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Deeksha Bhartiya, Amit Kumar, Jasmine Kaur, Suchitra Kumari, Amitesh Kumar Sharma, Dhirendra N Sinha, Harpreet Singh, Ravi Mehrotra
Smokeless tobacco (SLT) products are consumed by millions of people in over 130 countries around the world. Consumption of SLT has been estimated to cause a number of diseases accounting to more than 0.65 million deaths per year. There is sufficient epidemiological evidence on the association of SLT products with nicotine addiction, cancers of oral cavity and digestive systems but there is a lack of understanding of the role of toxic chemicals in these diseases. We provide the first comprehensive in-silico analysis of chemical compounds present in different SLT products used worldwide...
March 2, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Roberta Angelico, Alessandra Nardi, René Adam, Silvio Nadalin, Wojciech G Polak, Vincent Karam, Roberto Troisi, Paolo Muiesan
BACKGROUND: Split liver transplantation(SLT) has been widely adopted across Europe resulting in remarkable reduction of the paediatric waiting-list mortality. Left split graft(LSG) are commonly used for paediatric recipients, however deceased donor criteria selection aren't universal. METHOD: The aim of this study was to analyse the LSG outcome from the European Liver Transplant Registry and to identify risk factors of graft failure. Data from 1500 children transplanted in 2006-2014 with LSG from deceased donors were retrospectively analysed...
March 5, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Vincent Deary, Elaine McColl, Paul Carding, Tracy Miller, Janet Wilson
Background: Medically unexplained loss or alteration of voice-functional dysphonia-is the commonest presentation to speech and language therapists (SLTs). Besides the impact on personal and work life, functional dysphonia is also associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression and poor general health. Voice therapy delivered by SLTs improves voice but not these associated symptoms. The aims of this research were the systematic development of a complex intervention to improve the treatment of functional dysphonia, and the trialling of this intervention for feasibility and acceptability to SLTs and patients in a randomised pilot study...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Chun-Hsien Li, Yi-Ling Bai, Yu-Chie Chen
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a pathogen, which can generate Shiga-like toxins (SLTs) and cause hemolytic-uremic syndrome. Foodborne illness outbreaks caused by E. coli O157:H7 have become a global issue. Since SLTs are quite toxic, effective medicines that can reduce the damage caused by SLTs should be explored. SLTs consist of a single A and five B subunits, which can inhibit ribosome activity for protein synthesis and bind with the cell membrane of host cells, respectively. Pigeon ovalbumin (POA), i.e. a glycoprotein, is abundant in pigeon egg white (PEW) proteins...
February 15, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Kate E Leahy, Michele C Madigan, Maria Sarris, Stephanie L Watson, Peter McCluskey, Andrew Jr White
IMPORTANCE: Transient corneal endothelial changes are routinely noted on slit-lamp examination immediately following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT). BACKGROUND: To determine the mechanism of the transient corneal endothelial changes observed following SLT. DESIGN: University laboratory based observational study SAMPLES: Ten corneas from six human cadaveric donors. METHODS: Corneas were treated with SLT, direct laser, or peroxide, or used as controls...
February 14, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Katherine L Friedman, Megan E Roberts, Brittney Keller-Hamilton, Katherine A Yates, Electra D Paskett, Micah L Berman, Michael D Slater, Bo Lu, Amy K Ferketich
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined what adolescents find appealing in tobacco and alcohol advertisements and how different themes in advertisements are used to manipulate consumer behaviors. Yet, we know little about the relationship between the themes portrayed in advertisements and youth attitudes towards those themes. OBJECTIVES: This study compared attitudes towards advertisements for different consumer products in a sample of urban and rural adolescent boys in order to examine how key marketing themes impact adolescent attitudes towards those advertisements...
