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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738293/oxytocin-effects-on-emotional-response-to-others-faces-via-serotonin-system-in-autism-a-pilot-study
#1
Mina Fukai, Tetsu Hirosawa, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Yasuomi Ouchi, Tetsuya Takahashi, Yuko Yoshimura, Yoshiaki Miyagishi, Hirotaka Kosaka, Masamichi Yokokura, Etsuji Yoshikawa, Tomoyasu Bunai, Yoshio Minabe
The oxytocin (OT)-related serotonergic system is thought to play an important role in the etiology and social symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, no evidence exists for the relation between the prosocial effect of chronic OT administration and the brain serotonergic system. Ten male subjects with ASD were administered OT for 8-10 weeks in an open-label, single-arm, non-randomized, uncontrolled manner. Before and during the OT treatment, positron emission tomography was used with the ((11)C)-3-amino-4-(2-[(demethylamino)methyl]phenylthio)benzonitrile((11)C-DASB) radiotracer...
June 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736777/cataloguing-treatments-discussed-and-used-in-online-autism-communities
#2
Shaodian Zhang, Tian Kang, Lin Qiu, Weinan Zhang, Yong Yu, Noémie Elhadad
A large number of patients discuss treatments in online health communities (OHCs). One research question of interest to health researchers is whether treatments being discussed in OHCs are eventually used by community members in their real lives. In this paper, we rely on machine learning methods to automatically identify attributions of mentions of treatments from an online autism community. The context of our work is online autism communities, where parents exchange support for the care of their children with autism spectrum disorder...
April 2017: Proceedings of the International World-Wide Web Conference
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735226/perinatal-fluoxetine-effects-on-social-play-the-hpa-system-and-hippocampal-plasticity-in-pre-adolescent-male-and-female-rats-interactions-with-pre-gestational-maternal-stress
#3
Mary Gemmel, Mariah Hazlett, Eszter Bögi, Sonsoles De Lacalle, Lesley A Hill, Nikolaos Kokras, Geoffrey L Hammond, Christina Dalla, Thierry D Charlier, Jodi L Pawluski
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications (SSRIs) are the first lines of treatment for maternal affective disorders, and are prescribed to up to 10% of pregnant women. Concern has been raised about how perinatal exposure to these medications affect offspring neurobehavioral outcomes, particularly those related to social interactions, as recent research has reported conflicting results related to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in children prenatally exposed to SSRIs. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the effects of perinatal exposure to the SSRI fluoxetine on social play behaviors and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal system, using a model of pre-gestational maternal stress...
July 15, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733898/d-cycloserine-ameliorates-autism-like-deficits-by-removing-glua2-containing-ampa-receptors-in-a-valproic-acid-induced-rat-model
#4
Han-Fang Wu, Po See Chen, Ya-Ting Hsu, Chi-Wei Lee, Tzu-Feng Wang, Yi-Ju Chen, Hui-Ching Lin
Valproic acid (VPA)-exposed rat offspring have demonstrated autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotypes and impaired N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. NMDAR partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS) has been reported to act as a cognitive enhancer by increasing the NMDAR response to improve autistic-like phenotypes in animals. However, the mechanism of DCS in alleviating the ASD is still unknown. Using combined behavioral, electrophysiological, and molecular approaches, we found that DCS administration rescued social interaction deficits and anxiety/repetitive-like behaviors observed in VPA-exposed offspring...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729328/comparative-safety-of-antiepileptic-drugs-for-neurological-development-in-children-exposed-during-pregnancy-and-breast-feeding-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#5
Areti Angeliki Veroniki, Patricia Rios, Elise Cogo, Sharon E Straus, Yaron Finkelstein, Ryan Kealey, Emily Reynen, Charlene Soobiah, Kednapa Thavorn, Brian Hutton, Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Fatemeh Yazdi, Jennifer D'Souza, Heather MacDonald, Andrea C Tricco
OBJECTIVES: Compare the safety of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on neurodevelopment of infants/children exposed in utero or during breast feeding. DESIGN AND SETTING: Systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA). MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until 27 April 2017. Screening, data abstraction and quality appraisal were completed in duplicate by independent reviewers. PARTICIPANTS: 29 cohort studies including 5100 infants/children...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727509/music-and-on-task-behaviors-in-preschool-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Shannon Titus Dieringer, David L Porretta, Diane Sainato
The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of music (music with lyrics versus music with lyrics plus instruction) relative to on-task behaviors in preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a gross motor setting. Five preschool children (4 boys, 1 girl) diagnosed with ASD served as participants. A multiple baseline across participants in conjunction with an alternating-treatment design was used. For all participants, music with lyrics plus instruction increased on-task behaviors to a greater extent than did music with lyrics...
