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914977/autism-theory-of-mind-and-the-reactive-attitudes
#3
Kenneth A Richman, Raya Bidshahri
Whether to treat autism as exculpatory in any given circumstance appears to be influenced both by models of autism and by theories of moral responsibility. This article looks at one particular combination of theories: autism as theory of mind challenges and moral responsibility as requiring appropriate experience of the reactive attitudes. In pursuing this particular combination of ideas, we do not intend to endorse them. Our goal is, instead, to explore the implications of this combination of especially prominent ideas about autism and about moral responsibility...
September 15, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914729/mental-health-service-use-among-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Stephanie Ryan, Jonathan Lai, Jonathan A Weiss
OBJECTIVE: Although youth with autism have elevated rates of mental health problems compared to typically developing youth, little is known about the mental health services that they receive. The current study examines predisposing, enabling, and clinical need factors as they relate to mental health service use in youth with autism. METHODS: The current study surveyed parents of 2337 children and adolescents with autism, compared their access to behavioral management and mental health treatment (MHT), and isolated the correlates of such receipt...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914144/impaired-disengagement-of-attention-and-its-relationship-to-emotional-distress-in-infants-at-high-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Susan Bryson, Nancy Garon, Tracey McMullen, Jessica Brian, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Vickie Armstrong, Wendy Roberts, Isabel Smith, Peter Szatmari
INTRODUCTION: We provide data on visual orienting and emotional distress in infants at high and low risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: Participants included 83 high-risk (HR) infants with an older sibling with ASD and 53 low-risk (LR) control infants with no family history of ASD. Infants were assessed on the gap-overlap task and a parent-completed temperament questionnaire at 6 and 12 months of age. At 36 months of age, an independent, gold standard diagnostic assessment for ASD was conducted...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914086/preliminary-efficacy-of-a-daily-living-skills-intervention-for-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Amie Duncan, Lisa A Ruble, Jareen Meinzen-Derr, Carrie Thomas, Lori J Stark
Daily living skills deficits are strongly associated with poor adult outcomes for individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, and yet, there are no group interventions targeting daily living skills. Seven adolescents with autism spectrum disorder and their parents participated in a feasibility pilot of a 12-week manualized group treatment targeting specific daily living skills (i.e. morning routine, cooking, laundry, and money management). Outcomes included the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second Edition (Vineland-II) age equivalence scores and four goal attainment scaling scores...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914085/development-of-a-patient-centered-conceptual-model-of-the-impact-of-living-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Fiona McDougall, Thomas Willgoss, Steve Hwang, Federico Bolognani, Lorraine Murtagh, Evdokia Anagnostou, Diana Rofail
The aim of this study was to generate a patient-centered conceptual model of the impact of living with autism spectrum disorder, which can be used to support the selection of outcome measures for clinical trials. Following an initial literature review to identify preliminary concepts and inform an interview guide, in-depth face-to-face interviews were conducted with adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ ⩾ 70) (n = 10), as well as parents of children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder (IQ ⩾ 70) (n = 26)...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914083/the-importance-of-context-in-early-autism-intervention-a-qualitative-south-african-study
#8
Jessy Guler, Petrus J de Vries, Noleen Seris, Nokuthula Shabalala, Lauren Franz
The majority of individuals with autism spectrum disorder live in low- and middle-income countries and receive little or no services from health or social care systems. The development and validation of autism spectrum disorder interventions has almost exclusively occurred in high-income countries, leaving many unanswered questions regarding what contextual factors would need to be considered to ensure the effectiveness of interventions in low- and middle-income countries. This study qualitatively explored contextual factors relevant to the adaptation of a caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention in a low-resource South African setting...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906292/shank3-regulates-intestinal-barrier-function-through-modulating-zo-1-expression-through-the-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-dependent-pathway
#9
Shu-Chen Wei, Hsin-Fang Yang-Yen, Po-Nien Tsao, Meng-Tzu Weng, Chien-Chih Tung, Linda C H Yu, Liang-Chuan Lai, Jen-Hao Hsiao, Eric Y Chuang, Chia-Tung Shun, Yen-Hsuan Ni, Ramnik J Xavier, Daniel K Podolsky, Jeffery J Y Yen, Jau-Min Wong
BACKGROUND: The integrity of the gut barrier in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is known to be impaired but the exact mechanisms remain mostly unknown. SHANK3 mutations are associated with autism, and patients with autism are known to have higher proportions of inflammatory bowel disease. Here, we explore the role of SHANK3 in inflammatory bowel disease, both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Dextran sulfate sodium colitis was induced in SHANK3 knockout mice...