February 13, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Viney Gupta, Sarbani Ghosh, M Sujeeth, Sunil Chaudhary, Shikha Gupta, Abadh Kishore Chaurasia, Ramanjit Sihota, Amisha Gupta, Kulwant Singh Kapoor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) among patients with juvenile-onset primary open-angle glaucoma (JOAG). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with JOAG who were not controlled on medical therapy were offered a trial of SLT. The patients were followed up prospectively for 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postlaser to evaluate the efficacy of SLT as second-line therapy. Success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction of ≥20% at 12 months without the need for further medication, laser, or surgery...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Jin Soo A Song, Jayme Vianna, Lesya Shuba, Paul Rafuse, Marcelo Nicolela
OBJECTIVE: Laser trabeculoplasty effectively reduces intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary open angle glaucoma, with argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT) and selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) showing equivalent outcomes. However, it is unclear which laser modality is more effective in pseudoexfoliation (PXE) glaucoma. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of ALT and SLT in PXE glaucoma. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: A chart review evaluating patients diagnosed with PXE glaucoma and treated with laser trabeculoplasty from 2005-2015...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Ying Zhang, Lan Miao, Li Lin, Chang-Ying Ren, Jian-Xun Liu, Yi-Min Cui
BACKGROUND: Sailuotong (SLT) is a standard Chinese preparation made from extracts of Panax ginseng (ginseng), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), and Crocus sativus (saffron). Preliminary clinical trials and animal experiments have demonstrated that SLT could improve cognition of vascular dementia (VD). PURPOSE: To avoid incident drug-drug interaction which is easily encountered in patients of VD, the potential influence of SLT on main drug-metabolic cytochromes P450 enzymes (CYP450) was investigated...
January 1, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ann Lavesson, Martin Lövdén, Kristina Hansson
BACKGROUND: The Swedish Program for health surveillance of preschool children includes screening of language and communication abilities. One important language screening is carried out at age 4 years as part of a general screening conducted by health nurses at child health centres. The instruments presently in use for this screening mainly focus on expressive phonology. This may result in both over-referral of children with phonological difficulties and under-referral of children with language disorders (LDs), involving difficulties with vocabulary, grammar and/or language comprehension...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Mohammad Haghighi, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Nazila Ranjbar, Mohammad Ali Seifrabie
BACKGROUND: After a stroke, up to 20% of patients suffer from aphasia. The preferred treatment for stroke-related aphasia (SRA) is regular speech and language training (SLT). In the present study, we investigated to what extent adjuvant repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might enhance recovery. While there is growing evidence of the positive effect of adjuvant rTMS on aphasia, no study has yet been based on an Iranian sample. METHOD: A total of 12 patients (mean age: 55 years; right-handed; 7 women) underwent treatment for SRA 1 month after stroke...
January 16, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Robert Allan Sharpe, Leah L Kammerdiener, David B Williams, Sudeep K Das, Matthew J Nutaitis
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in glaucomatous eyes with previous incisional glaucoma surgery. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of eyes that underwent SLT at a single institution from 2013-2015 were followed for 1y. Reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) following SLT was evaluated in eyes with prior trabeculectomy with ExPress mini shunt (Alcon, Ft Worth, TX, USA), Ahmed valve (New World Medical, Cucamonga, CA, USA), or combined phacoemulsification-trabeculectomy...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Chun Han Nigel Tan, Guowei Kim, Jimmy So, Asim Shabbir
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic therapy remains the cornerstone of hemostasis for gastrointestinal bleeding. In situations where hemostasis cannot be achieved via endoscopic or radiological methods, surgery is necessary. Traditional open surgery for bleeding gastric ulcers can be very morbid and unsuitable especially in hemodynamically unstable patients in extremis. We describe a minimally invasive, transgastric approach for underrunning and closure of Cameron ulcers. METHODS: Our patient is a 75-year-old Chinese lady, who presented to the emergency department with fresh melena...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Yoshiki Hiruta, Sadayoshi Toh