July 2017: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721826/clinical-uses-of-melatonin-in-neurological-diseases-and-mental-and-behavioural-disorders
#7
Emilio J Sánchez-Barceló, Noemi R Revilla, María D Mediavilla, Carmen Martínez-Cué, Russel J Reiter
Melatonin is a molecule with numerous properties applicable to the treatment of neurological diseases. Among these properties are the following: potent scavenger of oxygen and nitrogen reactive species, anti-inflammatory features, immuno-enhancing nature, and modulation of circadian rhythmicity. Furthermore, low concentrations of melatonin are usually found in patients with neurological diseases and mental disorders. The positive results obtained in experimental models of diverse pathologies, including diseases of the nervous system (e...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719227/simvastatin-as-an-adjunctive-therapy-to-risperidone-in-treatment-of-autism-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Ehsan Moazen-Zadeh, Fatemeh Shirzad, Mohammad-Ali Karkhaneh-Yousefi, Rasoul Khezri, Mohammad-Reza Mohammadi, Shahin Akhondzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Providing novel treatments for autism has been a subject of long-standing research. Based on etiopathological findings, we aim at assessing potential therapeutic effects of statins, here simvastatin, on autism symptoms for the first time. METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group 10-week clinical trial, 70 drug-free children aged 4 to 12 years old with diagnosis of autistic disorder based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, who had an Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C) scale irritability subscale score of ≥12, were equally randomized to receive either simvastatin (20-40 mg/day) or placebo as an adjunct to risperidone (1-2 mg/day) whereas administration of both drugs was started simultaneously from baseline...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716514/toe-walking-when-do-we-need-to-worry
#9
Olga M Morozova, Thomas F Chang, Mackenzie E Brown
Toe walking refers to the lack of heel strike during the stance phase of the gait cycle. It is a common variation of normal gait development in children. Persistent toe walking past 2-3 years of age warrants further evaluation as toe walking can be associated with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and autism spectrum disorders. The diagnosis of idiopathic toe walking is a diagnosis of exclusion used for children with persistent toe walking and no associated medical condition. Despite variable pathophysiology, the treatment of toe walking has similarities across diagnoses as it is focused on the maintenance of range of motion through the ankle...
July 14, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705637/-do-children-with-attention-deficit-and-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-have-a-diferent-gait-pattern-relationship-between-idiopathic-toe-walking-and-adhd
#10
Víctor Soto Insuga, Beatriz Moreno Vinués, Rebeca Losada Del Pozo, María Rodrigo Moreno, Marta Martínez González, Raquel Cutillas Ruiz, Carmen Mateos Carmen
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic toe-walking (ITW) is described as a gait pattern with no contact between the heels and the ground in children older than 3years. The diagnosis is clinical, making it necessary to rule out other neurological and orthopaedic conditions. A relationship between ITW and vestibular dysfunction and/or proprioceptive sensibility has been proposed. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders (autism, language and cognitive disorders) often have ITW. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of ITW in children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity (ADHD)...
July 10, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705096/autism-spectrum-disorders-in-adult-outpatients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-uk
#11
Maheshi Wikramanayake, William Mandy, Sonia Shahper, Sukhwinder Kaur, Sangeetha Kolli, Selma Osman, Jemma Reid, Kiri Jefferies Sewell, Naomi Fineberg
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) frequently show traits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This is one of the first studies to explore the clinical impact of the overlap between OCD and ASD as a categorical diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey in 73 adult outpatients with DSM-IV OCD. Autistic traits were measured using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). A clinical estimate ASD diagnosis was made by interview using DSM-IV-TR criteria...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704714/current-status-of-biological-treatment-options-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
REVIEW
Valsamma Eapen, Laura Nicholls, Vanessa Spagnol, Nisha E Mathew
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterised by deficits in social communication and restricted and repetitive behaviours. With an onset in early childhood, ASDs are thought to be heterogeneous, both genetically and clinically. This has led to the notion that "autism" is "autisms", however, there has been limited progress in understanding the different subgroups and the unique pathogenesis that would then allow targeted intervention. Although existing treatments are mainly symptom focussed, research is beginning to unravel the underlying genetic and molecular pathways, structural and functional neuronal circuitry involvement and the associated neurochemicals...
July 6, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702058/effectiveness-of-audiovisual-distraction-in-behavior-modification-during-dental-caries-assessment-and-sealant-placement-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Kausar Sadia Fakhruddin, Hisham Yehia El Batawi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of audiovisual (AV) distraction in behavior modification during dental caries assessment and sealant placement in children with autism spectrum disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 28 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, aged 6.5-9.8 years. Children underwent one introductory (desensitization) appointment and three treatment sessions. During the introductory session, children had the procedures explained to them, they watched a movie projected on a screen while oral screening and assessment of cooperation level were carried out...