October 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#10
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901162/imagining-autism-feasibility-of-a-drama-based-intervention-on-the-social-communicative-and-imaginative-behaviour-of-children-with-autism
#11
Julie Beadle-Brown, David Wilkinson, Lisa Richardson, Nicola Shaughnessy, Melissa Trimingham, Jennifer Leigh, Beckie Whelton, Julian Himmerich
We report the feasibility of a novel, school-based intervention, coined 'Imagining Autism', in which children with autism engage with drama practitioners though participatory play and improvisation in a themed multi-sensory 'pod' resembling a portable, tent-like structure. A total of 22 children, aged 7-12 years, from three UK schools engaged in the 10-week programme. Measures of social interaction, communication and emotion recognition, along with parent and teacher ratings, were collected before and up to 12 months after the intervention...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900800/resting-state-neurophysiological-activity-patterns-in-young-people-with-asd-adhd-and-asd%C3%A2-%C3%A2-adhd
#12
Elizabeth Shephard, Charlotte Tye, Karen L Ashwood, Bahar Azadi, Philip Asherson, Patrick F Bolton, Grainne McLoughlin
Altered power of resting-state neurophysiological activity has been associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which commonly co-occur. We compared resting-state neurophysiological power in children with ASD, ADHD, co-occurring ASD + ADHD, and typically developing controls. Children with ASD (ASD/ASD + ADHD) showed reduced theta and alpha power compared to children without ASD (controls/ADHD). Children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD + ADHD) displayed decreased delta power compared to children without ADHD (ASD/controls)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900768/maternal-and-paternal-infertility-disorders-and-treatments-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-findings-from-the-study-to-explore-early-development
#13
Laura A Schieve, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Shericka Harris, Craig Newschaffer, Julie Daniels, Carolyn DiGuiseppi, Lisa A Croen, Gayle C Windham
Previous studies of associations between ASD and conception using assisted reproductive technology (ART) are inconsistent and few studies have examined associations with other infertility treatments or infertility disorders. We examined associations between ASD and maternal/paternal infertility disorders and numerous maternal treatments among 1538 mother-child pairs in the Study to Explore Early Development, a population-based case-control study. ASD was associated with any female infertility diagnosis and several specific diagnoses: blocked tubes, endometriosis, uterine-factor infertility, and polycystic ovarian syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894950/autism-spectrum-disorder-an-early-and-frequent-feature-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis
#14
Bianca M L Stelten, Olivier Bonnot, Hidde H Huidekoper, Francjan J van Spronsen, Peter M van Hasselt, Leo A J Kluijtmans, Ron A Wevers, Aad Verrips
BACKGROUND: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an autosomal recessively inherited inborn error of metabolism (IEM) due to mutations in the CYP27A1 gene. The clinical picture ranges from being nearly asymptomatic in early childhood, up to severe disability at adult age. Infantile-onset diarrhea and juvenile-onset cataract are the earliest symptoms in childhood. In the current study, we evaluated the presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a large cohort of CTX patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective patient file study in 77 genetically confirmed Dutch CTX patients to determine the frequency of ASD...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892073/progress-and-roadblocks-in-the-search-for-brain-based-biomarkers-of-autism-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#15
REVIEW
L Q Uddin, D R Dajani, W Voorhies, H Bednarz, R K Kana
Children with neurodevelopmental disorders benefit most from early interventions and treatments. The development and validation of brain-based biomarkers to aid in objective diagnosis can facilitate this important clinical aim. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of current progress in the use of neuroimaging to identify brain-based biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), two prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders. We summarize empirical work that has laid the foundation for using neuroimaging to objectively quantify brain structure and function in ways that are beginning to be used in biomarker development, noting limitations of the data currently available...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883746/clinical-impact-of-early-diagnosis-of-autism-on-the-prognosis-and-parent-child-relationships
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer Harrison Elder, Consuelo Maun Kreider, Susan N Brasher, Margaret Ansell
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a lifelong condition that usually appears in late infancy or early childhood, and is characterized by social and communication deficits that impede optimal functioning. Despite widespread research and greater public awareness, ASD has an unclear etiology and no known cure, making it difficult to acquire accurate and timely diagnoses. In addition, once an ASD diagnosis is made, parents find it challenging to navigate the healthcare system and determine which interventions are most effective and appropriate for their child...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880353/-sleep-wake-patterns-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-a-clinical-setting-a-pilot-study
#17
G J Rosbergen, M P Jansen, A R Rosbergen-De Vries, Y Roke, R Otten
The negative consequences of sleep-wake disorders in the general population and in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are well-established. However, little is known about sleep-wake disorders in adults with ASD.<br/> AIM: To study and measure sleep-wake disorders and sleep-wake patterns in adults in a clinical facility who have been diagnosed primarily as having ASD without any comorbid intellectual disability.<br/> METHOD: We assessed the sleep patterns of 19 patients in a residential facility...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880200/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-autism-spectrum-disorders-insights-from-animal-models
#18
REVIEW
Erica Zamberletti, Marina Gabaglio, Daniela Parolaro
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) defines a group of neurodevelopmental disorders whose symptoms include impaired communication and social interaction with restricted or repetitive motor movements, frequently associated with general cognitive deficits. Although it is among the most severe chronic childhood disorders in terms of prevalence, morbidity, and impact to the society, no effective treatment for ASD is yet available, possibly because its neurobiological basis is not clearly understood hence specific drugs have not yet been developed...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879629/feasibility-of-coping-effectiveness-training-for-caregivers-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-genetic-counseling-intervention
#19
Christy Haakonsen Smith, Erin Turbitt, John Muschelli, Lori Leonard, Katie L Lewis, Brian Freedman, Michelle Muratori, Barbara B Biesecker
Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may find it difficult to feel a sense of control and to cope with the overall physical and emotional demands of caring for their child. While caregivers are able to successfully cope with a high level of stress, there are limits to their resources and abilities to cope over time. Genetic counselors working with affected families may be able to help parents more effectively manage stress related to the disorder. Few short-term interventions have been reported in genetic counseling yet implementation of evidence-based examples may be achievable...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Genetic Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879345/managing-the-behavior-of-a-patient-with-autism-by-sedation-via-submucosal-route-during-dental-treatment
#20
Chan-Woo Jo, Chan-Hee Park, Jong-Hyug Lee, Ji-Hun Kim
In sedation via the submucosal route, the drug is administered through the maxillary buccal submucosa. It is time saving, effective, and safe. Patients with autism, a mental disorder, often find it hard to make relationships with other people. These patients display a strong resistance to dental treatment and sedation. This study reports a successful case of behavioral management during dental treatment, using sedation via the submucosal route. The patient was strongly resistant to sedation via the oral, intramuscular, and intravenous routes...
June 2017: J Dent Anesth Pain Med
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