We have found that in two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow a spatially localized turbulent state (SLT) exists stably and travels with a constant speed on average switching the moving direction randomly and intermittently for moderate values of the control parameters: Reynolds number and the flow rate. We define the coarse-grained position and velocity of an SLT and separate the motion of the SLT from its internal turbulent dynamics by introducing a co-moving frame. The switching process of an SLT represented by the coarse-grained velocity seems to be a random telegraph signal...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Catherine M Sackley, Christina H Smith, Caroline E Rick, Marian C Brady, Natalie Ives, Smitaa Patel, Rebecca Woolley, Francis Dowling, Ramilla Patel, Helen Roberts, Sue Jowett, Keith Wheatley, Debbie Kelly, Gina Sands, Carl E Clarke
Background: Speech-related problems are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but there is little evidence for the effectiveness of standard speech and language therapy (SLT) or Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT LOUD®). Methods: The PD COMM pilot was a three-arm, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) of LSVT LOUD®, SLT and no intervention (1:1:1 ratio) to assess the feasibility and to inform the design of a full-scale RCT. Non-demented patients with idiopathic PD and speech problems and no SLT for speech problems in the past 2 years were eligible...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
Hala Muaddi, David P Al-Adra, Rob Beecroft, Anand Ghanekar, Carol-Anne Moulton, Adam Doyle, Markus Selzner, Alice Wei, Ian D McGilvray, Steven Gallinger, David R Grant, Mark S Cattral, Paul D Greig, John Kachura, Sean P Cleary, Gonzalo Sapisochin
BACKGROUND: Liver resection (LR) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) are curative-intent therapies for early stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). If HCC recurs, salvage liver transplant (SLT) may constitute a treatment option. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the outcomes of patients transplanted for recurrent HCC after curative-intent therapies with those transplanted as initial therapy. METHODS: We conducted a matched-control (1:1) cohort study comparing patients with HCC treated with primary liver transplant (PLT) with SLT after HCC recurrence...
January 11, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ruchika Gupta, Sanjay Gupta, Shashi Sharma, Dhirendra N Sinha, Ravi Mehrotra
Background: Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products has been linked to multiple adverse effects, especially precancer and cancer of oral cavity. However, the association of SLT use with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is shrouded with controversy due to conflicting results in the literature. The present meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the risk of CHD among adult ever-users of SLT products along with subgroup analysis. Methods: The analysis included studies retrieved from a systematic literature search for published articles assessing risk of CHD with SLT use...
January 9, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Kate E Willis, Nathan J Blum, Stephanie A Waryasz, Marilyn Augustyn
Sonia is a 4 1/12-year-old girl with Waardenburg syndrome and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss who had bilateral cochlear implants at 2 7/12 years of age. She is referred to Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics by her speech/language pathologist because of concerns that her language skills are not progressing as expected after the cochlear implant. At the time of the implant, she communicated using approximately 20 signs and 1 spoken word (mama). At the time of the evaluation (18 months after the implant) she had approximately 70 spoken words (English and Spanish) and innumerable signs that she used to communicate...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
A Garg, G Gazzard
Over the past two decades, selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) has increasingly become an established laser treatment used to lower intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertensive patients. In this review we trace the origins of SLT from previous argon laser trabeculoplasty and review the current role it has in clinical practice. We outline future directions of SLT research and introduce emerging technologies that are further developing this intervention in the treatment paradigm of glaucoma...
January 5, 2018: Eye
Ráchael A Powers, John K Cochran, Jon Maskaly, Christine S Sellers
The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of Akers's Social Learning Theory (SLT) to explain intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. In doing so, we draw on the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence Theory (IGT) to extend the scope of SLT to the explanation of victimization and for a consideration of uniquely gendered pathways in its causal structure. Using a structural equation modeling approach with self-report data from a sample of college students, the present study tests the extent to which SLT can effectively explain and predict IPV victimization and the degree, if any, to which the social learning model is gender invariant...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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