May 2017: Dental Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701997/early-intranasal-vasopressin-administration-impairs-partner-preference-in-adult-male-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#14
Trenton C Simmons, Jessica F Balland, Janeet Dhauna, Sang Yun Yang, Jason L Traina, Jessica Vazquez, Karen L Bales
Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP) as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700523/dried-blood-spots-combined-with-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-for-the-quantification-of-the-antipsychotics-risperidone-aripiprazole-pipamperone-and-their-major-metabolites
#15
Camille Tron, Sanne M Kloosterboer, Bart C H van der Nagel, Rixt A Wijma, Bram Dierckx, Gwen C Dieleman, Teun van Gelder, Birgit C P Koch
BACKGROUND: Risperidone, aripiprazole, and pipamperone are antipsychotic drugs frequently prescribed for the treatment of comorbid behavioral problems in children with autism spectrum disorders. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) could be useful to decrease side effects and to improve patient outcome. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection seems to be an attractive technique to develop TDM of these drugs in a pediatric population. The aim of this work was to develop and validate a DBS assay suitable for TDM and home sampling...
August 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698772/examining-the-causes-of-autism
#16
David G Amaral
Autism is a broad, complex, and increasingly important brain disorder. New data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that one in sixty-eight children is born with some degree of autism. Autism is also more common in males by a four to one ratio. Making it especially difficult to discuss in finite, conclusive terms is the fact that there is no biological test for autism; diagnosis is based on behavior, and the only verified treatment is intensive behavior therapy. Our author, one of the nation's foremost researchers on autism, examines the prenatal factors that contribute to the disorder...
January 2017: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696286/intranasal-oxytocin-treatment-for-social-deficits-and-biomarkers-of-response-in-children-with-autism
#17
Karen J Parker, Ozge Oztan, Robin A Libove, Raena D Sumiyoshi, Lisa P Jackson, Debra S Karhson, Jacqueline E Summers, Kyle E Hinman, Kara S Motonaga, Jennifer M Phillips, Dean S Carson, Joseph P Garner, Antonio Y Hardan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by core social deficits. Prognosis is poor, in part, because existing medications target only associated ASD features. Emerging evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may be a blood-based biomarker of social functioning and a possible treatment for ASD. However, prior OXT treatment trials have produced equivocal results, perhaps because of variability in patients' underlying neuropeptide biology, but this hypothesis has not been tested. Using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel design, we tested the efficacy and tolerability of 4-wk intranasal OXT treatment (24 International Units, twice daily) in 32 children with ASD, aged 6-12 y...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693401/formulating-autism-systemically-part-1-a-review-of-the-published-literature-and-case-assessments
#18
Patricia M Crittenden
Autism is a psychiatric disorder of unknown aetiology. In this article, the literature on genetic, neurological, psychological, relational and cultural causes of autism is reviewed, beginning with the 2014 review of Crittenden, Dallos, Landini et al. (pp. 64-70) up to and including recent publications in 2017. Some of the findings were unexpected; others led to new questions. The unexpected findings were the minimal contribution of genes to autism, the extremely evident neurological differences, the interpersonal quality of the psychological findings (that lacked evidence of parents' behaviour), the relational evidence that mothers' childhood trauma, perinatal stress and marital stress increased the risk of autism, and the reciprocal relation between funding for treatment of autism and diagnoses of autism...
July 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691542/cross-cultural-validation-of-the-york-measure-of-quality-of-intensive-behavioral-intervention
#19
Ulrika Långh, Elodie Cauvet, Martin Hammar, Sven Bölte
Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is widely applied in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Little research has addressed the significance of adherence to EIBI practices for treatment outcomes. The York Measure of Quality of Intensive Behavioral Intervention (YMQI) was designed to assess EIBI quality delivery in Ontario, Canada. The objective of this study was to examine the cross-cultural validity of the YMQI in a clinical Swedish community sample of 30 boys and four girls with autism aged 2...
July 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691502/associations-of-quality-of-life-with-health-related-characteristics-among-children-with-autism
#20
Karen A Kuhlthau, Erin McDonnell, Dan L Coury, Nalin Payakachat, Eric Macklin
We examine whether behavioral, mental health, and physical health characteristics of children with autism are associated with baseline and change in health-related quality of life. We measured health-related quality of life with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 total scores from children enrolled in the Autism Treatment Network. We used linear mixed model regressions with random slopes. Predictors of lower health-related quality of life at baseline included demographic and insurance characteristics, diagnosis, higher Child Behavior Checklist internalizing and externalizing scores, sleep problems by Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, seizures, gastrointestinal problems, and mental health problems...
July 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
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